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An assumption that underlies most discussions of electric facility sit

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An assumption that underlies most discussions of electric facility sit  [#permalink]

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New post 31 Oct 2019, 21:11
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New Project RC Butler 2019 - Practice 2 RC Passages Everyday
Passage # 425, Date: 01-Nov-2019
This post is a part of New Project RC Butler 2019. Click here for Details


An assumption that underlies most discussions of electric facility siting is that the initial selection of a site is the responsibility of the utility concerned—subject to governmental review and approval only after the site has been chosen. This assumption must be changed so that site selection becomes a joint responsibility of the utilities and the appropriate governmental authorities from the outset. Siting decisions would be made in accordance with either of two strategies. The metropolitan strategy takes the existing distribution of population and supporting facilities as given. An attempt is then made to choose between dispersed or concentrated siting and to locate generating facilities in accordance with some economic principle. For example, the economic objectives of least-cost construction and rapid start-up may be achieved, in part, by a metropolitan strategy that takes advantage of existing elements of social and physical infrastructure in the big cities.

Under the frontier strategy, the energy park may be taken as an independent variable, subject to manipulation by policymakers as a means of achieving desired demographic or social goals, e.g., rural-town-city mix. Thus, population distribution is taken as a goal of national social policy, not as a given of a national energy policy. In the frontier strategy, the option of dispersed siting is irrelevant from the standpoint of community impact because there is no preexisting community of any size.

Traditionally, the resource endowment of a location—and especially its situation relative to the primary industry of the hinterland—has had a special importance in American history. In the early agricultural period, the most valued natural endowment was arable land with good climate and available water. America’s oldest cities were mercantile outposts of such agricultural areas. Deepwater ports developed to serve the agricultural hinterlands, which produced staple commodities in demand on the world market. From the 1840s onward, the juxtaposition of coal, iron ore, and markets afforded the impetus for manufacturing growth in the northeastern United States. The American manufacturing heartland developed westward to encompass Lake Superior iron ores, the Pennsylvania coalfields, and the Northeast’s financial, entrepreneurial, and manufacturing roles. Subsequent metropolitan growth has been organized around this national core.

Against the theory of urban development, it is essential to bear in mind the unprecedented dimensions of an energy park. The existing electric power plant at Four Corners in the southwest United States—the only human artifact visible to orbiting astronauts—generates only 4,000 megawatts of electricity. The smallest energy parks will concentrate five times the thermal energy represented by the Four Corners plant. An energy park, then, would seem every bit as formidable as the natural harbor conditions or coal deposits that underwrote the growth of the great cities of the past—with a crucial difference. The founders of past settlements could not choose the geographic locations of their natural advantages.

The frontier strategy implements the principle of man-made opportunity; and this helps explain why some environmentalists perceive the energy park idea as a threat to nature. But the problems of modern society, with or without energy parks, require ever more comprehensive planning. And energy parks are a means of advancing American social history rather than merely responding to power needs in an unplanned, ad hoc manner.


1. Which of the following statements best describes the main point of the passage?

(A) Government regulatory authorities should participate in electric facility site selection to further social goals.
(B) Energy parks will have a significant influence on the demographic features of the American population.
(C) Urban growth in the United States was largely the result of economic forces rather than conscientious planning.
(D) Under the frontier siting strategy for energy parks, siting decisions are influenced by the natural features of the land.
(E) America needs larger power-producing facilities in urban and rural areas to meet the increased demand for energy.


2. All of the following are mentioned in the passage as characteristics of energy parks EXCEPT

(A) energy parks will be built on previously undeveloped sites
(B) energy parks will be built in areas remote from major population centers
(C) energy parks will produce considerably more thermal energy than existing facilities
(D) energy parks will be built at sites that are near fuel sources such as coal
(E) energy parks may have considerable effects on population distribution



3. According to the passage, which of the following is the most important feature of the traditional process of siting decisions for electric facilities?

(A) Sites were selected for the ability to advance social history.
(B) Siting was viewed as a tool for achieving economic goals.
(C) The primary responsibility for siting resided with the utility.
(D) Decisions were made jointly by utilities and government.
(E) Groups of affected citizens participated on advisory panels.



