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Bracken fern has been spreading from its woodland strongholds for

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Bracken fern has been spreading from its woodland strongholds for  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 18 Jan 2020, 04:18
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1997 11 SECTION B

Bracken fern has been spreading from its woodland strongholds for centuries, but the rate of encroachment into open countryside has lately increased alarmingly throughout northern and western Britain. A tough competitor, bracken reduces the value of grazing land by crowding out other vegetation. The fern is itself poisonous to livestock, and also encourages proliferation of sheep ticks, which not only attack sheep but also transmit diseases. No less important to some people are bracken’s effects on threatened habitats and on the use of uplands for recreational purposes, even though many appreciate its beauty.

Biological controls may be the only economic solution. One potentially cheap and self-sustaining method of halting the spread of bracken is to introduce natural enemies of the plant. Initially unrestrained by predators of their own, foreign predators are likely to be able to multiply rapidly and overwhelm intended targets. Because bracken occurs throughout the world, there is plenty of scope for this approach. Two candidates, both moths from the Southern Hemisphere, are now being studied.

Of course, biological control agents can safely be released only if it can be verified that they feed solely on the target weed. The screening tests have so far been fraught with difficulties. The first large shipment of moths succumbed to a disease. Growing enough bracken indoors is difficult, and the moths do not readily exploit cut stems. These are common problems with rearing insects for biological control.

Other problems can be foreseen. Policymakers need to consider many factors and opinions such as the cost of control compared to existing methods, and the impact of the clearance of bracken on the landscape, wildlife, and vegetation. In fact, scientists already have much of the information needed to assess the impact of biological control of bracken, but it is spread among many individuals, organizations, and government bodies. The potential gains for the environment are likely to outweigh the losses because few plants, insects, mammals, and birds live associated only with bracken, and many would benefit from a return of other vegetation or from a more diverse mosaic of habitats. But legal consequences of attempts at biological control present a potential minefield. For example, many rural tenants still have the right of “estoyers,” the right to cut bracken as bedding for livestock and uses. What would happen if they were deprived of these rights? Once a biological control agent is released, it is difficult to control its speed. What consideration is due landowners who do not want to control bracken? According to law, the release of the biological control agents must be authorized by the secretary of state for the environment. But Britain lacks the legal and administrative machinery to assemble evidence for and against release.


1. ​Which of the following best states the main idea of the passage?
(A) Studies suggest that biological control of bracken will not be technically feasible.
(B) Although biological control appears to be the best solution to bracken infestation, careful assessment of the consequences is required.
(C) Environmentalists are hoping that laboratory technicians will find a way to raise large numbers of moths in captivity.
(D) Bracken is currently the best solution to the proliferation of nonnative moth species.
(E) Even after researchers discover the most economical method of pest control, the government has no authority to implement a control program.


​2. ​According to the passage, which of the following can be inferred about sheep ticks?
(A) They increase where bracken spreads.
(B) They are dangerous only to sheep.
(C) They are especially adapted to woodland.
(D) They have no natural enemies.
(E) They cause disease among bracken.


3. ​​​The author cites all of the following as disadvantages of bracken encroachment EXCEPT:
(A) Bracken is poisonous to farm animals.
(B) Bracken inhibits the growth of valuable vegetation.
(C) Bracken indirectly helps spread certain diseases.
(D) Bracken is aesthetically objectionable.
(E) Bracken disturbs habitats that some people would like to protect.


4. ​​​​​​​The final paragraph can best be described as
(A) a summation of arguments presented in previous paragraphs
(B) the elimination of competing arguments to strengthen a single remaining conclusion
(C) an enumeration of advantages to biological control
(D) an expansion of the discussion from the particular example of bracken control to the general problem of government regulation
(E) an overview of the variety of factors requiring further assessment


5. ​​​​​It can be inferred from the passage that it is advantageous to choose as the biological control agent a predator that is foreign to the targeted environment for which of the following reasons?
(A) Conservation groups prefer not to favor one native species over another.
(B) All local predators have already been overwhelmed by the target species.
(C) Local predators cannot be effectively screened since they already exist in the wild.
(D) There is little risk of an artificially introduced foreign predator multiplying out of control.
(E) Native predator species are generally limited by their own predators.


