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An economic recession can result from a lowering of

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An economic recession can result from a lowering of [#permalink]

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07 Oct 2008, 10:15
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An economic recession can result from a lowering of employment rates triggered by a drop in investment, which causes people to cut consumer spending and starts a cycle of layoffs leading back to even lower employment rates.

a lowering of employment rates triggered by a drop in investment, which causes people to cut consumer spending and start a cycle of layoffs leading back to even lower employment rates.

a lowering of employment rates triggered by dropping investment, which causes people to cut consumer spending and starts a cycle of layoffs leading back to even lower employment rates.

falling employment rates triggered by a drop in investment, which cause cutbacks in consumer spending, starting a cycle of layoffs that lead to even lower employment rates.

falling employment rates that are triggered by a drop in investment, causing people to cut consumer spending and starting a cycle of layoffs that lead back to even lower employment rates.

falling employment rates that are triggered by a drop in investment, causing cutbacks in consumer spending and starting a cycle of layoffs leading to even lower employment rates.

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07 Oct 2008, 10:29
i think E is best

"falling" is more economical than "a lowering" and this sentence is parallel

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07 Oct 2008, 13:35
(E) for me as well. "falling employment rate" is more idiomatic. (E) maintains the flow of the sentence throughout.
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07 Oct 2008, 18:37
i feel "causing people to cut consumer spending" is completely wrong as people can never cut consumer spending.

that leaves only C and E. C has many agreement errors. IMO E

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11 Oct 2008, 21:34
jitendra wrote:
An economic recession can result from a lowering of employment rates triggered by a drop in investment, which causes people to cut consumer spending and starts a cycle of layoffs leading back to even lower employment rates.

a lowering of employment rates triggered by a drop in investment, which causes people to cut consumer spending and start a cycle of layoffs leading back to even lower employment rates.

a lowering of employment rates triggered by dropping investment, which causes people to cut consumer spending and starts a cycle of layoffs leading back to even lower employment rates.

falling employment rates triggered by a drop in investment, which cause cutbacks in consumer spending, starting a cycle of layoffs that lead to even lower employment rates. - out since cause has plural referrant which is rates and is wrong

falling employment rates that are triggered by a drop in investment, causing people to cut consumer spending and starting a cycle of layoffs that lead back to even lower employment rates.

falling employment rates that are triggered by a drop in investment, causing cutbacks in consumer spending and starting a cycle of layoffs leading to even lower employment rates. -> IMO

OOps do we expect such questions !!!i lost the track in between
i could eliminate A,B and D
Between C and E im muddled !!!
IMO E
somehow eliminated C
Whats the OA?
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12 Oct 2008, 00:14
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Even I marked E but that is wrong. OA is C. Not too clear why?

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12 Oct 2008, 01:46
jitendra wrote:
Even I marked E but that is wrong. OA is C. Not too clear why?

Tough one. +1. (C) is correct here.

c) falling employment rates triggered by a drop in investment, which cause cutbacks in consumer spending, starting a cycle of layoffs that lead to even lower employment rates.
"which" correctly modifies "falling employment rates" (a noun)
"starting a cycle of layoffs.." correctly modifies "cutbacks in consumer spending" (a verb)
"that lead" correctly modifies "cycle of layoffs" (a noun)

e) falling employment rates that are triggered by a drop in investment, causing cutbacks in consumer spending and starting a cycle of layoffs leading to even lower employment rates.
"causing cutbacks.." is an adverbial modifier looking to modify a verb, but is preceded by a noun
"leading to even" is also an adverbial modifier looking to modify a verb, but the phrase it modifies is "cycle of layoffs" (a noun)

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12 Oct 2008, 01:54
incognito1 wrote:
jitendra wrote:
Even I marked E but that is wrong. OA is C. Not too clear why?

Tough one. +1. (C) is correct here.

c) falling employment rates triggered by a drop in investment, which cause cutbacks in consumer spending, starting a cycle of layoffs that lead to even lower employment rates.
"which" correctly modifies "falling employment rates" (a noun)
"starting a cycle of layoffs.." correctly modifies "cutbacks in consumer spending" (a verb)
"that lead" correctly modifies "cycle of layoffs" (a noun)

e) falling employment rates that are triggered by a drop in investment, causing cutbacks in consumer spending and starting a cycle of layoffs leading to even lower employment rates.
"causing cutbacks.." is an adverbial modifier looking to modify a verb, but is preceded by a noun
"leading to even" is also an adverbial modifier looking to modify a verb, but the phrase it modifies is "cycle of layoffs" (a noun)

c) falling employment rates triggered by a drop in investment, which cause cutbacks in consumer spending, starting a cycle of layoffs that lead to even lower employment rates.

