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Because it impinges upon so much—from bilingual education, po

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Because it impinges upon so much—from bilingual education, po  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Dec 2018, 22:11
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Because it impinges upon so much—from bilingual education, political correctness, and Afro-centred curricula, to affirmative action and feminism—the current discussion on multiculturalism is essential to understanding Western academic culture today. Charles Taylor‘s account of the development of multiculturalism out of classical liberalism traces it through changing conceptions of what he terms "the politics of recognition."

Deft as his historical account may be, any analysis of the motivations for multiculturalism solely in terms of ―recognition‖ must remain fundamentally incomplete. In his analysis are two central demands for recognition underlying classical liberal thought: the demand for the equal recognition of human dignity, and for recognition and respect of all human beings as independent, self-defining individuals. Multiculturalism, according to Taylor, rejects both of these ideals and their political application in an official ―difference-blind‖ law (which focuses on what is the same in us all). Instead, it embraces laws and public institutions that recognize and even foster particularity—that cater to the well-being of specific groups. These two modes of politics, then, both having come to be based on the notion of equal respect, come into conflict.

Taylor acknowledges that it can be viewed as a betrayal of the liberal ideal of equality when the multiculturalist calls for a recognition of difference rather than similarity, and seeks special treatment for certain groups—such as aboriginal hunting privileges or the "distinct society" of Quebec. However, he plausibly argues that to recognize only sameness is to fail to recognize much that is necessary for real ―recognition‖, since we are all cultured individuals with personal histories and community ties. Still, Taylor does not stray far from classical liberalism, insisting that multiculturalism be able to ―offer adequate safeguards for fundamental rights.‖

The more extreme forms of multiculturalism, which Taylor disavows, commit the crucial error of reducing all ethical and normative standards to mere instruments of power, because in doing so any distinctly moral arguments for these positions become absurd. Though Taylor seems correct to reject this diminution, he‘s wrong to think that the ―recognition‖ model alone can sufficiently account for the demands made by various minority groups for both the promotion of discrete cultural identities and the transformation of the dominant culture. For what many in these groups desire is much more than mere recognition or approval: it is the power to more effectively and independently control their own destinies.

It‘s even become common to disdain the respect or solidarity professed by those in the dominant group in an attempt to consolidate separate cultural identities. How Taylor misses this fact is not clear, since even his favourite example of Quebec's distinct society presents a case in which the primary function of the demand for recognition is to acquire the power necessary for those within to maintain, promote and even enforce their way of life. Taylor understands that the Quebeçois want more than to merely preserve their culture, or to have others appreciate it. They also want to create a dynamic, autonomous society in which future generations will participate as part of a common project. Unfortunately,he does not consider how this fact undercuts the notion of ―recognition‖ as an adequate lens through which to view their project.
1. The author‘s primary purpose in the passage is to:
A. criticize Taylor‘s definition of liberalism.
B. define the concept of multiculturalism.
C. defend an account of the historical development of multiculturalism.
D. assess the adequacy of a thesis about the nature of multiculturalism.
E. praise Taylor‘s definition of multiculturalism


Q2). The author‘s two references to the ―distinct society‖ of Quebec are primarily intended to:
I. give an example of a multiculturalist demand.
II. give an example for which Taylor‘s analysis is inadequate.
III. give an example of a group for which special treatment is sought.
A. I only
B. III only
C. I and II only
D. I, II, and III
E. None of the above


Q3). Which of the following can most reasonably be inferred from the passage about the author‘s attitude toward the two classical liberal ideals of equality mentioned in the passage?
A. They are adequate for most contexts in which recognition is demanded.
B. They do not safeguard fundamental rights for individuals in aboriginal groups.
C. They reflect a disguised attempt by a privileged group to maintain its power over other groups.
D. They reflect an impoverished conception of the individual person.
E. They are vital for the survival of democracy in a country


Q4). In the context of the passage as whole, the statements made in paragraph 3 can best be characterized as which of the following?
A. A criticism of an argument is raised, and then shown to be superficial.
B. A weakness in an argument is revealed, and then developed.
C. An opinion is related, and then a subsequent position is stated.
D. A cultural trend is outlined, and then a defense of that trend is given.
E. A cultural trend is defined and then criticised severely



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Because it impinges upon so much—from bilingual education, po  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 07 Dec 2018, 22:24
1

Topic and Scope

: critiques Charles Taylor‘s analysis of multiculturalism and its focus on recognizing diversity.