6. ​​​​​​​It can be inferred from the passage that the screening tests performed on the biological control agent are designed primarily to determine
(A) its effectiveness in eliminating the target species
(B) the response of local residents to its introduction
(C) the risk it poses to species other than the target
(D) its resistance to the stress of shipment
(E) the likelihood of its survival indoors


7. ​​​​​As it is discussed in the passage, the place of bracken within the forest habitat can best be described as
(A) rapidly expanding
(B) the subject of controversy
(C) well established
(D) circumscribed by numerous predators
(E) a significant nutrient source



Originally posted by pathy on 18 Jan 2020, 02:16.
Last edited by pathy on 18 Jan 2020, 04:18, edited 2 times in total.
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Re: Bracken fern has been spreading from its woodland strongholds for  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Jan 2020, 03:58
Are the official answers given here correct? I have gotten the following: 1B; 3D; 4D; 5E; 7C.
Please clarify why the answer choices I picked are wrong.
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Re: Bracken fern has been spreading from its woodland strongholds for  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Jan 2020, 04:34
Mwende wrote:
Are the official answers given here correct? I have gotten the following: 1B; 3D; 4D; 5E; 7C.
Please clarify why the answer choices I picked are wrong.


OAs are updated kindly check yours

Best of luck
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Re: Bracken fern has been spreading from its woodland strongholds for  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Jan 2020, 05:22
3
1. ​Which of the following best states the main idea of the passage?

(A) Studies suggest that biological control of bracken will not be technically feasible. Incorrect. While the passage does point out several difficulties that may be faced in the biological control of bracken, it does not mention any studies stating that it will not be technically feasible.

(B) Although biological control appears to be the best solution to bracken infestation, careful assessment of the consequences is required. Correct. The passage states "Biological controls may be the only economic solution". It also lists out several hurdles that need to be overcome.

(C) Environmentalists are hoping that laboratory technicians will find a way to raise large numbers of moths in captivity. Incorrect. There is only a single mention of moths in captivity - the rest of the passage does not pertain to this.

(D) Bracken is currently the best solution to the proliferation of nonnative moth species. Incorrect. The passage does not state bracken to the the solution to anything.

(E) Even after researchers discover the most economical method of pest control, the government has no authority to implement a control program. Incorrect. While the passage does talk about difficulties with the government implementation, these are more procedural and do not pertain to authority.

2. ​According to the passage, which of the following can be inferred about sheep ticks?

There is only one mention of sheep ticks - "The fern....encourages proliferation of sheep ticks, which not only attack sheep but also transmit diseases".

(A) They increase where bracken spreads. Correct. Consistent with statement above.

(B) They are dangerous only to sheep. Incorrect. While they do attack sheep, we do not know if they are dangerous only to sheep.

(C) They are especially adapted to woodland. Incorrect. No such detail provided in the passage.

(D) They have no natural enemies. Incorrect. No such detail provided in the passage.

(E) They cause disease among bracken. Incorrect. No such detail provided in the passage. We do not know that diseases are spread among whom.

3. ​​​The author cites all of the following as disadvantages of bracken encroachment EXCEPT:

We need to identify what is not stated in the passage.

(A) Bracken is poisonous to farm animals. Incorrect. The passage states - "The fern is itself poisonous to livestock..."

(B) Bracken inhibits the growth of valuable vegetation. Incorrect. The passage states - "...bracken reduces the value of grazing land by crowding out other vegetation"

(C) Bracken indirectly helps spread certain diseases. Incorrect. The passage states - "The fern...encourages proliferation of sheep ticks, which not only attack sheep but also transmit diseases"

(D) Bracken is aesthetically objectionable. Correct. The passage does not state this. In fact, it states about bracken - "...even though many appreciate its beauty"

(E) Bracken disturbs habitats that some people would like to protect. Incorrect. The passage states - "No less important to some people are bracken’s effects on threatened habitats ...."

4. ​​​​​​​The final paragraph can best be described as

(A) a summation of arguments presented in previous paragraphs Incorrect. It talks about some new problems.

(B) the elimination of competing arguments to strengthen a single remaining conclusion Incorrect. It doesn't eliminate arguments and doesn't provide any definitive conclusion.

(C) an enumeration of advantages to biological controlIncorrect. It talks about problems in implementing biological control.

(D) an expansion of the discussion from the particular example of bracken control to the general problem of government regulation Incorrect. This is close. However, the paragraph does not talk about government regulation in general but only talks about government related problems in the implementation of biological control of the fern.

(E) an overview of the variety of factors requiring further assessment Correct. The final paragraph talks about more problems that need to be overcome to implement a biological control for bracken.

5. ​​​​​It can be inferred from the passage that it is advantageous to choose as the biological control agent a predator that is foreign to the targeted environment for which of the following reasons?

