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Black Americans are, on the whole, about twice as likely as White

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Black Americans are, on the whole, about twice as likely as White Americans to develop high blood pressure. This likelihood also holds for westernized Black Africans when compared to White Africans. Researchers have hypothesized that this predisposition in westernized Blacks may reflect an interaction between western high-salt diets and genes that adapted to an environmental scarcity of salt.

Which of the following statements about present-day, westernized Black Africans, if true, would most tend to confirm the researchers’ hypothesis?


(A) The blood pressures of those descended from peoples situated throughout their history in Senegal and Gambia, where salt was always available, are low.

(B) The unusually high salt consumption in certain areas of Africa represents a serious health problem.

(C) Because of their blood pressure levels, most White Africans have markedly decreased their salt consumption.

(D) Blood pressures are low among the Yoruba, who, throughout their history, have been situated far inland from sources of sea salt and far south of Saharan salt mines.

(E) No significant differences in salt metabolism have been found between those people who have had salt available throughout their history and those who have not.

Originally posted by rohitgoel15 on 09 Mar 2010, 23:01.
Last edited by Bunuel on 09 Oct 2018, 05:08, edited 4 times in total.
Renamed the topic and edited the question.
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Black Americans are, on the whole, about twice as likely as White Amer  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Mar 2010, 21:10
5
Hey All,

Conclusion: Predisposition to HBP reflects Western high-salt diets and genes adapted to scarcity of salt
Premise: Black Americans twice as likely to get HBP as White Americans. Westernized Black Africans twice as likely to get HBP as White Africans.
Assumption: ???

Strengthen and Weaken questions often relate to assumptions, but more likely when the question asks you to strengthen or weaken the ARGUMENT itself. In this case, we're asked to strengthen the hypothesis (i.e. conclusion), which means we're likely to bring in new information, so it's unlikely we'll be able to predict the assumption...

(A) The blood pressures of those descended from peoples situated throughout their history in Senegal and Gambia, where salt was always available, are low.
ANSWER: This gives NEW INFORMATION that matches up with the hypothesis (not much salt, no blood pressure problems).

(B) The unusually high salt consumption in certain areas of Africa represents a serious health problem.
PROBLEM: This neither strengthens nor weakens. We want a connection between blood pressure and salt.

(C) Because of their blood pressure levels, most White Africans have markedly decreased their salt consumption.
PROBLEM: This is tricky. Even though it connects blood pressure and salt, it does it in the wrong way. We want to see salt AFFECTING blood pressure. But here we're only told that these people have decreased their salt consumption because of their blood pressure. Has it worked? We don't know.

(D) Blood pressures are low among the Yoruba, who, throughout their history, have been situated far inland from sources of sea salt and far south of Saharan salt mines.
PROBLEM: This is less tricky than it looks. This just says a tribe without salt doesn't have high blood pressure. This would strengthen the conclusion that salt causes high blood pressure. But we already know that. We want to know if there's a genetic link that causes those with a history of low-salt diets to develop high blood pressure when moved to the West. This doesn't address the West at all.

(E) No significant differences in salt metabolism have been found between those people who have had salt available throughout their history and those who have not.
PROBLEM: You could argue this has no effect (what do we care about salt metabolism?) or weakens, because it's breaking the link between history and blood pressure that the conclusion wants to make.

Hope that helps!

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Re: Black Americans are, on the whole, about twice as likely as White Amer  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Mar 2010, 12:32
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The question theorizes that high blood pressure in Westernized Africans and African Americans is higher because our genes have adapted to places with little salt (which in great quantity causes high blood pressure). When those genes meet the Western diet that’s full of available salt that was so scarce in the parts of Africa they’re talking about we aren’t used to it and it causes high blood pressure. The question then asks what comment about westernized black Africans strengthens the hypothesis? AKA What would make us think that it’s more to do with the genes having not yet adapted to the environment? E may actually weaken the argument if you assume that high blood pressure is caused by the body’s metabolism of salt (idk if this is actually true). A is a better answer because it gives an example of Africans who have always had access to a lot of salt in their diets but don’t have high blood pressure like westernized Africans and us African Americans. This strengthens the argument because if those from Senegal had high blood pressure & time to generationally adapt then the claim isn’t nearly as strong that African Americans haven’t adapted yet to the diet doesn’t appear to be true. I hope that makes sense.
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Re: No way for me to catch this one  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Apr 2010, 14:00
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noboru wrote:
No way for me to catch this one:


Black Americans are, on the whole, about twice as likely as White Americans to develop high blood pressure. This likelihood also holds for westernized Black Africans when compared to White Africans.
Researchers have hypothesized that this predisposition in westernized Blacks may reflect an interaction between western high-salt diets and genes that adapted to an environmental scarcity of salt.
Which of the following statements about present-day, westernized Black Africans, if true, would most tend to confirm the researchers’ hypothesis?

researchers' hypothesized that the findings may reflect an interaction between western high-salt diets that are available in western areas and the genes that are adapted to salt scarcity. If any of the below statement shows that people with the same gene are having low blood pressure in the areas where salt is a scarcity, the hypothesis will be confirmed.

(A) The blood pressures of those descended from peoples situated throughout their history in Senegal and Gambia, where salt was always available, are low. correct
(B) The unusually high salt consumption in certain areas of Africa represents a serious health problem.talking only about findings in certain areas
(C) Because of their blood pressure levels, most White Africans have markedly decreased their salt consumption. no effect in the hypothesis
(D) Blood pressures are low among the Yoruba, who, throughout their history, have been situated far inland from sources of sea salt and far south of Saharan salt mines.
doesn't help to strength the hypothesis
(E) No significant differences in salt metabolism have been found between those people who have had salt available throughout their history and those who have not.
does not speak anything about the gene etc.
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Re: Black Americans are, on the whole, about twice as likely as White Amer  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Apr 2010, 14:41
I m not able to understand how A is supporting the conclusion. It will be great if you could explain again in a simple and elaborated way.
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Re: Black Americans are, on the whole, about twice as likely as White Amer  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Apr 2010, 14:54
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Sure. I'll try again. I've seperated this into two parts. Let me know which part you don't get.

1st part: "Researchers have hypothesized that this predisposition in westernized Blacks may reflect an interaction between western high-salt diets and genes that adapted to an environmental scarcity of salt." This is saying that researchers believe that westernized blacks have high blood pressure because their ancestors adapted to low sodium diets. This adaptation & the tons of salt in a western diet are what these researchers say causes high blood pressure.

2nd part:
"(A) The blood pressures of those descended from peoples situated throughout their history in Senegal and Gambia, where salt was always available, are low."
Rember that high blood pressure is caused by high salt diet + genetic adaptation to LOW salt environments. Those in Senegal and Gambia are in a place where there is PLENTY of salt and they don't have high blood pressure. This suggests that the researchers are right because those from Gambia and Senagal have had generations to adapt their genes to this kind of diet, unlike other africans.
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Re: Black Americans are, on the whole, about twice as likely as White  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Mar 2012, 19:54
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According to A: Blood pressures are low among westernized black africans who have descended entirely from people of senegal and gambia where salt was always available. This implies that these people have descended from a people who were used to metabolizing a moderate to high level of salt because there was no scarcity. The fact that these descendants of senegalese and gambian africans have low blood pressure shows that they can metabolize higher levels of salts like their Sengalese and Gambian ancestors. Thus the link must be genetic and predisposition to high blood pressure may reflect an interaction between western high-salt diets and genes of most africans (not senegalese and gambian) that adapted to environmental scarcity of salt. Thus A is correct.

that was a tough one to write for me. must work on writing skills :P

D refers to the yorubams blood pressure but does not relate it to those of modern day westernized black africans. so incorrect.
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Re: Black Americans are, on the whole, about twice as likely as White  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Mar 2012, 08:52
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conclusion: "Researchers have hypothesized that this predisposition in westernized Blacks may reflect an interaction between western high-salt diets and genes that adapted to an environmental scarcity of salt." This is saying that researchers believe that westernized blacks have high blood pressure because their ancestors adapted to low sodium diets. This adaptation & the tons of salt in a western diet are what these researchers say causes high blood pressure.

(A) The blood pressures of those descended from peoples situated throughout their history in Senegal and Gambia, where salt was always available, are low."
Rember that high blood pressure is caused by high salt diet + genetic adaptation to LOW salt environments. Those in Senegal and Gambia are in a place where there is PLENTY of salt and they don't have high blood pressure. This suggests that the researchers are right because those from Gambia and Senagal have had generations to adapt their genes to this kind of diet, unlike other africans.
(B) certain areas in Africa ? out of scope
(c) argument is about western black Americans not about white Americans . out of scope.
(D) It just give info about Yoruba and not relating to anyone in the argument.
(E) certainly out of scope
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Re: Black Americans are, on the whole, about twice as likely as  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Dec 2012, 06:58
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Answer should be A.

