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# Boldface

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VP
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13 Feb 2009, 05:33
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The city government should invest surplus funds in improving the city's transportation network. Most of the network was put in place at a time when the city was much smaller in both area and population. The subway system is outdated and understaffed. The buses rarely run on schedule and their routes are inconvenient. If the city does not make changes soon to the network, it will see many of its prized industries relocate to more convenient cities and, as a result, the city's financial health will be jeopardized.
In the argument above, the two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?
a The first is an explanation of a current state of affairs; the second is a prediction based on that state of affairs.
b The first is a statement of fact in opposition to the author's conclusion; the second is that conclusion.
c The first emphasizes an existing problem; the second offers a proposal to solve that problem.

d The first is information the author suggests has been overlooked in the situation at hand; the second describes that situation.
e The first is a justification of an impending problem; the second describes the consequences of that problem.

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Senior Manager
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13 Feb 2009, 05:47
I think A is correct.

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13 Feb 2009, 11:08
ritula wrote:
The city government should invest surplus funds in improving the city's transportation network. Most of the network was put in place at a time when the city was much smaller in both area and population. The subway system is outdated and understaffed. The buses rarely run on schedule and their routes are inconvenient. If the city does not make changes soon to the network, it will see many of its prized industries relocate to more convenient cities and, as a result, the city's financial health will be jeopardized.
In the argument above, the two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?
a The first is an explanation of a current state of affairs; the second is a prediction based on that state of affairs.
b The first is a statement of fact in opposition to the author's conclusion; the second is that conclusion.
c The first emphasizes an existing problem; the second offers a proposal to solve that problem.

d The first is information the author suggests has been overlooked in the situation at hand; the second describes that situation.
e The first is a justification of an impending problem; the second describes the consequences of that problem.

I was down to A & E quickly. I felt that E is better than A with the choice of words. If you dont do X, Y will happen.

Also Current State of Affairs refers to he subway system is outdated and understaffed. The buses rarely run on schedule and their routes are inconvenient and not how the system was built long long ago.

E for me.

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Director
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13 Feb 2009, 11:58
stuck between A & E. But A looks good to me.

can we have the OA and OE ...?

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Intern
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13 Feb 2009, 15:41
IMO E. This is how I read the stimulus:

S1: Conclusion – the poor transportation system is a problem, government should improve it.
S2: Premise – offers a reason why transportation is poor.
S3: Premise – describes the current transportation system.
S4: Sub-conclusion – In this case I’d categorize it more as a consequence than a prediction, because of the wording of the sentence (if - then it will happen versus if - then it may happen)

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13 Feb 2009, 17:26
a justification of an impending problem?
I don't think so.
I believe the answer is A.

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13 Feb 2009, 22:52
I also fell in E trap.
OA is A
OE is:
This choice states that the first statement is an explanation of a current state of affairs. This explanation is consistent with the passage. The answer choice goes on to describe the second bolded statement as a prediction based on that state of affairs. This is also consistent with the passage: the second bolded statement predicts what will happen as a result of the inadequacy of the current transportation network.

Below is the explanation why E is wrong:
The first statement is not really "justification" (a term that implies approval on the part of the author) but rather an "explanation"; nor does it refer to an "impending problem" but rather an existing problem. Also, the second statement does not describe "consequences" exactly but rather "potential consequences" if the problem is left unchecked.

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Senior Manager
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14 Feb 2009, 00:03
yes the a justification of an impending problem definitely eliminates E. The potential consequences vs actual consequences is a bit trickier.

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14 Feb 2009, 11:01
ritula wrote:
I also fell in E trap.
OA is A
OE is:
This choice states that the first statement is an explanation of a current state of affairs. This explanation is consistent with the passage. The answer choice goes on to describe the second bolded statement as a prediction based on that state of affairs. This is also consistent with the passage: the second bolded statement predicts what will happen as a result of the inadequacy of the current transportation network.

Below is the explanation why E is wrong:
The first statement is not really "justification" (a term that implies approval on the part of the author) but rather an "explanation"; nor does it refer to an "impending problem" but rather an existing problem. Also, the second statement does not describe "consequences" exactly but rather "potential consequences" if the problem is left unchecked.

Now we are differentiating between C & P C?? Borrowing a piece of SC knowledge, the word will shows that the consequences are a certainty.

Also, the current state of affairs correspond to the shoddy state the system is under. Not how/why they are like that.

This is a big slippery slope explanation. Source of this Q?

Ian/grumpy,

Can you guys chime in?

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14 Feb 2009, 16:56
I was unable to choose between A and E. In my opinion, the part of the explanation which resolves the question is the discussion of "impending" problem. There certainly is a problem, which is that the public transportation network is inadequate. But it is not "impending"; it is already here.

That is the only point which really eliminates E, in my opinion. The discussion of "justification" depends on interpreting the word too narrowly: I can interpret "justification" as "proof that a problem exists", and the first BF section could be seen this way. I would also say that the second BF section can be seen as a consequence of the problem, given that the problem is as stated above. But since this problem is not "impending" but real, E is out.
_________________

Grumpy

Kaplan Canada LSAT/GMAT/GRE teacher and tutor

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15 Feb 2009, 13:03
grumpyoldman wrote:
I was unable to choose between A and E. In my opinion, the part of the explanation which resolves the question is the discussion of "impending" problem. There certainly is a problem, which is that the public transportation network is inadequate. But it is not "impending"; it is already here.

That is the only point which really eliminates E, in my opinion. The discussion of "justification" depends on interpreting the word too narrowly: I can interpret "justification" as "proof that a problem exists", and the first BF section could be seen this way. I would also say that the second BF section can be seen as a consequence of the problem, given that the problem is as stated above. But since this problem is not "impending" but real, E is out.

grumpy,

Makes more sense. very thin line between A & E. It is more of which one is worse. I felt that the current state of affairs was the evil. How ever, as you pointed out the crux of the issue is impending problem.

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Re: Boldface   [#permalink] 15 Feb 2009, 13:03
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