4. Which of the following, if true, would most seriously weaken the author’s position?

(A) The first settlements in America were established in order to provide trading posts with Native Americans.
(B) The cost of constructing an electric power plant in an urban area is not significantly greater than that for a rural area.
(C) An energy park will be so large that it will be impossible to predict the demographic consequences of its construction.
(D) Cities in European countries grew up in response to political pressures during the feudal period rather than economic pressures.
(E) The United States is presently in a period of population migration that will change the rural-town-city mix.



5. With which one of the following statements would the author most likely agree?

(A) Decisions about the locations for power plant construction should be left in the hands of the utilities.
(B) Government leaders in the nineteenth century were irresponsible in not supervising urban growth more closely.
(C) Natural features of a region such as cultivatable land and water supply are no longer important to urban growth.
(D) Modern society is so complex that governments must take greater responsibility for decisions such as power plant siting.
(E) The electric power plant at Four Corners should not have been built because of its mammoth size.



6. According to the passage, the most important difference between the natural advantages of early cities and the features of an energy park is

(A) the features of an energy park will be located where the builders choose
(B) natural advantages are no longer as important as they once were
(C) natural features cannot be observed from outer space but energy parks can
(D) early cities grew up close to agricultural areas, but energy parks will be located in mountains
(E) policy planners have learned to minimize the effects of energy parks on nature



Source: Master GMAT
Difficulty Level: 700

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Re: An assumption that underlies most discussions of electric facility sit  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 03 Nov 2019, 07:27
Could anyone help explain why 1A?
1. Which of the following statements best describes the main point of the passage?
(A) Government regulatory authorities should participate in electric facility site selection to further social goals.

=> I think the passage not only raises the importance of a joint responsibility of the utilities and the governmental authorities in selecting electric facility site, but aslo gives detailes of 2 associated strategies, with considerable focus on the part of "energy park" (under the frontier strategy). So it seems to me that choice (A) fails to cover it all.

(as the other 4 choices are clearly wrong to me, I really had a rough time with this question, spending nearly 3 minutes on it (including reading passage) :( )
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Originally posted by Tracy95 on 02 Nov 2019, 10:58.
Last edited by Tracy95 on 03 Nov 2019, 07:27, edited 2 times in total.
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Re: An assumption that underlies most discussions of electric facility sit  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Nov 2019, 00:14
Official Explanation


1. Which of the following statements best describes the main point of the passage?

Explanation

Here we have a main idea question. The structure of the passage is first to explain that previous siting decisions have been made by regulatory agencies with only a review function exercised by government. The author then explains that in the past, the most important features affecting the demographic characteristics of the population were natural ones. Then the author argues that, given the effect siting decisions will have in the future, the government ought to take an active role in making those decisions, and that the government ought to take social considerations into account in making such decisions. Given this brief synopsis of the argument, we can see that (A) neatly restates this thesis. Further, we can see that (B) constitutes only a part, not the entirety, of the argument. (C), too, forms only one subpart of the whole analysis.

(D) can be eliminated since the author believes that future siting decisions need not be governed by only natural features.

Finally, (E) may very well be true, but it surely is not the main point of the argument presented.

The correct answer is (A).


Hope it helps
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Re: An assumption that underlies most discussions of electric facility sit  [#permalink]

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New post 02 Feb 2020, 07:16
Explanation for q 2 and q3?
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Re: An assumption that underlies most discussions of electric facility sit  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Feb 2020, 03:05
PearlRay wrote:
Explanation for q 2 and q3?


Official Explanation


2. All of the following are mentioned in the passage as characteristics of energy parks EXCEPT

Difficulty Level: 700

Explanation

This is an explicit idea question. (A) is mentioned in the final sentence of the first paragraph along with (B).

(E) is a theme that runs generally through that paragraph, and (C) is specifically mentioned in the third paragraph. Nowhere does the author suggest that proximity to fuel sources needs to be taken into the siting decision.

The correct answer is (D).


3. According to the passage, which of the following is the most important feature of the traditional process of siting decisions for electric facilities?

Difficulty Level: 650

Explanation

This is a specific detail question, so the answer will be explicitly provided in the text. Your main task is to find the right part of the passage. The answer is given in the first paragraph, where the author explains that, traditionally, siting decisions were made by the utilities with government relegated to a review function.

(A) and (B) are mentioned in the passage, but as advantages of a different process, or, if you prefer, they’re mentioned, but in the wrong place to answer this question.