The argument says that high blood pressure is due to the fact that black americans' genes had adapted to accomodate low salt levels.

A shows that people whose genes did not have to adapt to low salt levels did not have high blood pressure.
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Re: Black Americans are, on the whole, about twice as likely as  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Dec 2012, 07:44
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1
IMO: A
Cause: High salt in diet by people in Africa, America
Result: High Blood Pressure(BP) in those people
Argument says, High BP in people is a natural response to deal with scarcity of salt. Genes adopted themselves to prevent eradication of available salt.


Answer should support that Blood Pressure is caused as stimulus to prevent the existence of salt in that geographical area.

(A) The blood pressures of those descended from peoples situated throughout their history in Senegal and Gambia, where salt was always available, are low. When salt was always available abundantly , BP didn't increase, it means, BP increased in areas only where presence of salt is very low. Correct.

(B) The unusually high salt consumption in certain areas of Africa represents a serious health problem. It doesn't help to support the conclusion.

(C) Because of their blood pressure levels, most White Africans have markedly decreased their salt consumption. This statement doesn't mention any interrelation between Decrease in salt consumption & Availability of salt in that area.

(D) Blood pressures are low among the Yoruba, who, throughout their history, have been situated far inland from sources of sea salt and far south of Saharan salt mines. BP is low throughout the history doesn't help to prove anything.

(E) No significant differences in salt metabolism have been found between those people who have had salt available throughout their history and those who have not. Salt metabolism is out of context.
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Re: Black Americans are, on the whole, about twice as likely as White  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Oct 2013, 22:15
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Premise: BP in BA ~ (equivalent to) 2(BP in WA) and BP in WBAf ~ 2(BP in WWAf)
Conclusion: Reason for above trend - Interaction b/w high salt in western diet and genes for low salt availability.

Let's see A and D.
a) The blood pressures of those descended from peoples situated throughout their history in Senegal and Gambia, where salt was always available, are low.
Salt always available; therefore normal genes; therefore BP is not high. Somewhat similar to the research.

d) Blood pressures are low among the Yorubam who throughout their history, have been situated far inland from sources of sea salt and far south of Saharan salt mines.
Salt unavailable; therefore genes should be low salt genes; therefore BP should be high but it is given to be low here. Hence, there is a contradiction.

A is better than D here.
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Re: Black Americans are, on the whole, about twice as likely as  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Dec 2013, 09:03
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One of the best ways to strengthen a Cause and Effect relationship is to prove:
->If Cause(environmental scarcity of salt or low-salt diets) DOES NOT occur, then Effect(high blood pressure) DOES NOT occur.

OR

High salt levels(C) -> Low blood Pressure(E)

Option A does exactly that.

(A) The blood pressures of those descended from peoples situated throughout their history in Senegal and Gambia, where salt was always available, are low.
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Re: Black Americans are, on the whole, about twice as likely as White  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Jan 2014, 07:33
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Got trouble with this one!

Here is the explanation I have:

- Your are looking for something that proves the link btw: scarcity of salt ==> change in habit ==> high blood pressure.
- Therefore, it will strenghten the argument if you claim that descendent of black american have low blood pressure. Why? Well because they did not get used to scarcity in salt!

If the descendent of people coming from Africa have low blood pressure, it means that the only factor that enables the developpement of high blood pressure is the fact that your organism was used to a scarcity in salt

This is explained in answer A...

Hope it is clear for everyone!
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Re: Black Americans are, on the whole, about twice as likely as White Amer  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Apr 2014, 20:55
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I got the point addressed in this question

P1: hypothesized that this predisposition in westernized Blacks may reflect an interaction between western high-salt diets and genes that adapted to an environmental scarcity of salt.

High blood pressure results when genes of people accustomed to low levels of salt suddenly trying to adapt themselves to high levels of salt . This says that westernized blacks have high blood pressure because their ancestors adapted to low sodium diets.

To support this hypohtesis, we need an argument that states either of these two

a) people with abundant sodium -> low bp
b) people with scarcity sodium -> high bp

Option A says that The blood pressures of those descended from peoples situated throughout their history in Senegal and Gambia, where salt was always available, are low.

