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Certain genetically modified strains of maize produce a

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Joined: 17 Jun 2008
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Re: Certain genetically modified strains of maize produce a [#permalink]

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New post 10 Sep 2008, 10:38
prasun84 wrote:
C.

the ques asks if the farmer is putting the monarch butterflies at risk...
E is slightly weaker in the sense that even if maize-eating insects compete with monarch butterflies, it does not completely eliminate the risk of the latter feeding and dying.


But is C not contradicting the argument "Caterpillars of monarch butterflies feed exclusively on milkweed leaves. When these
caterpillars are fed milkweed leaves dusted with pollen from modified maize plants, they
die."


To me C does not provide additional info to help evaluate the argument.....or is it that the argument "when these vaterpillers are fed......" means that these caterpillers are not always fed milkweek leaves?

I am loosing my sense here.
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Re: Certain genetically modified strains of maize produce a [#permalink]

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New post 01 Jan 2009, 19:44
C. I would stick with the scope when its confusing. So I ignore "other" insects.
What is OA?
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Re: Certain genetically modified strains of maize produce a [#permalink]

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New post 01 Jan 2009, 19:46
I got C too.

If the CP are feeding during the same time, they are put at risk

If the CP are not feeding at the same time, they are NOT at risk.
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Re: Certain genetically modified strains of maize produce a [#permalink]

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New post 09 Jan 2009, 22:07
Note that the author talks of caterpillars dying from feeding on the leaves laden with pollen but in conclusion, says, all monarch butterflies are in danger. There is a scope shift in the argument. Therefore, to evaluate his conclusion, D sounds the best.
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Re: Certain genetically modified strains of maize produce a [#permalink]

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New post 09 Jan 2009, 22:42
spriya wrote:
Certain genetically modified strains of maize produce a powerful natural insecticide. The
insecticide occurs throughout the plant, including its pollen. Maize pollen is dispersed by
the wind and frequently blows onto milkweed plants that grow near maize fields.
Caterpillars of monarch butterflies feed exclusively on milkweed leaves. When these
caterpillars are fed milkweed leaves dusted with pollen from modified maize plants, they
die. Therefore, by using genetically modified maize, farmers put monarch butterflies at
risk.


Which of the following would it be most useful to determine in order to evaluate the
argument?

A. Whether the natural insecticide is as effective against maize-eating insects as
commercial insecticides typically used on maize are
B. Whether the pollen of genetically modified maize contains as much insecticide as
other parts of these plants
19
C. Whether monarch butterfly caterpillars are actively feeding during the part of the
growing season when maize is releasing pollen
D. Whether insects that feed on genetically modified maize plants are likely to be
killed by insecticide from the plant’s pollen
E. Whether any maize-eating insects compete with monarch caterpillars for the
leaves of milkweed plants growing near maize fields


Many prefer C, but I think C has no effect on the argument. The time caterpillars actively feeing does not matter. The argument cares only the cases that caterpillars feeds "milkweed leaves dusted with pollen", and the pollen is claimed to be responsible for the risk of butterflies.

How about the leaves?

Only E says something about the leaves! and E is the best
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Re: Certain genetically modified strains of maize produce a [#permalink]

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New post 16 Jul 2013, 23:11
1
C Correct.
1.monarch butterflies are actually at risk only when they eat milkweed leaves dusted with pollen.
2.so when pollen is not present on milkweed leaves,monarch butterflies safely eat them.
3.so if monarch butterflies are not actively eating milkweed leaves during maize growing season monarch butterflies will be not at risk.

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Re: Certain genetically modified strains of maize produce a [#permalink]

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New post 19 Apr 2014, 15:08
Wouldn't using the "variance test" from Powerscore CR Bible on E mean - Yes the insects compete and use up all the pollen first, therefore the caterpillars don't die. Conversely, No, they don't compete and don't use the pollen therefore the caterpillars will use and die.
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Re: Certain genetically modified strains of maize produce a [#permalink]

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New post 23 Sep 2014, 04:16
1
The answer is (C).