Mapping the Passage


¶1 introduces Taylor‘s analysis of multiculturalism and argues that it is incomplete.
¶2 describes the two liberal demands for recognition that multiculturalism rejects: recognition of human dignity and individualism.
¶s3 and 4 describes Taylor‘s idea that multiculturalism betrays the liberal idea of equality. Taylor argues that recognition of diversity is essential but that extreme multiculturalism goes too far.
¶5 argues that the recognition model is insufficient and provides an example.

Strategy Point:


Pay close attention to authorial points of view. Whenever the author’s viewpoint is different from other viewpoints in the passage, the contrasts will be tested.
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Originally posted by GmatWizard on 07 Dec 2018, 22:21.
Last edited by GmatWizard on 07 Dec 2018, 22:24, edited 1 time in total.
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Because it impinges upon so much—from bilingual education, po  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Dec 2018, 22:23

Official Answers and Explanations



Q1) A main idea question. Predict: the author is discussing Taylor‘s analysis of multiculturalism, with emphasis on demonstrating that it‘s incomplete. Only (D) includes both a theory of multiculturalism and a critique of it.
(A): Distortion. The author criticizes Taylor, but not his definition of liberalism.
(B): Out of Scope. The author is concerned with critiquing Taylor‘s view, not merely defining multiculturalism.
(C): Opposite. The author is critiquing Taylor‘s view, not defending it.
(D): The correct answer
(E): ‗Praise‘ is an incorrect verb; the author never praises anything.

Q2) Review the answer choices in with focus on the paragraphs dealing with Quebec: ¶s 3-5. Start with RN I: The Quebecois are used as an example of one society‘s ―demand for recognition.‖ RN II is backed up by the author‘s point in the end of the passage: Taylor doesn‘t fully consider the implications of his example of Quebec. Finally, RN III is supported in the passage. The Quebecois demand for a distinct society is described as ―special treatment.‖ (D) is therefore the correct answer.
(A): Opposite. As described above.
(B): Opposite. As above.
(C): Opposite. As above.
(D): The correct answer
(E): Opposite. As above.

Q3) Review ¶s 2 and 3, where the liberal ideals are discussed. The correct idea may be difficult to predict exactly, so paraphrase Taylor‘s main argument about liberal ideals: multiculturalism betrays them for legitimate reasons. While three answers can be quickly eliminated, (D) alone is left. (D) reflects the idea that recognizing only sameness is an incomplete conception. Since the author says that this is ―plausible,‖ it‘s reasonable to assume that the author would agree with Taylor‘s view.
(A): Opposite. This is roughly the opposite of the correct answer choice: Taylor argues that liberal ideals are inadequate, and the author seems to agree.
(B): Distortion. Taylor and the author are concerned with how multiculturalism safeguards rights, not the liberal ideals.
(C): Out of Scope. This is never discussed.
(D): The correct answer
(E): Out of scope.

Q4) An evaluation question. Review the lines discussed: the author says that Taylor acknowledges that multiculturalism betrays liberalism, and then ―plausibly argues‖ that it‘s good for it to do so. (D) summarizes this.
(A): Out of Scope. Taylor is defending multiculturalism‘s betrayal of liberal principles; this choice includes no defense.
(B): Distortion. Though Taylor does present a potential weakness in multiculturalism, he doesn‘t develop it, but rather argues that it isn‘t in fact a weakness.
(C): Distortion. This suggests that two ideas are presented, rather than the single idea of multiculturalism‘s betrayal of liberal ideals.
(D): The correct answer
(E): Nothing is criticised severely in these lines
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Re: Because it impinges upon so much—from bilingual education, po  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Aug 2019, 02:39
Bumping for more discussion.
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Re: Because it impinges upon so much—from bilingual education, po   [#permalink] 06 Aug 2019, 02:39
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