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Before learning how to make a synthetic growth hormone, scientists had

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Before learning how to make a synthetic growth hormone, scientists had  [#permalink]

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Before learning how to make a synthetic growth hormone, scientists had to remove it painstakingly in small amounts from the pituitary glands of human cadavers.

(A) learning how to make a synthetic growth hormone, scientists had to remove it painstakingly

(B) scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth hormone, they removed it painstakingly

(C) scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth hormone, they had to remove it painstakingly

(D) scientists learned how to synthesize the growth hormone, it had to be painstakingly removed

(E) learning how to synthesize the growth hormone, it had to be painstakingly removed by scientists
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Before learning how to make a synthetic growth hormone, scientists had to remove it painstakingly in small amounts from the pituitary glands of human cadavers.

A. learning how to make a synthetic growth hormone, scientists had to remove it painstakingly
B. scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth hormone, they removed it painstakingly
C. scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth hormone, they had to remove it painstakingly
D. scientists learned how to synthesize the growth hormone, it had to be painstakingly removed
E. learning how to synthesize the growth hormone, it had to be painstakingly removed by scientists


There are two ways to approach this issue.

1. The grammar way: We know as per the V-A-N rule, a verb prevails over adjective and a noun. Here the phrase 'synthetic hormone growth' contains an adjective and inferior 'to synthesize the hormone growth' which is a verb. Therefore, A, B, and C are out.
Between D and E, E has a severe modification error in that, the noun Scientists should have been placed immediately after the comma. D is the correct choice.

2. The meaning way: It may be noted that a synthetic hormone is made only outside the body and not within the body. Choices A, B and C all erroneously point to the removal of the synthetic growth hormone from the pituitary glands, which are inside the living body; therefore, the first three choices are eliminated.
Now it is the choice between D and E, wherein as such the pronoun 'it' pointedly refers to the growth hormone. However, D is better than E because of the modification flaw in E.

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Originally posted by daagh on 14 Nov 2017, 07:24.
Last edited by daagh on 09 Sep 2018, 08:11, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Before learning how to make a synthetic growth hormone, scientists had  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Nov 2017, 06:55
ToponepercentGMAT wrote:
Before learning how to make a synthetic growth hormone, scientists had to remove it painstakingly in small amounts from the pituitary glands of human cadavers.

A. learning how to make a synthetic growth hormone, scientists had to remove it painstakingly
B. scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth hormone, they removed it painstakingly
C. scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth hormone, they had to remove it painstakingly
D. scientists learned how to synthesize the growth hormone, it had to be painstakingly removed
E. learning how to synthesize the growth hormone, it had to be painstakingly removed by scientists

Correct answer must be (D) for the highlighted errors in other options...
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Re: Before learning how to make a synthetic growth hormone, scientists had  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Nov 2017, 07:00
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ToponepercentGMAT wrote:
Before learning how to make a synthetic growth hormone, scientists had to remove it painstakingly in small amounts from the pituitary glands of human cadavers.

A. learning how to make a synthetic growth hormone, scientists had to remove it painstakingly
B. scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth hormone, they removed it painstakingly
C. scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth hormone, they had to remove it painstakingly
D. scientists learned how to synthesize the growth hormone, it had to be painstakingly removed
E. learning how to synthesize the growth hormone, it had to be painstakingly removed by scientists



Hi,
lets see the errors

1) pronoun IT..
'It' should refer to 'GROWTH HORMONE', but here ambiguously refers to 'SYNTHETIC growth hormone'
illogical in meaning, it is 'growth hormone' present in body and NOT 'synthetic growth hormone'
ONLY D and E use IT correctly

2) In E, " before....hormone" should be followed by SCIENTISTS as the clause is modifying scientists
eliminate E

D is correct as it is
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Re: Before learning how to make a synthetic growth hormone, scientists had  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Nov 2017, 07:11
Abhishek009 wrote:
ToponepercentGMAT wrote:
Before learning how to make a synthetic growth hormone, scientists had to remove it painstakingly in small amounts from the pituitary glands of human cadavers.

A. learning how to make a synthetic growth hormone, scientists had to remove it painstakingly
B. scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth hormone, they removed it painstakingly
C. scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth hormone, they had to remove it painstakingly
D. scientists learned how to synthesize the growth hormone, it had to be painstakingly removed
E. learning how to synthesize the growth hormone, it had to be painstakingly removed by scientists

Correct answer must be (D) for the highlighted errors in other options...