Hope this helps :)
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Re: Black Americans are, on the whole, about twice as likely as  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Jan 2016, 03:40
this is not a good question.If A is correct we have to assume that Blacks lived in Senegal and Gambia and they consumed lots of salt.
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Re: Black Americans are, on the whole, about twice as likely as White  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Mar 2016, 22:11
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I got it wrong too. It's very tricky question.

After reviewing, I think I understand why A is correct.

The argument goes like this:

People who have specific genes get high blood pressure more easily when eating high salt diets.

It means that if someone have these genes, they will likely to get high blood pressure.
(X causes Y)

So, one way to strengthen the argument is to confirm that if the cause doesn't occur, then the result will not occur.

Choice A says that people who don't have those specific genes(becasue their ancestors lived in the place where salt is not scarce) will not get high blood pressure.
(Not X then Not Y)

Correct me if I'm wrong
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Re: Black Americans are, on the whole, about twice as likely as White  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Mar 2016, 00:07
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samirashok wrote:
Black Americans are, on the whole, about twice as likely as White Americans to develop high blood pressure. This likelihood also holds for Westernized Black Africans when compared to White Africans.
Researchers have hypothesized that this predisposition in westernized blacks may reflect an interaction between western high-salt diets and genes that adapted to environmental scarcity of salt.
Which of the following statements about present-day, westernized black Africans, if true, would most tend to confirm the researchers hypothesis?

a) The blood pressures of those descended from peoples situated throughout their history in Senegal and Gambia, where salt was always available, are low.

b) The usually high salt consumption in certain areas of Africa represents a serious health problem.

c) Because of their blood pressure levels, most White Africans have markedly decreased their salt consumption.

d) Blood pressures are low among the Yorubam who throughout their history, have been situated far inland from sources of sea salt and far south of Saharan salt mines

e) No significant differences in salt metabolism have been found between those people who have had salt available throughout their history and those who have not.

Guys I need help with the following question. The correct answer is A. I chose D and would like to know the reasoning for the correct answer. If someone can help me understand the reasoning and the way to approach the correct answer, I will certainly appreciate it.
Thanks,
Sameer.


I suppose the choice is really between A and D.

Let's analyze the researchers hypothesis - high BP in WB is due to 2 reasons - 1) high salt western diets, and 2) genes adapted to environmental scarcity of salt.

A) normal salt availability - genes not adapted to scarcity of salt - low BP. (This means that because the genes did not have to adapt to low salt environment, they are still able to cope with high salt diet, and hence BP is low) - supports the researchers' hypothesis.

D) Low salt environment - low BP - but the genes are still adapted to low salt environments -which means when exposed to high salt diets in the west they should have developed high BP, but did not - This actually weakens the argument.

Correct answer - A
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Re: Black Americans are, on the whole, about twice as likely as  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Sep 2016, 01:16
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D is a trap !

Premise :
Westernized Black Africans are about twice as likely as White Africans to develop high blood pressure.

Researchers have hypothesized that this predisposition in westernized Blacks may reflect an interaction between western high-salt diets and genes that adapted to an environmental scarcity of salt.

Researchers hypothesis: In a society where western high salt diet is common, Western black africans are more likely to develop high blood pressure than white africans because the former's genes are adapted to a low salt diet(implied from "to an environmental scarcity of salt").

Which of the following statements about present-day, westernized Black Africans, if true, would most tend to confirm the researchers' hypothesis?

(a) The blood pressures of those descended from peoples situated throughout their history in Senegal and Gambia, where salt was always available, are low. - This is close to the reasoning of the researcher - Availability of salt in senegal & Gambia means the people of this area are adapted to a high salt diet - means the people are less likely to have high blood pressure.

(d) Blood pressures are low among the Yoruba, who, throughout their history, have been situated far inland from sources of sea salt and far south of Saharan salt mines. - Take a close look and this weakens the researchers reasoning.
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Re: Black Americans are, on the whole, about twice as likely as  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Oct 2016, 06:09
pkm9995109794 wrote:
this is not a good question.If A is correct we have to assume that Blacks lived in Senegal and Gambia and they consumed lots of salt.


The blood pressures of those descended from peoples situated throughout their history in Senegal and Gambia, where salt was always available, are low.

This means that the people of this area are adapted to a high salt diet, so they - are less likely to have high blood pressure. This is what the conclusion claims. It does not matter the color or race of the people.

It supports the argument by showing a case in which the cause produces the effect.
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