The passage clearly states - "Initially unrestrained by predators of their own, foreign predators are likely to be able to multiply rapidly and overwhelm intended targets." Therefore, it is clear that foreign predators are preferable because, initially, nothing preys on them and hence they can quickly multiply to overcome their target.

(A) Conservation groups prefer not to favor one native species over another. Incorrect. Inconsistent with above.

(B) All local predators have already been overwhelmed by the target species. Incorrect. Inconsistent with above.

(C) Local predators cannot be effectively screened since they already exist in the wild. Incorrect. Inconsistent with above.

(D) There is little risk of an artificially introduced foreign predator multiplying out of control. Incorrect. Inconsistent with above.

(E) Native predator species are generally limited by their own predators. Correct. Consistent with above.

6. ​​​​​​​It can be inferred from the passage that the screening tests performed on the biological control agent are designed primarily to determine

The following is stated regarding a screening test - "Of course, biological control agents can safely be released only if it can be verified that they feed solely on the target weed. The screening tests have so far been fraught with difficulties". Therefore, it is evident that the tests are intended to identify whether the agents (moths) target only the fern or there are other unintended targets.

(A) its effectiveness in eliminating the target species Incorrect. Inconsistent with above.

(B) the response of local residents to its introduction Incorrect. Inconsistent with above.

(C) the risk it poses to species other than the target Correct. Consistent with above.

(D) its resistance to the stress of shipment Incorrect. Inconsistent with above.

(E) the likelihood of its survival indoors Incorrect. Inconsistent with above.

7. ​​​​​As it is discussed in the passage, the place of bracken within the forest habitat can best be described as

The passage states - "Bracken fern has been spreading from its woodland strongholds for centuries". Therefore, we can infer that bracken has been quite widely present and well established in woodlands ie; forests.

(A) rapidly expanding Incorrect. Inconsistent with above.

(B) the subject of controversy Incorrect. Inconsistent with above.

(C) well established Correct. Consistent with above.

(D) circumscribed by numerous predators Incorrect. Inconsistent with above.

(E) a significant nutrient source Incorrect. Inconsistent with above.

Hope this helps.
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Re: Bracken fern has been spreading from its woodland strongholds for  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Jan 2020, 10:52
Can someone explain why for Q7, Option A is wrong ?
Option A states that bracken is rapidly expanding. The first line of the passage states "Bracken fern has been spreading from its woodland strongholds for centuries, but the rate of encroachment into open countryside has lately increased alarmingly throughout northern and western Britain." The rate of encroachment has increased alarmingly, aka, rapidly expanding.

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Re: Bracken fern has been spreading from its woodland strongholds for  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Jan 2020, 19:13
4. The final paragraph can best be described as

(A) a summation of arguments presented in previous paragraphs
Incorrect. It talks about some new problems.

(B) the elimination of competing arguments to strengthen a single remaining conclusion
Incorrect. It doesn't eliminate arguments and doesn't provide any definitive conclusion.

(C) an enumeration of advantages to biological control
Incorrect. It talks about problems in implementing biological control.

(D) an expansion of the discussion from the particular example of bracken control to the general problem of government regulation
Incorrect. This is close. However, the paragraph does not talk about government regulation in general but only talks about government related problems in the implementation of biological control of the fern.

my problem is here
However, if we see from the last sentence of the final paragraph

According to law, the release of the biological control agents must be authorized by the secretary of state for the environment. But Britain lacks the legal and administrative machinery to assemble evidence for and against release.

Doesn’t it talks about the government “regulation”??or maybe it doesn’t talk about “general” problem??

Also, from the first sentence of final paragraph

Other problems can be foreseen. Policymakers need to consider many factors and opinions such as the cost of control compared to existing methods, and the impact of the clearance of bracken on the landscape, wildlife, and vegetation.

It’s really an “expansion of the discussion”

Maybe the problem with this option is that it states about “particular” example of bracken control to the “general” problem of government regulation????

Maybe its that it just talks about policymakers need to consider many “factors and opinions” rather than “particular” example




(E) an overview of the variety of factors requiring further assessment
Correct. The final paragraph talks about more problems that need to be overcome to implement a biological control for bracken.
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Re: Bracken fern has been spreading from its woodland strongholds for  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Jan 2020, 19:35
6. It can be inferred from the passage that the screening tests performed on the biological control agent are designed primarily to determine
(A) its effectiveness in eliminating the target species
(B) the response of local residents to its introduction
(C) the risk it poses to species other than the target correct
(D) its resistance to the stress of shipment
(E) the likelihood of its survival indoors


Can sb help me with Q6
Why (A) is not the correct answer???
The following is stated regarding a screening test - "Of course, biological control agents can safely be released only if it can be verified that they feed solely on the target weed. The screening tests have so far been fraught with difficulties". Therefore, it is evident that the tests are intended to identify whether the agents (moths) target only the fern or there are other unintended targets.