How can we deduce what "which" is modifying here ? Isn't it generally supposed to be modifying the noun before the comma ? investment is a noun here ....

it seems as if the modifier "which ...." is modifying the word investment here ..... What am I missing ??

And what are adverbial modifiers ? How to recognize them ?

Thanks.. appreciate any help
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12 Oct 2008, 02:27
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amitdgr wrote:
incognito1 wrote:
jitendra wrote:
Even I marked E but that is wrong. OA is C. Not too clear why?

Tough one. +1. (C) is correct here.

c) falling employment rates triggered by a drop in investment, which cause cutbacks in consumer spending, starting a cycle of layoffs that lead to even lower employment rates.
"which" correctly modifies "falling employment rates" (a noun)
"starting a cycle of layoffs.." correctly modifies "cutbacks in consumer spending" (a verb)
"that lead" correctly modifies "cycle of layoffs" (a noun)

e) falling employment rates that are triggered by a drop in investment, causing cutbacks in consumer spending and starting a cycle of layoffs leading to even lower employment rates.
"causing cutbacks.." is an adverbial modifier looking to modify a verb, but is preceded by a noun
"leading to even" is also an adverbial modifier looking to modify a verb, but the phrase it modifies is "cycle of layoffs" (a noun)

c) falling employment rates triggered by a drop in investment, which cause cutbacks in consumer spending, starting a cycle of layoffs that lead to even lower employment rates.

How can we deduce what "which" is modifying here ? Isn't it generally supposed to be modifying the noun before the comma ? investment is a noun here ....

it seems as if the modifier "which ...." is modifying the word investment here ..... What am I missing ??

And what are adverbial modifiers ? How to recognize them ?

Thanks.. appreciate any help

Good question, this is definitely a toughie. However, once you realize the sequence of events, it becomes much simpler. Here is the sequence:
drop in investment -> falling employment rates -> cutbacks in consumer spending -> cycle of layoffs -> lower employment rates -> economic recession
We're interested in the portion in green above

"which" does not STRICTLY modify the noun that immediately precedes it (noun before the comma, that is). On re-examining the sentence, you'll see that "triggered by a drop in investment" simply modifies "falling employment rates",and should be ignored (you HAVE to ignore the modifier and focus on the noun).

Adverbial modifiers modify actions or verbs, rather than nouns. To quote an example from MGMAT SC:
"The quarterback ran towards the end zone, faster and harder than he had ever run before". Here, "faster and harder than he had ever run before" modifies how the quarterback ran (an action). Adverbial modifiers do not need to be adjacent to the verbs they modify.

To identify adverbial modifiers, it's important to understand the meaning of the sentence (something we tend to ignore for SCs!) Once you identify whether the modifier is affecting a verb or a noun, you can eliminate some answer choices right away. In the above example from MGMAT, it's clear that "faster and harder" has to modify a verb. The same applies to more complex sentences. Hope that helps.
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12 Oct 2008, 02:57
incognito1 wrote:
Good question, this is definitely a toughie. However, once you realize the sequence of events, it becomes much simpler. Here is the sequence:
drop in investment -> falling employment rates -> cutbacks in consumer spending -> cycle of layoffs -> lower employment rates -> economic recession
We're interested in the portion in green above

"which" does not STRICTLY modify the noun that immediately precedes it (noun before the comma, that is). On re-examining the sentence, you'll see that "triggered by a drop in investment" simply modifies "falling employment rates",and should be ignored (you HAVE to ignore the modifier and focus on the noun).

I understand that here "which" is modifying the noun which happens to be "falling employment rates". And the takeaway for me is that which does not have to always modify the word before comma.. It can be modifying the noun phrase or rather the main idea of the preceding phrase/clause.
incognito1 wrote:
Adverbial modifiers modify actions or verbs, rather than nouns. To quote an example from MGMAT SC:
"The quarterback ran towards the end zone, faster and harder than he had ever run before". Here, "faster and harder than he had ever run before" modifies how the quarterback ran (an action). Adverbial modifiers do not need to be adjacent to the verbs they modify.

