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Among the many temptations of the digital age, manipulation of

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Among the many temptations of the digital age, manipulation of  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Dec 2017, 11:06
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Among the many temptations of the digital age, manipulation of photographs has proved particularly troublesome for science. Recently, a journal of cellular biology began using a software tool to examine the digital images submitted along with articles for publication. It discovered that dozens of authors had submitted digital images that had been manipulated in ways that violated the journal's guidelines. Clearly, scientific fraud is a widespread problem among the authors submitting to that journal.

Which one of the following is an assumption required by the argument?

(A) The scientists who submitted manjpulated images were aware that the journal used software to examine digital images for evidence of manipulation.
(B) The journal requires that all articles submitted for publication include digital images.
(C) Scientific fraud is possible in the field of cellular biology only if the research is documented with digital images.
(D) Many of the scientists who submitted articles with manipulated images did so in order to misrepresent the information conveyed by those images.
(E) Scientific fraud is a widespread problem only among scientists who submit articles to journals of cellular biology.

LSAT

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Re: Among the many temptations of the digital age, manipulation of  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Dec 2017, 09:56
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Akela wrote:
Among the many temptations of the digital age, manipulation of photographs has proved particularly troublesome for science. Recently, a journal of cellular biology began using a software tool to examine the digital images submitted along with articles for publication. It discovered that dozens of authors had submitted digital images that had been manipulated in ways that violated the journal's guidelines. Clearly, scientific fraud is a widespread problem among the authors submitting to that journal.

Which one of the following is an assumption required by the argument?

(A) The scientists who submitted manjpulated images were aware that the journal used software to examine digital images for evidence of manipulation.
(B) The journal requires that all articles submitted for publication include digital images.
(C) Scientific fraud is possible in the field of cellular biology only if the research is documented with digital images.
(D) Many of the scientists who submitted articles with manipulated images did so in order to misrepresent the information conveyed by those images.
(E) Scientific fraud is a widespread problem only among scientists who submit articles to journals of cellular biology.

LSAT


(A): This answer choice is incorrect because the conclusion does not require that the scientists who submitted manipulated images were aware that the journal was using the software described in the stimulus. To the contrary, evidence that the scientists knew the photographs would be analyzed may weaken the conclusion that they were attempting to commit scientific fraud.

(B): This answer choice explains why scientists submit digital images with their articles. However, it does not connect the violation of the journal’s guidelines with scientific fraud.

(C): Here, the answer choice is incorrect because it is unnecessarily restrictive. While the stimulus did discuss scientific fraud in cellular biology, we cannot say that the documentation with digital images is the only way to commit scientific fraud in the field of cellular biology.

(D): This is the correct answer choice. The premises only speak about digital image manipulations. The concluding sentence 'Clearly, scientific fraud is a widespread problem among the authors submitting to that journal.' suddenly brings up fraud into the equation. In order to conclude that fraud is committed, the assumption is that there an intention to misrepresent. This option states that exact assumption.

(E): As with (C), this answer is too restrictive. It does not have to be the case that widespread fraud is only a problem relating to articles submitted to journals of cellular biology.
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Re: Among the many temptations of the digital age, manipulation of  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Dec 2017, 05:54
Among the many temptations of the digital age, manipulation of photographs has proved particularly troublesome for science. Recently, a journal of cellular biology began using a software tool to examine the digital images submitted along with articles for publication. It discovered that dozens of authors had submitted digital images that had been manipulated in ways that violated the journal's guidelines. Clearly, scientific fraud is a widespread problem among the authors submitting to that journal.

Which one of the following is an assumption required by the argument?

(A) The scientists who submitted manjpulated images were aware that the journal used software to examine digital images for evidence of manipulation.
Even if the scientists knew about the software it doesn't tell us whether the scientists were fraud.

(B) The journal requires that all articles submitted for publication include digital images.
Requirement is not the required assumption

(C) Scientific fraud is possible in the field of cellular biology only if the research is documented with digital images.
Only if --this makes the option exaggerated

(D) Many of the scientists who submitted articles with manipulated images did so in order to misrepresent the information conveyed by those images.
Correct. If the scientists had fraudulent intentions then it closes the gap in the argument

(E) Scientific fraud is a widespread problem only among scientists who submit articles to journals of cellular biology.
We are worried about the particular journal and not all the journals in general
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Re: Among the many temptations of the digital age, manipulation of  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Dec 2017, 06:40
(A) The scientists who submitted manjpulated images were aware that the journal used software to examine digital images for evidence of manipulation. Negated statement stregthens the conclusion & hence not an assumption
(B) The journal requires that all articles submitted for publication include digital images. "All" is an issue. What if if it is not all.
(C) Scientific fraud is possible in the field of cellular biology only if the research is documented with digital images. only is an issue
(D) Many of the scientists who submitted articles with manipulated images did so in order to misrepresent the information conveyed by those images. Keep it. Discusses a new info & negation breaks the conclusion
(E) Scientific fraud is a widespread problem only among scientists who submit articles to journals of cellular biology. only is issue
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Among the many temptations of the digital age, manipulation of pho  [#permalink]

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New post 02 Sep 2018, 20:58
A. Verification doesn’t prove anything one way or another. The scientists might have intended fraud even if they knew there were verifications, thinking they wouldn’t get
caught.

B. This doesn’t tell us whether the images were submitted with fraud in mind. Requiring an image doesn’t make an honest person fraudulent or a fraudulent person honest.

C. The negation of this doesn’t affect the argument.
Negation: Fraud can happen whether or not research has images.

D.CORRECT. Fraud requires intent. If you negate this then few scientists intended to commit fraud when they manipulated images. Remember, the conclusion is that fraud is a widespread problem.
Negation: Not many (i.e. few to zero) scientists manipulated images with fraudulent intent.

E. This is not necessary.
Negation: Widespread scientific fraud is possible in many fields, not just cellular biology.
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Among the many temptations of the digital age, manipulation of  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 30 Jan 2019, 23:37
I do not agree with the official answer, nor I can see any answer to be better than others.

Here is why:
The passage states that
Quote:
Clearly, scientific fraud is a widespread problem among the authors submitting to that journal.

In order for the fraud to be "widespread", some of the authors has to submit faulty digital images.

Official answer states, that
Quote:
Many of the scientists who submitted articles with manipulated images did so in order to misrepresent the information conveyed by those images.
; the OA, however, doesn't tell you how many such scientists are there.

The OA to be true, we expect that number of fraudulent submissions must a significant part of total submissions.

But, for example,
There were 100,000 articles submitted.
Out of them 100 had digital images.
Out of 100, 60 ("dozens" per text) were with frauds. (to comply with official answer that "many" with frauds).
So it makes 60/100000 = 0.06% - is it widespread? In common sense, and in my sense as well, it is not widespread at all! Therefore I consider OA to be not correct and the question to be of a poor quality.

Please correct me, if i'm wrong.
Thank you!

Originally posted by berdibekov on 30 Jan 2019, 23:31.
Last edited by berdibekov on 30 Jan 2019, 23:37, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Among the many temptations of the digital age, manipulation of  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Jan 2019, 23:34
Option D is a 'Must be true' in this case, hence correct choice.
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Re: Among the many temptations of the digital age, manipulation of   [#permalink] 30 Jan 2019, 23:34
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