Hi Abhishek009,

Can you please explain why A is wrong?
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Re: Before learning how to make a synthetic growth hormone, scientists had  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Nov 2017, 12:30
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daagh wrote:
Quote:
Before learning how to make a synthetic growth hormone, scientists had to remove it painstakingly in small amounts from the pituitary glands of human cadavers.

A. learning how to make a synthetic growth hormone, scientists had to remove it painstakingly
B. scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth hormone, they removed it painstakingly
C. scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth hormone, they had to remove it painstakingly
D. scientists learned how to synthesize the growth hormone, it had to be painstakingly removed
E. learning how to synthesize the growth hormone, it had to be painstakingly removed by scientists


There are two ways to approach this issue.

1. The grammar way: We know as per the V-A-N rule, a verb prevails over adjective and a noun. Here the phrase 'synthetic hormone growth' is an adjective and inferior 'to synthesize the hormone growth' which is a verb. Therefore, A, B, and C are out.
Between D and E, E has a serious modification error in that, the noun Scientists should have been placed immediately after the comma. D is the correct choice.

2. The meaning way: It may be noted that a synthetic hormone is made only outside the body and not within the body. Choices A, B and C all erroneously point to the removal of the synthetic growth hormone from the pituitary glands, which are inside the living body; therefore, the first three choices are eliminated.
Now it is the choice between D and E, wherein as such the pronoun 'it' pointedly refers simply to the growth hormone. However, D is better than E because of the modification flaw in E.
''


Hi daagh

Could you share some examples of applying V-A-N rule -- preferably some other OG questions where this could be applied? I read it for the first time and would like to learn it.

Thanks
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Re: Before learning how to make a synthetic growth hormone, scientists had  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Nov 2017, 15:26
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"remove" is the verb that has been defined as a "painstaking" process. So, it must precede it. "painstakingly in small amounts" is not correct. A, B, C are out.
E is flawed - the modifier (sentence before the comma) should modify "the scientists".
D is correct
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New post 14 Nov 2017, 20:11
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Dear Sevenplusplus
I will certainly. But l give me a couple of days to search
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Re: Before learning how to make a synthetic growth hormone, scientists had  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Sep 2018, 09:51
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A,B,C are out because [it] in the second part refers to [synthetic growth hormone] - it's synthetic = artificial (not from humans bodies). D vs E - in E the same scientist had to remove it, and this makes no sense. We are left with D.
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Re: Before learning how to make a synthetic growth hormone, scientists had  [#permalink]

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New post 31 Oct 2018, 20:18
daagh wrote:
Dear Sevenplusplus
I will certainly. But l give me a couple of days to search


daagh
Can you please brief more on the VAN rule with some official examples
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OMG! . I totally forgot about it. Today I will sit on it and give you some examples.
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Re: Before learning how to make a synthetic growth hormone, scientists had  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Nov 2018, 03:23
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teaserbae

As far as I remember, this theory was postulated by MGMAT, which wanted to use concise style in formal writing. I do not think that is a GMAT rule or that it has much to do with grammar per se.
It says that when your are required to choose among "an active verb, an adjective and a noun," one must prefer the verb because it is more dynamic, then an adjective if it is there and then perhaps a noun that indicates the same action.( without changing the meaning)
A simple example would be
I can do it ---- uses a verb -- This is the first choice
I am capable to do it, or capable of doing it or I am able to do it. -- All these use adjective forms and are next to the verb use in the hierarchy.
I have the ability to do it or the capability to do it-- This example uses the noun form and to be preferred last.

GMAT examples

1. The ability of scientists to provide models of the atmosphere’s complex responses to changing conditions, like seasonal and daily cycles or different planetary conjunctions, have become ever more accurate.

(A) The ability of scientists to provide models of the atmosphere’s complex responses to changing conditions, like seasonal and daily cycles or different planetary conjunctions, have become ever more accurate.

(B) The ability of scientists has become ever more accurate in providing models of the atmosphere’s complex responses to changing conditions, such as seasonal and daily cycles or different planetary conjunctions.

(C) Scientists have become able to provide ever more accurate models of the atmosphere’s complex responses to such changing conditions as seasonal and daily cycles or different planetary conjunctions.

(D) Scientists have become ever more accurate in their ability for providing models of the atmosphere’s complex responses to changing conditions, like seasonal and daily cycles or different planetary conjunctions.

(E) Scientists’ ability to provide models of the atmosphere’s complex responses to such changing conditions as seasonal and daily cycles or different planetary conjunctions have become ever more accurate.