Now I understand what adverbial modifiers mean
The modifiers which modify nouns are called adjectival modifiers ??
incognito1 wrote:
To identify adverbial modifiers, it's important to understand the meaning of the sentence (something we tend to ignore for SCs!) Once you identify whether the modifier is affecting a verb or a noun, you can eliminate some answer choices right away. In the above example from MGMAT, it's clear that "faster and harder" has to modify a verb. The same applies to more complex sentences.

incognito1 wrote:
Hope that helps.

Yes it DOES very much. Thank you. +1 for you
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12 Oct 2008, 04:20
My God. The explanations had my head spinning But thanks incognito1 for the wonderful explanataion . i had to read thru twice 2 understand wht adverbial modifiers are.
+1 to u

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12 Oct 2008, 04:42
incognito1 wrote:
incognito1 wrote:
jitendra wrote:
Even I marked E but that is wrong. OA is C. Not too clear why?

Tough one. +1. (C) is correct here.

c) falling employment rates triggered by a drop in investment, which cause cutbacks in consumer spending, starting a cycle of layoffs that lead to even lower employment rates.
"which" correctly modifies "falling employment rates" (a noun)
"starting a cycle of layoffs.." correctly modifies "cutbacks in consumer spending" (a verb)
"that lead" correctly modifies "cycle of layoffs" (a noun)

e) falling employment rates that are triggered by a drop in investment, causing cutbacks in consumer spending and starting a cycle of layoffs leading to even lower employment rates.
"causing cutbacks.." is an adverbial modifier looking to modify a verb, but is preceded by a noun
"leading to even" is also an adverbial modifier looking to modify a verb, but the phrase it modifies is "cycle of layoffs" (a noun)

c) falling employment rates triggered by a drop in investment, which cause cutbacks in consumer spending, starting a cycle of layoffs that lead to even lower employment rates.

How can we deduce what "which" is modifying here ? Isn't it generally supposed to be modifying the noun before the comma ? investment is a noun here ....

it seems as if the modifier "which ...." is modifying the word investment here ..... What am I missing ??

And what are adverbial modifiers ? How to recognize them ?

Thanks.. appreciate any help

Good question, this is definitely a toughie. However, once you realize the sequence of events, it becomes much simpler. Here is the sequence:
drop in investment -> falling employment rates -> cutbacks in consumer spending -> cycle of layoffs -> lower employment rates -> economic recession
We're interested in the portion in green above

"which" does not STRICTLY modify the noun that immediately precedes it (noun before the comma, that is). On re-examining the sentence, you'll see that "triggered by a drop in investment" simply modifies "falling employment rates",and should be ignored (you HAVE to ignore the modifier and focus on the noun).

Adverbial modifiers modify actions or verbs, rather than nouns. To quote an example from MGMAT SC:
"The quarterback ran towards the end zone, faster and harder than he had ever run before". Here, "faster and harder than he had ever run before" modifies how the quarterback ran (an action). Adverbial modifiers do not need to be adjacent to the verbs they modify.

To identify adverbial modifiers, it's important to understand the meaning of the sentence (something we tend to ignore for SCs!) Once you identify whether the modifier is affecting a verb or a noun, you can eliminate some answer choices right away. In the above example from MGMAT, it's clear that "faster and harder" has to modify a verb. The same applies to more complex sentences. Hope that helps.

Great post i had never explored grammar to this depth !!!
These are the questions where the score is determined !!REAL GOOD QUESTION
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12 Oct 2008, 11:18
Thanks guys! Glad that could help someone.