(A) its effectiveness in eliminating the target species Incorrect. Inconsistent with above.

(B) the response of local residents to its introduction Incorrect. Inconsistent with above.

(C) the risk it poses to species other than the target Correct. Consistent with above.

(D) its resistance to the stress of shipment Incorrect. Inconsistent with above.

(E) the likelihood of its survival indoors Incorrect. Inconsistent with above.

Only if it “feed on” the target weed, doesn’t it “eliminate the target species”???
Or maybe from “can safely be released only if it can be verified that they feed solely on the target weed”, we can infer that there are “species other than the target” which will be feed on????
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Re: Bracken fern has been spreading from its woodland strongholds for  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Jan 2020, 21:18
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jpan wrote:
Can someone explain why for Q7, Option A is wrong ?
Option A states that bracken is rapidly expanding. The first line of the passage states "Bracken fern has been spreading from its woodland strongholds for centuries, but the rate of encroachment into open countryside has lately increased alarmingly throughout northern and western Britain." The rate of encroachment has increased alarmingly, aka, rapidly expanding.

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Hi

The question asks us to describe "the place of bracken within the forest habitat". Two things need to be noted here.

i) We need to identify the position of bracken within the forest habitat.
ii) The usage of the phrase "the place of" indicates that such place is already occupied.

The sentence that you have mentioned definitely talks about bracken expanding. However, it is not expanding within the forest habitat but out into open countryside. Also, this expansion appears to be a more recent phenomenon. Therefore this sentence does not explain an already existing position of bracken within the forest, but what bracken is doing more recently and outside the forest environment. Therefore this is not the answer for Q7.

Hope this helps.
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Bracken fern has been spreading from its woodland strongholds for  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Feb 2020, 00:15
Hi everyone,
Got all correct in 15 minutes.


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------



P1

In this paragraph the author introduces the BF, something that usually stays in forests but that now is spreading in the countryside somewhere in England. The author proceeds by telling us why the BF is dangerous and which are the risks related to it: crowding out vegetation, sheep tick, threat to endangered species and so on.

Purpose: The purpose in this paragraph is to introduce the BF and explain why it has a negative effect on landscape, animals...

Is there a solution to BF?


P2

Here the author claims that there might be an economic solution to BF: introducing an enemy into its habitat. The author then proceeds by saying why this approach could be effective. In fact introducing enemies into a new habitat can be very effective because the introduced species does not have predators of his own, hence it can spread fast and overwhelm the target. Lastly the author tells us that 2 species to be introduced into the bracken environment are being studied.

Purpose: The purpose of this paragraph is present a possible solution to BF and explain why such solution could be effective



P3

Here the author highlights a requirement needed for the above mentioned practice: the ideal species to be introduced into the BF environment should harm only the intended target. Plus choosing the right agent has so far proven to be difficult. The author then proceed to give us a few examples to prove her point.

Purpose: The purpose of this paragraph is to present the difficulties associated with selecting the right agent for biological control



P4

In the lat paragraph the author talks about general problems associated with the usage of biological controls. The author starts with telling us the various considerations that need to be done (costs, pros and cons...) and then proceeds to explain how there could even be people against BC. Lastly we are given that the government lacks of a solid structure in this sense and that it might be difficult to approve such methodology.

Purpose: The purpose of this last paragraph is to present general problems related to the implementation of biological control.



Main point

The main point of this passage is to evaluate the usage of biological control to contrast the spread of BF.


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


1. ​Which of the following best states the main idea of the passage?

Pre-thinking

Main point question

The main point of this passage is to evaluate the usage of biological control to contrast the spread of BF.


(A) Studies suggest that biological control of bracken will not be technically feasible.
Out of scope

(B) Although biological control appears to be the best solution to bracken infestation, careful assessment of the consequences is required.
I personally don't like the usage of best but this is the best option.

(C) Environmentalists are hoping that laboratory technicians will find a way to raise large numbers of moths in captivity.
Out of scope

(D) Bracken is currently the best solution to the proliferation of nonnative moth species.
[b]Out of scope[/b]

(E) Even after researchers discover the most economical method of pest control, the government has no authority to implement a control program.
Partial scope


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


2. ​According to the passage, which of the following can be inferred about sheep ticks?