To solve this kind of evaluate questions, one must do the following:

1.-Understand the argument. For this, one have to read the stimulus very, very closely and literally.

2.-See whether any of the answer choices help you to "evaluate" the strenght of the argument.

Argument:

Genetically modified maiz produces natural insecticide that will be present even in the pollen.

Pollen is dispersed and reaches milkweed.

Caterpillars die when ARE FED with milkweed leaves.

Conclusion: using this genetically modified maize, butterflies are put at risk.

2.-In evaluate questions, we have to determine which of the answers choices has a content that could impact the conclusion. Evaluate C and E.

C) If we say "Yes, the caterpillars effectively feed on milkweed leaves when these leaves have pollen with insecticide" the conclusion is reinforced. By saying "no, the caterpillars feed on milkweed leaves in a season when leaves do not have pollen with insecticide", the conclusion is clearly weakened: If the caterpillars feed in a time when there is no insecticide in the milkweed leaves, no danger is prompted by using the genetically modified crops.

In here it is important to realize that the stimulus says that caterpillars ARE FED -passive-, but do not suggest anything about the natural behaviour of caterpillars: if the would normally eat leaves when these leaves have insectivide.

E) incorrect. If one affirm the question - yes, they have competitors - there is no impact in the conclusion, because will still do not know when caterpillars feed on milkweed leaves. If we say "no, they have no competitors", the same.

As per the previous post, the fact that E it is the only that explicitly talks about leaves, does not mean that other answers are not talking indirectly about leaves. In fact, C does because it raises the question of when the milkweed leaves have pollen with insecticide.

Hope this helps.
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Re: Certain genetically modified strains of maize produce a [#permalink]

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New post 07 Jan 2015, 06:18
Someone please explain !!!

" Caterpillars of monarch butterflies feed EXCLUSIVELY on milkweed leaves "

Which could mean that caterpillar's feed is LIMITED TO MILKWEED LEAVES.

If caterpillars have to LIVE, obviously they have to eat ONLY MILKWEED LEAVES all day all season, since caterpillar's feed is LIMITED TO MILKWEED .

How Option C is right ?

Also please explain in option C , How "actively feeding" is different from "feeding" in the context.

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Re: Certain genetically modified strains of maize produce a [#permalink]

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New post 07 Jan 2015, 22:35
1
My 2 cents. Though E and C both sound a valid contender, there are couple of reasons to prefer C over E.

Premise:
Certain genetically modified strains of maize produce a powerful natural insecticide.
The insecticide occurs throughout the plant, including its pollen. Maize pollen is dispersed by the wind and frequently blows onto milkweed plants that grow near maize fields.
Caterpillars of monarch butterflies feed exclusively on milkweed leaves. When these caterpillars are fed milkweed leaves dusted with pollen from modified maize plants, they die.

Conclusion:
Therefore, by using genetically modified maize, farmers put monarch butterflies at risk.

Which of the following would it be most useful to determine in order to evaluate the argument?

E. Whether any maize-eating insects compete with monarch caterpillars for the leaves of milkweed plants growing near maize fields
>>There can be multiple possibilities here. It may be that insects compete with MC for leaves when maze r not in pollen phase,, a very small proportion of insects competes with MC Or, insects and MC eats different part of leaves. etc.
If any of these options are true then we can't confidently evaluate the argument. Also C mentions pollen and MC feeding period, a link that is mentioned in premise and a crucial factor to evaluate the argument.

C. Whether monarch butterfly caterpillars are actively feeding during the part of the growing season when maize is releasing pollen.
Yes: Yes it supports the conclusion.
No: Then it weaken the conclusion.