Ans C.


Some scientists have been critical of the laboratory tests conducted by the Federal Drug Administration on the grounds that the amounts of suspected carcinogens fed to animals far exceeds those that humans could consume.

A. far exceeds those that humans could consume

B. exceeds by far those humans can consume
C. far exceeds those humans are able to consume
D. exceed by far those able to be consumed by humans
E. far exceed those that humans could consume
Ans E.

Of course, there may be other reasons why other choices might be incorrect. However, one might also take into account the v-a-n convention as one more cue.
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Before learning how to make a synthetic growth hormone, scientists had  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Nov 2018, 04:24
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teaserbae wrote:
daagh wrote:
Dear Sevenplusplus
I will certainly. But l give me a couple of days to search


daagh
Can you please brief more on the VAN rule with some official examples



Hello teaserbae,

Apart from the detailed examples Daagh sir has provided,I will also quote some of the words from OG18.

Quoting a few sentences from my log(OG18)

Expectations are for prices to increase.--Here expectation is noun..
It is the expectation that prices will will increase..again more words..and expectation is noun


Better way would be..

Prices are expected to(see expected is verb ..and its a direct/clear/concise form of addressing.)


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Re: Before learning how to make a synthetic growth hormone, scientists had  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Nov 2018, 04:52
daagh wrote:
teaserbae

As far as I remember, this theory was postulated by MGMAT, which wanted to use concise style in formal writing. I do not think that is a GMAT rule or that it has much to do with grammar per se.
It says that when your are required to choose among "an active verb, an adjective and a noun," one must prefer the verb because it is more dynamic, then an adjective if it is there and then perhaps a noun that indicates the same action.( without changing the meaning)
A simple example would be
I can do it ---- uses a verb -- This is the first choice
I am capable to do it, or capable of doing it or I am able to do it. -- All these use adjective forms and are next to the verb use in the hierarchy.
I have the ability to do it or the capability to do it-- This example uses the noun form and to be preferred last.

GMAT examples

1. The ability of scientists to provide models of the atmosphere’s complex responses to changing conditions, like seasonal and daily cycles or different planetary conjunctions, have become ever more accurate.

(A) The ability of scientists to provide models of the atmosphere’s complex responses to changing conditions, like seasonal and daily cycles or different planetary conjunctions, have become ever more accurate.

(B) The ability of scientists has become ever more accurate in providing models of the atmosphere’s complex responses to changing conditions, such as seasonal and daily cycles or different planetary conjunctions.

(C) Scientists have become able to provide ever more accurate models of the atmosphere’s complex responses to such changing conditions as seasonal and daily cycles or different planetary conjunctions.

(D) Scientists have become ever more accurate in their ability for providing models of the atmosphere’s complex responses to changing conditions, like seasonal and daily cycles or different planetary conjunctions.

(E) Scientists’ ability to provide models of the atmosphere’s complex responses to such changing conditions as seasonal and daily cycles or different planetary conjunctions have become ever more accurate.

Ans C.


Some scientists have been critical of the laboratory tests conducted by the Federal Drug Administration on the grounds that the amounts of suspected carcinogens fed to animals far exceeds those that humans could consume.

A. far exceeds those that humans could consume

B. exceeds by far those humans can consume
C. far exceeds those humans are able to consume
D. exceed by far those able to be consumed by humans
E. far exceed those that humans could consume
Ans E.

Of course, there may be other reasons why other choices might be incorrect. However, one might also take into account the v-a-n convention as one more cue.


daagh
In first example I rejected A and D because of like
Left with B,C and E
B and E uses ability noun form where as C uses able adjective form
Is my reasoning correct ?
In second example A,B,C rejected for SV error
D uses able adjective and in E there is verb could so E is preferred
Is my reasoning correct ?
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bull's eye! congrats
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New post 01 Nov 2018, 05:23
ToponepercentGMAT wrote:
Before learning how to make a synthetic growth hormone, scientists had to remove it painstakingly in small amounts from the pituitary glands of human cadavers.

(A) learning how to make a synthetic growth hormone, scientists had to remove it painstakingly

(B) scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth hormone, they removed it painstakingly

(C) scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth hormone, they had to remove it painstakingly

(D) scientists learned how to synthesize the growth hormone, it had to be painstakingly removed

(E) learning how to synthesize the growth hormone, it had to be painstakingly removed by scientists



Daagh sir,

I have a couple of queries for you.

Before is a DC marker...I know it can have an exception also like..(Before sunset.)