If you're maintaining an error log, I imagine this would be a good example of what to put in there (along with a brief explanation of the underlying issues, and how you got to identifying them). You could also include this URL to come back and read up on further explanations.
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23 Oct 2008, 14:53
Don't want to crash the party here, but when I took this practise quiz in MGMAT today, these were my choices :

An economic recession can result from a lowering of employment rates triggered by a drop in investment, which causes people to cut consumer spending and starts a cycle of layoffs leading back to even lower employment rates.

a) a lowering of employment rates triggered by a drop in investment, which causes people to cut consumer spending and start a cycle of layoffs leading back to even lower employment rates.
b)a lowering of employment rates triggered by dropping investment, which cause people to cut consumer spending and starts a cycle of layoffs leading back to even lower employment rates.
c)falling employment rates triggered by a drop in investment, causing cutbacks in consumer spending and starting a cycle of layoffs that lead to even lower employment rates.
d)falling employment rates that are triggered by a drop in investment, causing people to cut consumer spending and starting a cycle of layoffs that lead back to even lower employment rates.
e)falling employment rates that are triggered by a drop in investment, that cause cutbacks in consumer spending and the start of a cycle of layoffs leading to even lower employment rates.

OA is C

OE is:
The original sentence contains a clause beginning with "which" that logically describes the result of lower employment rates. However, as written, this clause seems to describe the result of "a drop in investment" because "which" modifies the noun just before it. We need to find a replacement that makes the causal relationship clear. Additionally, the phrase "causes people to cut consumer spending" is wordy and somewhat illogical since the people are the consumers. A more concise way to say this would be "causes cutbacks in consumer spending." Finally, the use of "back" is redundant, as it is implied by the word "cycle".

(A) This choice is incorrect as it repeats the original sentence.

(B) The use of "which" incorrectly suggests that "dropping investment" "causes people to cut consumer spending" when, in fact, the employment rates cause this phenomenon. Additionally, the phrase "cause people to cut consumer spending" is wordy and the use of "back" is redundant, as it is implied by the word "cycle".

(C) CORRECT. This choice makes clear, through the use of the plural verb "cause", that the employment rates are responsible for the cutbacks in spending. Further it uses the concise phrase "cutbacks in consumer spending" and eliminates the redundant word "back."

(D) This choice contains the wordy phrases "that are triggered by", "causing people to cut consumer spending" and the redundant "lead back."

(E) The construction ", that" is incorrect. Also, "the start of a cycle of layoffs" is awkward.

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23 Oct 2008, 15:50
Livestronger,

The answer choices you posted and the ones posted by the OP are different. Its not the exact same Q. You are saying that you copied and pasted this from MGMAT. So, Has the OP mucked it up? or got a mucked up version some where?

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23 Oct 2008, 16:00
icandy wrote:
Livestronger,

The answer choices you posted and the ones posted by the OP are different. Its not the exact same Q. You are saying that you copied and pasted this from MGMAT. So, Has the OP mucked it up? or got a mucked up version some where?

I agree with iCandy. Something is messed up. Can the SC gurus step in and clear the air, please! I originally picked E as well but after reviewing incognito's explanation I felt that C is the right choice. Now, this MGMAT post has gotten me all confused!

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23 Oct 2008, 16:59
What is OP ?

My source is MGMAT online question bank. I thought of posting this question and did a search before posting, and came across this thread

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23 Oct 2008, 17:39
LiveStronger wrote:
What is OP ?

My source is MGMAT online question bank. I thought of posting this question and did a search before posting, and came across this thread

I think the two questions are different. I'm not sure what the original poster's source is but in the first version, (C) is preferable. In the recent post, I believe this option is not even listed?

Here are my notes on the two choices:

Quote:
An economic recession can result from a lowering of employment rates triggered by a drop in investment, which causes people to cut consumer spending and starts a cycle of layoffs leading back to even lower employment rates.

C) falling employment rates triggered by a drop in investment, which cause cutbacks in consumer spending, starting a cycle of layoffs that lead to even lower employment rates.
Here, the phrase beginning with "which" correctly modifies "falling employment rates" -- it is simply describing the effects of the falling rates

E) falling employment rates that are triggered by a drop in investment, causing cutbacks in consumer spending and starting a cycle of layoffs leading to even lower employment rates.
What exactly is "causing" modifying here? It sounds like the recession is causing cutbacks in consumer spending
The portion following "which" in option (C) is optional. If you remove that, you're left with "An economic recession can result from falling employment rates triggered by a drop in investment". This should be sufficient by itself. The portion beginning with "which" simply describes the effect of falling employment rates.
"starting a cycle of layoffs" is meant to be a result of "cutbacks in consumer spending" whereas here they're noted as parallel effects

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24 Oct 2008, 07:51
Ahh man, like I wasn't confused enough already

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24 Oct 2008, 11:11

Sorry folks

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