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# As Charles Darwin observed, natural selection operates whenever

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Re: As Charles Darwin observed, natural selection operates whenever [#permalink]
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I saw this question on official prep exam track2
but i don't know why.. can someone explain? plz.
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Re: As Charles Darwin observed, natural selection operates whenever [#permalink]
anairamitch1804 wrote:
The comparison must be made between "individuals of one genetic composition" and "individuals of another genetic composition."

Therefore, (A) and (E) are wrong because "that" is singular; we're supposed to be comparing individual's' (plural).
(B) and (C) are wrong because "other"/"another" refers to another genetic composition; therefore, these are faulty comparisons, because there's no word to suggest "individuals" (we MUST compare individuals to other individuals, not to a composition) and that leaves us with answer choice (D).

--

As for the distinctions:-

"the other" is used when there are only two things.
I chose one of the two dinner options; my date chose the other.

"another" is used for another of an indefinite number of things.
Usually, i'll order one entre and my date will order another, so that we can each try some of both.

"each other" refers to interaction between exactly two things or people.
My date and i usually sit next to each other, rather than across from each other.

"one another" also refers to interaction, but there may be more than two things/people.
The holiday season offers many occasions for people who have not seen one another in many months to reunite.

Nice explanations

As Charles Darwin observed, natural selection operates whenever individuals of one genetic composition are better at reproducing than those(individuals) of another (genetic composition)
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Re: As Charles Darwin observed, natural selection operates whenever [#permalink]
Hi daagh aragonn

Need help for option B.

As Charles Darwin observed, natural selection operates whenever individuals of one genetic composition are better at reproducing than (individuals of) the other. : Ellipsis is playing role here.
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Re: As Charles Darwin observed, natural selection operates whenever [#permalink]
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guptakashish02 wrote:
Hi daagh aragonn

Need help for option B.

As Charles Darwin observed, natural selection operates whenever individuals of one genetic composition are better at reproducing than (individuals of) the other. : Ellipsis is playing role here.

the comparison must be made between "individuals of one genetic composition" and "individuals of another genetic composition". Therefore, A and E are wrong because "that" is singular; we're supposed to be comparing individuals (plural).

B and C are wrong because "other"/"another" refers to another genetic composition; therefore, these are faulty comparisons, because there's no word to suggest individuals (we MUST compare individuals to other individuals, not to a composition).

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Re: As Charles Darwin observed, natural selection operates whenever [#permalink]
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ashkrs wrote:
As Charles Darwin observed, natural selection operates whenever individuals of one genetic composition are better at reproducing than that of others.

(A) that of others
(B) the other
(C) another
(D) those of another
(E) that of the next

This question is based on Comparison and Parallelism.

The two aspects being compared are individuals of one genetic composition and individuals of another genetic composition.

The pronoun ‘that’ cannot refer to the plural antecedent ‘individuals’. So, Options A and E can be ruled out.

The phrase ‘the other’ is ambiguous as it is not clear whether it refers to individuals or genetic compositions. So, Option B can be ruled out.

Option C uses the word ‘another’ instead of “the other”, but the problem of ambiguity is present in this option too. So, Option C can also be ruled out.

Option D contains the phrase ‘those of another’ that refers to ‘individuals of another genetic composition’. Therefore, D is the most appropriate option.

Jayanthi Kumar.
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Re: As Charles Darwin observed, natural selection operates whenever [#permalink]
Bunuel, could you please tag this question. It is from official practice test 5.

Thank you!
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Re: As Charles Darwin observed, natural selection operates whenever [#permalink]
CrushTHYGMAT wrote:
Bunuel, could you please tag this question. It is from official practice test 5.

Thank you!

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As Charles Darwin observed, natural selection operates whenever [#permalink]
[quote="ashkrs"]As Charles Darwin observed, natural selection operates whenever individuals of one genetic composition are better at reproducing than that of others.

(A) that of others
(B) the other
(C) another
(D) those of another
(E) that of the next

the first part of comparison contain "individuals" , so, we need something which can be compared logically with "individuals".

there are 2 cases for using "the other"

"the other " need "some" to be logical and idiomatic. for example, some pens are good; the other are not. both "some" and "the other " are plural.
"the other" could need go with "both'. for example, both pen are good. one is mine. the other is yours. in this case "the other " is singular.