Here from language and context that needs to be imparted ..isn't D the only one which has subject and verb...

Also from meaning perspective..

scientists learned how to synthesize the growth hormone, it had to be painstakingly removed

This seems to make sense because it hides the doer of action --removed..who painstakingly removed --Not necessarily scientists...

rest all options are try to convey --that scientists did the action

The above reasons are apart from the VAN rule discussed and other reasons cited.

Please let me know know your thoughts on above points.


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Re: Before learning how to make a synthetic growth hormone, scientists had  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Nov 2018, 09:17
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Quote:
Before learning how to make a synthetic growth hormone, scientists had to remove it painstakingly in small amounts from the pituitary glands of human cadavers.

(A) learning how to make a synthetic growth hormone, scientists had to remove it painstakingly

(B) scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth hormone, they removed it painstakingly

(C) scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth hormone, they had to remove it painstakingly

(D) scientists learned how to synthesize the growth hormone, it had to be painstakingly removed

(E) learning how to synthesize the growth hormone, it had to be painstakingly removed by scientists


Prabsahi wrote and my comments

Quote:
Daagh sir,

I have a couple of queries for you.

Before is a DC marker...I know it can have an exception also like..(Before sunset.) ---

My comment: Yes, 'before' is a subordinate conjunction (DC marker) as well as a preposition. Here it is used as a subordinate conjunction in choices B, C, and D and as an adjectival modifier in A and E.

Quote:
Here from language and context that needs to be imparted.. isn't D the only one which has subject and verb..


My comment: Nope; In the case of B, C, and D, both the subordinate clauses and the main clauses have their own subjects and verbs. But B and C express wrong meaning.
In the case of A and E where before is used as preposition, the first part is a modifier and therefore, you do not need to have a clause. All the same, the IC is a full-fledged clause in all the five choices.


Quote:
Also from meaning perspective..

scientists learned how to synthesize the growth hormone, it had to be painstakingly removed

This seems to make sense because it hides the doer of action --removed..who painstakingly removed --Not necessarily scientists...

My comment: yes you are right.

Quote:
rest all options are try to convey --that scientists did the action

My comment: Yes

The above reasons are apart from the VAN rule discussed and other reasons cited.

Please let me know your thoughts on above points.
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Re: Before learning how to make a synthetic growth hormone, scientists had  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Nov 2018, 19:10
how to make and synthesize redundancy so A , b and C are out

D and E
D contains scientists which maintain logical structure whereas E does not
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Re: Before learning how to make a synthetic growth hormone, scientists had  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Nov 2018, 19:19
daagh wrote:
Quote:
Before learning how to make a synthetic growth hormone, scientists had to remove it painstakingly in small amounts from the pituitary glands of human cadavers.

(A) learning how to make a synthetic growth hormone, scientists had to remove it painstakingly

(B) scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth hormone, they removed it painstakingly

(C) scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth hormone, they had to remove it painstakingly

(D) scientists learned how to synthesize the growth hormone, it had to be painstakingly removed

(E) learning how to synthesize the growth hormone, it had to be painstakingly removed by scientists


Prabsahi wrote and my comments

Quote:
Daagh sir,

I have a couple of queries for you.

Before is a DC marker...I know it can have an exception also like..(Before sunset.) ---

My comment: Yes, 'before' is a subordinate conjunction (DC marker) as well as a preposition. Here it is used as a subordinate conjunction in choices B, C, and D and as an adjectival modifier in A and E.

Quote:
Here from language and context that needs to be imparted.. isn't D the only one which has subject and verb..


My comment: Nope; In the case of B, C, and D, both the subordinate clauses and the main clauses have their own subjects and verbs. But B and C express wrong meaning.
In the case of A and E where before is used as preposition, the first part is a modifier and therefore, you do not need to have a clause. All the same, the IC is a full-fledged clause in all the five choices.


Quote:
Also from meaning perspective..

scientists learned how to synthesize the growth hormone, it had to be painstakingly removed

This seems to make sense because it hides the doer of action --removed..who painstakingly removed --Not necessarily scientists...

My comment: yes you are right.

Quote:
rest all options are try to convey --that scientists did the action

My comment: Yes

The above reasons are apart from the VAN rule discussed and other reasons cited.

Please let me know your thoughts on above points.



Thank you so much sir..
I just went back after reading your comments and saw none of them have structure issue..B,C,D..Dependent clause clause starting with subject scientists ..and verb learned..
and A and E modifier,core structure.

Many many Thanks .
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