(D), of course, contradicts the selection, and (E) is just not mentioned by the author.

The correct answer is (C).


Hope it helps
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An assumption that underlies most discussions of electric facility sit  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 23 May 2020, 00:15
1
Hi everyone,
Got 5/6 correct in 14:20 minutes, including 5:30 minutes to read and 8:50 minutes to answer the questions.

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------



P1

In paragraph one the author presents the current situation about electrical facilities siting and claims that also the government should play a part in choosing the site. Then the author describes one of the 2 strategies that can be used to achieve the goal.

Purpose: To present the current situation about EFS, advocate a different approach and present a strategy that can be used for such purpose.



P2

In this paragraph the author presents the frontier strategy and mentions a couple of differences with respect to the metropolitan strategy.

Purpose: To present the frontier strategy.





P3

In this paragraph the author describes the history of America with respect to the selection of sites.

Purpose: To present past criteria for the selection of a site in America




P4

In this paragraph the author describes the importance of an energy park. She compares such park to the natural resources that once were the basis to select a site.

Purpose: to present the importance and impact of an energy park these days.



P5

The author here stresses the importance of a more comprehensive planning.

Purpose: to claim that a more comprehensive planning is needed



Main point

To advocate a change in the current situation of electrical facilities siting, presenting 2 strategies and contrasting the current situation with the past situation




1. Which of the following statements best describes the main point of the passage?

Pre-thinking

Main point question

    To advocate a change in the current situation of electrical facilities siting, presenting 2 strategies and contrasting the current situation with the past situation



(A) Government regulatory authorities should participate in electric facility site selection to further social goals. Correct and broad enough
(B) Energy parks will have a significant influence on the demographic features of the American population. This is not the ultimate goal of the author
(C) Urban growth in the United States was largely the result of economic forces rather than conscientious planning. detail
(D) Under the frontier siting strategy for energy parks, siting decisions are influenced by the natural features of the land. detail
(E) America needs larger power-producing facilities in urban and rural areas to meet the increased demand for energy. detail







2. All of the following are mentioned in the passage as characteristics of energy parks EXCEPT

Pre-thinking

Detail question

We need to evaluate each option.


(A) energy parks will be built on previously undeveloped sites Yes now this is a possibility

(B) energy parks will be built in areas remote from major population centers same as A

(C) energy parks will produce considerably more thermal energy than existing facilities The smallest energy parks will concentrate five times the thermal energy represented by the Four Corners plant.

(D) energy parks will be built at sites that are near fuel sources such as coal The all passage states that nowadays the need to build an energy pack close to a "natural advantage" is not necessary anymore. As a matter of fact: An energy park, then, would seem every bit as formidable as the natural harbor conditions or coal deposits

(E) energy parks may have considerable effects on population distribution Mentioned








3. According to the passage, which of the following is the most important feature of the traditional process of siting decisions for electric facilities?

Pre-thinking

Detail question

From P1:
    An assumption that underlies most discussions of electric facility siting is that the initial selection of a site is the responsibility of the utility concerned—subject to governmental review and approval only after the site has been chosen.



(A) Sites were selected for the ability to advance social history. The sites are located where the users want and we don't know whether the users want to advance social history or not. Plus even if so, this option does not represent the most important feature of the process

(B) Siting was viewed as a tool for achieving economic goals. not the most important feature

(C) The primary responsibility for siting resided with the utility.

(D) Decisions were made jointly by utilities and government. incorrect

(E) Groups of affected citizens participated on advisory panels. incorrect








4. Which of the following, if true, would most seriously weaken the author’s position?

Pre-thinking

Weaken question

We need to evaluate the options.


(A) The first settlements in America were established in order to provide trading posts with Native Americans. no impact

(B) The cost of constructing an electric power plant in an urban area is not significantly greater than that for a rural area. irrelevant

(C) An energy park will be so large that it will be impossible to predict the demographic consequences of its construction. From P2:
    Under the frontier strategy, the energy park may be taken as an independent variable, subject to manipulation by policymakers as a means of achieving desired demographic or social goals, e.g., rural-town-city mix.


The logic here is: if the goal of an energy part is to achieve a desired demographic goal, then building an energy park that will not allow to achieve such goal will be illogical.