"another" need "one " or "a" to be parallel. for example, give me a coffee and another for my friend. there is no "One" or "a", so "another " in choice c is wrong.

so, "the other " and " another " need some phrase to be working. we dont have the phrase and so, "the other" and "another " are wrong .
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Re: As Charles Darwin observed, natural selection operates whenever [#permalink]
As Charles Darwin observed, natural selection operates whenever individuals of one genetic composition are better at reproducing than that of others.
Clue - individuals

(A) that of others
That can’t be used to refer individuals. Eliminate

(B) the other
Keep it
(C) another
Keep it
(D) those of another
Keep it
(E) that of the next
Same error as in A
Now, among B,C,and D:
We need to use meaning based approach.
individuals of one genetic composition are better at reproducing than individuals of different genetic composition.
individuals of one genetic composition are better at reproducing than individuals (those) of different genetic composition.(another)
So, D must be the right answer

Posted from my mobile device
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Re: As Charles Darwin observed, natural selection operates whenever [#permalink]
Why using 'another' in option C is wrong?
another is a pronoun referring back to "individuals'".
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SolankiDas wrote:
Why using 'another' in option C is wrong?
another is a pronoun referring back to "individuals'".

If the second parallel part in a comparison includes a modifier, it has to include the whole modifier.

"Another" is part of the modifier of another (parallel to of one genetic composition). You can't throw away the "of" and just keep the other half of that modifier.
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Re: As Charles Darwin observed, natural selection operates whenever [#permalink]
SolankiDas wrote:
Why using 'another' in option C is wrong?
another is a pronoun referring back to "individuals'".

Hello SolankiDas,

We hope this finds you well.

To answer your query, "another" refers to "genetic composition", but the first half of the comparison is "individuals of one genetic composition"; thus, Option C incorrectly compares "individuals" to "genetic composition"; remember, comparisons must always be made between similar elements.

We hope this helps.
All the best!
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Re: As Charles Darwin observed, natural selection operates whenever [#permalink]
As Charles Darwin observed, natural selection operates whenever individuals of one genetic composition are better at reproducing than that of others.

(A) that of others
(B) the other
(C) another
(D) those of another
(E) that of the next

Hi Experts

GMATNinja KarishmaB MartyTargetTestPrep

Can we right option B as - As Charles Darwin observed, natural selection operates whenever individuals of one genetic composition are better at reproducing than individuals of other genetic composition. Bold part is playing the role of ellipsis

Why the above option is wrong?

Same question for option C also
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Re: As Charles Darwin observed, natural selection operates whenever [#permalink]
Vatsal7794 wrote:
As Charles Darwin observed, natural selection operates whenever individuals of one genetic composition are better at reproducing than that of others.

(A) that of others
(B) the other
(C) another
(D) those of another
(E) that of the next

Hi Experts

GMATNinja KarishmaB MartyTargetTestPrep

Can we right option B as - As Charles Darwin observed, natural selection operates whenever individuals of one genetic composition are better at reproducing than individuals of other genetic composition. Bold part is playing the role of ellipsis

Why the above option is wrong?

Same question for option C also

Which is better?

Fruits of Japan are sweeter than Korea. (Is Korea sweet? Are fruits of Japan sweeter than Korea?)
or
Fruits of Japan are sweeter than those of Korea. (Now we know that the comparison is between the fruits of the two countries)

We need to remove ambiguity without adding redundant words.

The question is - which option makes the intent clear and unambiguous? What is right and what is wrong don't have definitive answers.
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Re: As Charles Darwin observed, natural selection operates whenever [#permalink]
Vatsal7794 wrote:
As Charles Darwin observed, natural selection operates whenever individuals of one genetic composition are better at reproducing than that of others.

(A) that of others
(B) the other
(C) another
(D) those of another
(E) that of the next

Hi Experts

GMATNinja KarishmaB MartyTargetTestPrep

Can we right option B as - As Charles Darwin observed, natural selection operates whenever individuals of one genetic composition are better at reproducing than individuals of other genetic composition. Bold part is playing the role of ellipsis

Why the above option is wrong?

Same question for option C also

Hello Vatsal7794,

We hope this finds you well.

To answer your query, no; the ellipses construction you have proposed fails to account for the article "the", whose use changes the meaning of the sentence. "another" conveys that the comparison is between "individuals of one genetic composition" and individuals of any other, non-specified, genetic composition; "the other" incorrectly implies that the comparison is between "individuals of one genetic composition" and individuals of one other, specific, genetic composition.

We hope this helps.
All the best!
Experts' Global Team
Re: As Charles Darwin observed, natural selection operates whenever [#permalink]
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