Pre-thinking

Detail question

Sheep ticks are mentioned in P1: "The fern is itself poisonous to livestock, and also encourages proliferation of sheep ticks, which not only attack sheep but also transmit diseases.".


(A) They increase where bracken spreads.
Seems plausible

(B) They are dangerous only to sheep.
Too extreme

(C) They are especially adapted to woodland.
cannot be inferred

(D) They have no natural enemies.
cannot be inferred. This is a classical out of context option because what does not have natural enemies are the agents to be introduced to limit the spread of BF

(E) They cause disease among bracken.
Inconsistent because of bracken.


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


3. ​​​The author cites all of the following as disadvantages of bracken encroachment EXCEPT:

Pre-thinking

Detail question

Our task here is to find all the mentioned details and select the remaining option.


(A) Bracken is poisonous to farm animals.
"The fern is itself poisonous to livestock"

(B) Bracken inhibits the growth of valuable vegetation.
"bracken reduces the value of grazing land by crowding out other vegetation."

(C) Bracken indirectly helps spread certain diseases.
"sheep ticks, which not only attack sheep but also transmit diseases."

(D) Bracken is aesthetically objectionable.
Not mentioned, hence correct

(E) Bracken disturbs habitats that some people would like to protect.
"No less important to some people are bracken’s effects on threatened habitats "


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


4. ​​​​​​​The final paragraph can best be described as

Pre-thinking

Function question

In the lat paragraph the author talks about general problems associated with the usage of biological controls. The author starts with telling us the various considerations that need to be done (costs, pros and cons...) and then proceeds to explain how there could even be people against BC. Lastly we are given that the government lacks of a solid structure in this sense and that it might be difficult to approve such methodology.

Purpose: The purpose of this last paragraph is to present general problems related to the implementation of biological control.



(A) a summation of arguments presented in previous paragraphs
It's not a summation as it talks about different topics

(B) the elimination of competing arguments to strengthen a single remaining conclusion
there are no competing arguments in the passage

(C) an enumeration of advantages to biological control
the author talks more of the problems related to BC

(D) an expansion of the discussion from the particular example of bracken control to the general problem of government regulation
The topic still remains bracken and biological control. No general discussion

(E) an overview of the variety of factors requiring further assessment
In line with pre-thinking


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


5. ​​​​​It can be inferred from the passage that it is advantageous to choose as the biological control agent a predator that is foreign to the targeted environment for which of the following reasons?

Pre-thinking

Inference question

We must refer to P2: "[i]Initially unrestrained by predators of their own, foreign predators are likely to be able to multiply rapidly and overwhelm intended targets. "[/i]
The reasons why such predators are so effective is that they are introduced into an environment in which they are not subjected to predation.


(A) Conservation groups prefer not to favor one native species over another.
Not in line with pre-thinking

(B) All local predators have already been overwhelmed by the target species.
Not in line with pre-thinking

(C) Local predators cannot be effectively screened since they already exist in the wild.
Not in line with pre-thinking

(D) There is little risk of an artificially introduced foreign predator multiplying out of control.
Not in line with pre-thinking

(E) Native predator species are generally limited by their own predators.
That is why foreign predators are introduced into the environment. Correct


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


6. ​​​​​​​It can be inferred from the passage that the screening tests performed on the biological control agent are designed primarily to determine

Pre-thinking

Inference question

Screening tests are mentioned in the second last paragraph: "Of course, biological control agents can safely be released only if it can be verified that they feed solely on the target weed. The screening tests have so far been fraught with difficulties. "
Our pre-thought inference would be something like: Screening tests have the objective of determining the effectiveness of the introduction of the control agent into the environment without harming it


(A) its effectiveness in eliminating the target species
If we look carefully the intended effect must not harm other species

(B) the response of local residents to its introduction
cannot be inferred

(C) the risk it poses to species other than the target
in line with pre-thinking

(D) its resistance to the stress of shipment
out of context

(E) the likelihood of its survival indoors
out of context


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


7. ​​​​​As it is discussed in the passage, the place of bracken within the forest habitat can best be described as

Pre-thinking

Inference question

The presence of Bracken in forests is described in the very first sentence of the passage:"Bracken fern has been spreading from its woodland strongholds for centuries"


(A) rapidly expanding
Cannot be inferred

(B) the subject of controversy
Cannot be inferred

(C) well established
Well established here is parallel to strongholds. Hence correct

(D) circumscribed by numerous predators
Cannot be inferred

(E) a significant nutrient source
Cannot be inferred


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

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