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# Black Americans are, on the whole, about twice as likely as White

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Re: Black Americans are, on the whole, about twice as likely as White  [#permalink]

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08 Dec 2018, 05:57
Skywalker18 wrote:
In OA-A (also in option D), we need to know(assume) that Senegal and Gambia are part of Africa and Blacks lived in those countries. Also, although option D is incorrect, the question expects us to assume that Yoruba is an African tribe?
I knew that Senegal is an African country but hadn't heard about Gambia. So, can the GMAT expect us to assume(know) such things?
Generally, GMAT CR depends on a lot of "outside information". This is not really a problem, and in most question types, we encourage students to be open to using generally known facts and relationships to solve CR questions on the GMAT. Unfortunately, while there is nothing that defines exactly what can be used and what can't, this is something that has to be done. There would be no way to make a compact CR question otherwise.

As for this question, I think what they are asking for is not unreasonable, but if it helps, this is quite an old question too. These days the GMAC takes extra care to check for differences in a question's characteristics across different segments of the base of test takers. That entire initiative is why we also see more questions that are about people or things not exclusively American.
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Re: Black Americans are, on the whole, about twice as likely as White  [#permalink]

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08 Dec 2018, 07:45
Why is D wrong,can anyone explain ??

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Re: Black Americans are, on the whole, about twice as likely as White  [#permalink]

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08 Dec 2018, 15:08
Skywalker18 wrote:
In OA-A (also in option D), we need to know(assume) that Senegal and Gambia are part of Africa and Blacks lived in those countries. Also, although option D is incorrect, the question expects us to assume that Yoruba is an African tribe?
I knew that Senegal is an African country but hadn't heard about Gambia. So, can the GMAT expect us to assume(know) such things?

The short answer is no. The GMAT does not expect us to know such things.

Notice how the question is worded.

Which of the following statements about present-day, westernized Black Africans, if true, would most tend to confirm the researchers’ hypothesis?

So the question indicates that all of the answer choices are statements about present-day, westernized Black Africans. So, we don't have to know that those statements are about present-day, westernized Black Africans. The question lets us know.
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Re: Black Americans are, on the whole, about twice as likely as White  [#permalink]

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09 Dec 2018, 03:36
Well, i am no expert but can certainly take a shot at your question.
My answer is No, you do not need to know whether the countries mentioned in the answer choices are part of Africa. If you read the question stem carefully - "Which of the following statements about present-day, westernized Black Africans, if true, would most tend to confirm the researchers’ hypothesis" - It clearly asks about the present day, westernized Black Africans. We have to assume that that answer choices are not presenting any false information. So, these westernized black africans either may have lived in the countries mentioned or might be descendents of people from those countries.

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Skywalker18 wrote:
Black Americans are, on the whole, about twice as likely as White Americans to develop high blood pressure. This likelihood also holds for westernized Black Africans when compared to White Africans. Researchers have hypothesized that this predisposition in westernized Blacks may reflect an interaction between western high-salt diets and genes that adapted to an environmental scarcity of salt.

Which of the following statements about present-day, westernized Black Africans, if true, would most tend to confirm the researchers’ hypothesis?
Boil it down - This predisposition in westernized Blacks may reflect an interaction between western high-salt diets and genes that adapted to an environmental scarcity of salt.

environmental scarcity of salt---> genes in BAs have adapted to low or NO salt diets
So western high-salt diets in BAs --> high BP

(A) The blood pressures of those descended from peoples situated throughout their history in Senegal and Gambia, where salt was always available, are low. - Correct - So in these people the cause(environmental scarcity of salt) wasn't applicable. Thus the effect is also not present.

(B) The unusually high salt consumption in certain areas of Africa represents a serious health problem. - Irrelevant

(C) Because of their blood pressure levels, most White Africans have markedly decreased their salt consumption. - Irrelevant

(D) Blood pressures are low among the Yoruba, who, throughout their history, have been situated far inland from sources of sea salt and far south of Saharan salt mines. - Irrelevant - Firstly we need to assume that Yoruba is an African tribe and this seems to be an exception to the norm mentioned

(E) No significant differences in salt metabolism have been found between those people who have had salt available throughout their history and those who have not. - Weakens - this goes against the researches hypothesis

In OA-A (also in option D), we need to know(assume) that Senegal and Gambia are part of Africa and Blacks lived in those countries. Also, although option D is incorrect, the question expects us to assume that Yoruba is an African tribe?
I knew that Senegal is an African country but hadn't heard about Gambia. So, can the GMAT expect us to assume(know) such things?

AjiteshArun , GMATNinja , MagooshExpert , GMATGuruNY , VeritasKarishma , VeritasPrepBrian , MartyMurray , other experts - please enlighten
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Re: Black Americans are, on the whole, about twice as likely as White  [#permalink]

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09 Dec 2018, 05:55
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Let us look at option D for you.