(D) Cities in European countries grew up in response to political pressures during the feudal period rather than economic pressures. This option is out of scope as it talks about European countries

(E) The United States is presently in a period of population migration that will change the rural-town-city mix. irrelevant








5. With which one of the following statements would the author most likely agree?

Pre-thinking

Inference question

We need to evaluate the options.


(A) Decisions about the locations for power plant construction should be left in the hands of the utilities. opposite


(B) Government leaders in the nineteenth century were irresponsible in not supervising urban growth more closely. We do not have elements to infer this option.


(C) Natural features of a region such as cultivatable land and water supply are no longer important to urban growth. This option seems a little bit too extreme. Such natural resources may not be an important factor in choosing where to build a town but it is too extreme to claim that we could leave without water and arable land


(D) Modern society is so complex that governments must take greater responsibility for decisions such as power plant siting.
    But the problems of modern society, with or without energy parks, require ever more comprehensive planning.



(E) The electric power plant at Four Corners should not have been built because of its mammoth size. Cannot be inferred








6. According to the passage, the most important difference between the natural advantages of early cities and the features of an energy park is

Pre-thinking

Detail question

From the second last paragraph:
    An energy park, then, would seem every bit as formidable as the natural harbor conditions or coal deposits that underwrote the growth of the great cities of the past—with a crucial difference. The founders of past settlements could not choose the geographic locations of their natural advantages.


[b]rishit924
Look here: with a crucial difference and then The founders of past settlements could not choose the geographic locations of their natural advantages.

Then it is easy to infer that now they can choose the site. POE is not needed.
[/b]

(A) the features of an energy park will be located where the builders choose
(B) natural advantages are no longer as important as they once were
(C) natural features cannot be observed from outer space but energy parks can
(D) early cities grew up close to agricultural areas, but energy parks will be located in mountains
(E) policy planners have learned to minimize the effects of energy parks on nature





It's a great day to be alive!

Originally posted by auradediligodo on 17 May 2020, 00:54.
Last edited by auradediligodo on 23 May 2020, 00:15, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: An assumption that underlies most discussions of electric facility sit  [#permalink]

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New post 18 May 2020, 09:23
auradediligodo wrote:
Hi everyone,
Got 5/6 correct in 14:20 minutes, including 5:30 minutes to read and 8:50 minutes to answer the questions.

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------



P1

In paragraph one the author presents the current situation about electrical facilities siting and claims that also the government should play a part in choosing the site. Then the author describes one of the 2 strategies that can be used to achieve the goal.

Purpose: To present the current situation about EFS, advocate a different approach and present a strategy that can be used for such purpose.



P2

In this paragraph the author presents the frontier strategy and mentions a couple of differences with respect to the metropolitan strategy.

Purpose: To present the frontier strategy.





P3

In this paragraph the author describes the history of America with respect to the selection of sites.

Purpose: To present past criteria for the selection of a site in America




P4

In this paragraph the author describes the importance of an energy park. She compares such park to the natural resources that once were the basis to select a site.

Purpose: to present the importance and impact of an energy park these days.



P5

The author here stresses the importance of a more comprehensive planning.

Purpose: to claim that a more comprehensive planning is needed



Main point

To advocate a change in the current situation of electrical facilities siting, presenting 2 strategies and contrasting the current situation with the past situation




1. Which of the following statements best describes the main point of the passage?

Pre-thinking

Main point question

    To advocate a change in the current situation of electrical facilities siting, presenting 2 strategies and contrasting the current situation with the past situation



(A) Government regulatory authorities should participate in electric facility site selection to further social goals. Correct and broad enough
(B) Energy parks will have a significant influence on the demographic features of the American population. This is not the ultimate goal of the author
(C) Urban growth in the United States was largely the result of economic forces rather than conscientious planning. detail
(D) Under the frontier siting strategy for energy parks, siting decisions are influenced by the natural features of the land. detail
(E) America needs larger power-producing facilities in urban and rural areas to meet the increased demand for energy. detail







2. All of the following are mentioned in the passage as characteristics of energy parks EXCEPT

Pre-thinking

Detail question

We need to evaluate each option.


(A) energy parks will be built on previously undeveloped sites Yes now this is a possibility

(B) energy parks will be built in areas remote from major population centers same as A

(C) energy parks will produce considerably more thermal energy than existing facilities The smallest energy parks will concentrate five times the thermal energy represented by the Four Corners plant.