(D) Blood pressures are low among the Yoruba, who, throughout their history, have been situated far inland from sources of sea salt and far south of Saharan salt mines

D says that the genes of the people of Yoruba are adapted to low salt (because they lived far from the sources of salt). Now, from the argument, we know that westernized High Salt diet + genes (adapted to low salt diet) leads to High Blood Pressure. However, D says the opposite westernized high salt diet + genes of the people of Yoruba (adapted to low salt diet) leads to Low Blood Pressure. Hence, this choice actually weakens the argument.

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Himanshu Ranjan wrote:
Why is D wrong,can anyone explain ??

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Re: Black Americans are, on the whole, about twice as likely as White  [#permalink]

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10 Dec 2018, 04:48
4
Skywalker18 wrote:
Black Americans are, on the whole, about twice as likely as White Americans to develop high blood pressure. This likelihood also holds for westernized Black Africans when compared to White Africans. Researchers have hypothesized that this predisposition in westernized Blacks may reflect an interaction between western high-salt diets and genes that adapted to an environmental scarcity of salt.

Which of the following statements about present-day, westernized Black Africans, if true, would most tend to confirm the researchers’ hypothesis?
Boil it down - This predisposition in westernized Blacks may reflect an interaction between western high-salt diets and genes that adapted to an environmental scarcity of salt.

environmental scarcity of salt---> genes in BAs have adapted to low or NO salt diets
So western high-salt diets in BAs --> high BP

(A) The blood pressures of those descended from peoples situated throughout their history in Senegal and Gambia, where salt was always available, are low. - Correct - So in these people the cause(environmental scarcity of salt) wasn't applicable. Thus the effect is also not present.

(B) The unusually high salt consumption in certain areas of Africa represents a serious health problem. - Irrelevant

(C) Because of their blood pressure levels, most White Africans have markedly decreased their salt consumption. - Irrelevant

(D) Blood pressures are low among the Yoruba, who, throughout their history, have been situated far inland from sources of sea salt and far south of Saharan salt mines. - Irrelevant - Firstly we need to assume that Yoruba is an African tribe and this seems to be an exception to the norm mentioned

(E) No significant differences in salt metabolism have been found between those people who have had salt available throughout their history and those who have not. - Weakens - this goes against the researches hypothesis

In OA-A (also in option D), we need to know(assume) that Senegal and Gambia are part of Africa and Blacks lived in those countries. Also, although option D is incorrect, the question expects us to assume that Yoruba is an African tribe?
I knew that Senegal is an African country but hadn't heard about Gambia. So, can the GMAT expect us to assume(know) such things?

AjiteshArun , GMATNinja , MagooshExpert , GMATGuruNY , VeritasKarishma , VeritasPrepBrian , MartyMurray , other experts - please enlighten

Black Americans and westernised Black Africans are twice as likely to develop high BP as compared with Whites.

Hypothesis: Higher incidence of high BP may reflect an interaction between western high-salt diets and genes that adapted to an environmental scarcity of salt. (Blacks faced scarcity of salt so genes adapted to it but now the westernised diet has abundance of salt which is causing high BP)

Which of the following statements about present-day, westernized Black Africans, if true, would most tend to confirm the researchers’ hypothesis?

The given statements are about "westernised Black Africans". Which will strengthen the hypothesis?

(A) The blood pressures of those descended from peoples situated throughout their history in Senegal and Gambia, where salt was always available, are low.

For people who were situated in areas where salt was available, BP is low - perhaps because their genes did not need to adapt to low salt and hence high salt does not bother them now. So this gives more credibility to the hypothesis that high BP reflects an interaction between western high-salt diets and genes that adapted to an environmental scarcity of salt.

(B) The unusually high salt consumption in certain areas of Africa represents a serious health problem.

"Unusually high salt consumption" has no connection to our hypothesis.

(C) Because of their blood pressure levels, most White Africans have markedly decreased their salt consumption.

Our discussion is black Africans vs white Africans. The BP levels of white Africans is irrelevant.

(D) Blood pressures are low among the Yoruba, who, throughout their history, have been situated far inland from sources of sea salt and far south of Saharan salt mines.

This does not support our hypothesis. It goes against what our hypothesis would predict.

(E) No significant differences in salt metabolism have been found between those people who have had salt available throughout their history and those who have not.

We don't know how salt metabolism impacts our hypothesis. Irrelevant.

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Black Americans are, on the whole, about twice as likely as White  [#permalink]

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12 Jan 2019, 00:36
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Skywalker18 Himanshu Ranjan
Argument :
Black Af & West.Black Af = 2 x Probability of [White Americans ( in High Blood Press]) ---(reflects) --> Interaction b/w ↑ Salt Level & Genes already adapted to salt scarcity

In simple way: Genes adoption to Scarcity of Salt in past and Now introduction to↑ Salt-------> ↑ BP in Blacks

Pre Thinking: Find a NEW reason which supports that Black high BP is due to 'the Genes adoption to scarcity of salt in past'.

Process of Elimination:

A) In Senegal and Gambia historically the genes did not adopt to the scarcity of salt , so their genes were adopted to high available salt diet therefore their later descendants have Low Blood Pressure! Confirming then strengthening the gene hypothesis that adoption to scarcity of salt is the cause of high BP.
B) Using the term 'Health Problem' is getting Specific ( high Blood pressure ) to General
C) Not Concerned about White Americans .Only about Blacks . Therefore this option is out of scope.
D) This Weakens the argument in some way: Even when Yorba's Genes in history adopted to Low Salt/ Scarcity of salt still they have a Low BP Now, thereby weakening the logic that cuz of the adoption , there is high BP.
E) Since the Hypothesis is related to genes and Blood pressure, this metabolism falls out of Scope [ though in someway it strengthens slight assuming that rest everything significantly is the same therefore Genes is the reason]But this logic is not as crisp as option A's.

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Re: Black Americans are, on the whole, about twice as likely as White  [#permalink]

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12 Jan 2019, 19:32
1
TommyWallach wrote:
Hey All,

Conclusion: Predisposition to HBP reflects Western high-salt diets and genes adapted to scarcity of salt
Premise: Black Americans twice as likely to get HBP as White Americans. Westernized Black Africans twice as likely to get HBP as White Africans.
Assumption: ???

Strengthen and Weaken questions often relate to assumptions, but more likely when the question asks you to strengthen or weaken the ARGUMENT itself. In this case, we're asked to strengthen the hypothesis (i.e. conclusion), which means we're likely to bring in new information, so it's unlikely we'll be able to predict the assumption...

(A) The blood pressures of those descended from peoples situated throughout their history in Senegal and Gambia, where salt was always available, are low.
ANSWER: This gives NEW INFORMATION that matches up with the hypothesis (not much salt, no blood pressure problems).

(B) The unusually high salt consumption in certain areas of Africa represents a serious health problem.
PROBLEM: This neither strengthens nor weakens. We want a connection between blood pressure and salt.

(C) Because of their blood pressure levels, most White Africans have markedly decreased their salt consumption.
PROBLEM: This is tricky. Even though it connects blood pressure and salt, it does it in the wrong way. We want to see salt AFFECTING blood pressure. But here we're only told that these people have decreased their salt consumption because of their blood pressure. Has it worked? We don't know.

(D) Blood pressures are low among the Yoruba, who, throughout their history, have been situated far inland from sources of sea salt and far south of Saharan salt mines.
PROBLEM: This is less tricky than it looks. This just says a tribe without salt doesn't have high blood pressure. This would strengthen the conclusion that salt causes high blood pressure. But we already know that. We want to know if there's a genetic link that causes those with a history of low-salt diets to develop high blood pressure when moved to the West. This doesn't address the West at all.

(E) No significant differences in salt metabolism have been found between those people who have had salt available throughout their history and those who have not.
PROBLEM: You could argue this has no effect (what do we care about salt metabolism?) or weakens, because it's breaking the link between history and blood pressure that the conclusion wants to make.

Hope that helps!

-t

Though of elaborating A as it took me some time to understand it.
Interaction of two factors responsible for high BP -
1. High salt diet
2. Genes - adapted to low salt
In A, the first factor is missing(although salt is available, the diet may not be high salt one) hence it proves that the high salt diet(not the availability of salt) is a contributor & hence A strengthens the argument.
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Re: Black Americans are, on the whole, about twice as likely as White  [#permalink]

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16 Jun 2019, 01:02
Let's examine the scientists' hypothesis by looking at the 2 variables they've put together in a 2x2 matrix.

Reasoning along the lines of what they've put forth, here are the possible outcomes to test:

Case #1: High salt diet X Low-salt genes = High BP.
Case #2: High salt diet X High-salt genes = likely to not be as prone to high BP compared to case 1.
Case #3: Low salt diet X High-salt genes = Likely low BP, but not mentioned in the question stem.
Case #4: Low salt diet X Low-salt genes = Likely low BP as well (but again, not mentioned in the question stem).

When examining effects of variables on certain outcomes, it is always advisable to change ONLY 1 variable at a time, so that we can isolate that effect on the outcome variable (i.e. attribute it to one particular change in variable only).

Option B: Unusually high salt concentration presents a health problem - question: is that 'health problem' cited = high blood pressure? We don't know.

Option C: Were the blood pressures of White Africans high to start with? Unknown --> not applicable.

Option D: Yoruba people presumably had a low-salt gene pool, but it is unclear if their diets were high or low salt to begin with. Not conclusive.

Option E: Postulates a lack of correlation between the variables the scientists set out to investigate. Not applicable.

Only Option A changes 1 particular variable and presents us with a likely option to test the hypothesis. In addition, we are also told that the outcome of having a low-salt gene pool = low BP, strengthening the hypothesis of the scientists.
Re: Black Americans are, on the whole, about twice as likely as White   [#permalink] 16 Jun 2019, 01:02

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