(D) energy parks will be built at sites that are near fuel sources such as coal The all passage states that nowadays the need to build an energy pack close to a "natural advantage" is not necessary anymore. As a matter of fact: An energy park, then, would seem every bit as formidable as the natural harbor conditions or coal deposits

(E) energy parks may have considerable effects on population distribution Mentioned








3. According to the passage, which of the following is the most important feature of the traditional process of siting decisions for electric facilities?

Pre-thinking

Detail question

From P1:
    An assumption that underlies most discussions of electric facility siting is that the initial selection of a site is the responsibility of the utility concerned—subject to governmental review and approval only after the site has been chosen.



(A) Sites were selected for the ability to advance social history. The sites are located where the users want and we don't know whether the users want to advance social history or not. Plus even if so, this option does not represent the most important feature of the process

(B) Siting was viewed as a tool for achieving economic goals. not the most important feature

(C) The primary responsibility for siting resided with the utility.

(D) Decisions were made jointly by utilities and government. incorrect

(E) Groups of affected citizens participated on advisory panels. incorrect








4. Which of the following, if true, would most seriously weaken the author’s position?

Pre-thinking

Weaken question

We need to evaluate the options.


(A) The first settlements in America were established in order to provide trading posts with Native Americans. no impact

(B) The cost of constructing an electric power plant in an urban area is not significantly greater than that for a rural area. irrelevant

(C) An energy park will be so large that it will be impossible to predict the demographic consequences of its construction. From P2:
    Under the frontier strategy, the energy park may be taken as an independent variable, subject to manipulation by policymakers as a means of achieving desired demographic or social goals, e.g., rural-town-city mix.


The logic here is: if the goal of an energy part is to achieve a desired demographic goal, then building an energy park that will not allow to achieve such goal will be illogical.


(D) Cities in European countries grew up in response to political pressures during the feudal period rather than economic pressures. This option is out of scope as it talks about European countries

(E) The United States is presently in a period of population migration that will change the rural-town-city mix. irrelevant








5. With which one of the following statements would the author most likely agree?

Pre-thinking

Inference question

We need to evaluate the options.


(A) Decisions about the locations for power plant construction should be left in the hands of the utilities. opposite


(B) Government leaders in the nineteenth century were irresponsible in not supervising urban growth more closely. We do not have elements to infer this option.


(C) Natural features of a region such as cultivatable land and water supply are no longer important to urban growth. This option seems a little bit too extreme. Such natural resources may not be an important factor in choosing where to build a town but it is too extreme to claim that we could leave without water and arable land


(D) Modern society is so complex that governments must take greater responsibility for decisions such as power plant siting.
    But the problems of modern society, with or without energy parks, require ever more comprehensive planning.



(E) The electric power plant at Four Corners should not have been built because of its mammoth size. Cannot be inferred








6. According to the passage, the most important difference between the natural advantages of early cities and the features of an energy park is

Pre-thinking

Detail question

From the second last paragraph:
    An energy park, then, would seem every bit as formidable as the natural harbor conditions or coal deposits that underwrote the growth of the great cities of the past—with a crucial difference. The founders of past settlements could not choose the geographic locations of their natural advantages.



(A) the features of an energy park will be located where the builders choose
(B) natural advantages are no longer as important as they once were
(C) natural features cannot be observed from outer space but energy parks can
(D) early cities grew up close to agricultural areas, but energy parks will be located in mountains
(E) policy planners have learned to minimize the effects of energy parks on nature





It's a great day to be alive!


Dear Sir,

Could you please explain how arrived at the answer A for Q-6?
I got the text while solving the question but was unable to comprehend given text in 2nd last para.

Thanks in advance.
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Re: An assumption that underlies most discussions of electric facility sit  [#permalink]

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New post 23 May 2020, 00:12
[/quote]

Dear Sir,

Could you please explain how arrived at the answer A for Q-6?
I got the text while solving the question but was unable to comprehend given text in 2nd last para.

Thanks in advance.[/quote]

The best way to arrive at the answer here is POA. if you would notice, B-E are nowhere mentioned or discussed in the passage. Only A fits the bill.
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Re: An assumption that underlies most discussions of electric facility sit   [#permalink] 23 May 2020, 00:12

An assumption that underlies most discussions of electric facility sit

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