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Re: Certain genetically modified strains of maize produce a [#permalink]

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New post 03 Jun 2016, 23:21
Argument Analysis :

Certain genetically modified strains of maize produce a powerful natural insecticide. A background information.
The insecticide occurs throughout the plant, including its pollen. A background information.
Maize pollen is dispersed by the wind and frequently blows onto milkweed plants that grow near maize fields. A background information. Milkweed plants – new actor in the argument
Caterpillars of monarch butterflies feed exclusively on milkweed leaves. A background information. Caterpillarsone more actor related to Milkweed plants.
When these caterpillars are fed milkweed leaves dusted with pollen from modified maize plants, they die. A background information – impact of modified strains of maize
Therefore, by using genetically modified maize, farmers put monarch butterflies at risk. Conclusion.

Assumptions -
a. Maize pollen is dispersed by the wind and frequently blows onto milkweed plants.
Assumes that pollens stay as well and wind is not strong enough to disperse pollens in short span of time or may be rain followed by wind to remove the pollens.
b. Caterpillars of monarch butterflies feed exclusively on milkweed leaves:
To remove / reduce the impact of pollens, Milkweed does not produce any natural defense such as chemical etc., which may affect caterpillars.
c. Caterpillars of monarch butterflies feed exclusively on milkweed leaves : maize and milkweed are grown in the same season hence pollens impact the caterpillar feeds.
d. Amount of pollens are significantly enough to impact the caterpillars.

Question stem :
Which of the following would it be most useful to determine in order to evaluate the argument?

A. Whether the natural insecticide is as effective against maize-eating insects as commercial insecticides typically used on maize are – Argument is about impact on caterpillar
B. Whether the pollen of genetically modified maize contains as much insecticide as other parts of these plants – So what only pollens are dispersed
C. Whether monarch butterfly caterpillars are actively feeding during the part of the growing season when maize is releasing pollen –
Yes : then argument is strengthened
No : then argument is weakened


D. Whether insects that feed on genetically modified maize plants are likely to be killed by insecticide from the plants pollen – So what .Impact on other insects is not good enough to conclude about caterpillars
E. Whether any maize-eating insects compete with monarch caterpillars for the leaves of milkweed plants growing near maize fields – Let them compete …where is impact of pollen?

Option C
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Re: Certain genetically modified strains of maize produce a [#permalink]

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New post 27 Jul 2016, 20:28
Conclusion - "Genetically modified maize put monarch caterpillars and in turn monarch butterflies at risk"
Option A - irrelevant
Option B - irrelevant
Option C - keep
Option D - irrelevant
Option E - keep
Apply variance test
Option C - Yes --> In this case maize pollen is the probable cause of death. Substantiates the conclusion
No --> In this case there might be some other causes of death (change of weather etc). Weakens the conclusion
Option E - Yes --> Lets us suppose insect ABC competes with monarch caterpillar. This can have multiple scenarios, what is the number of leaves are substantially more than the combined population of monarch caterpillar and ABC. This hardly effects the conclusion. Other Scenario could be combined population of ABC and monarch caterpillar is equal to the number of leaves. In the event ABC does not die from eating the leaves and monarch caterpillar dies we cannot say leaves are not responsible, maybe anatomy of ABC is different from monarch caterpillar.
From the above information I did not even check for No since option E can be eliminated.
Option C looks best in the choices given.
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Re: Certain genetically modified strains of maize produce a [#permalink]

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New post 22 Dec 2016, 14:35
I like C. Undermines the conclusion if true.
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Re: Certain genetically modified strains of maize produce a [#permalink]

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New post 27 Dec 2016, 06:35
Straight C.

If monarch butterflies are not ACTIVELY FEEDING during the time maize releases pollen then they won't feed on pollen and thus won't die.

Thus weakening the argument.
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Re: Certain genetically modified strains of maize produce a [#permalink]

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New post 13 Jul 2017, 17:58
The crux of this argument is that genetically modified maize kills the caterpillars which eat the leaves dusted with poisonous pollen.

The only answer that works in our favor to decide if genetically modified maize will hurt the caterpillars is to find out if the leaves are harmful during the butterfly spawning season. Answer C will help us. If we find out that yes, the caterpillars feed when the pollen release is at its peak, we can conclude that g-mod maize is hazardous to monarch butterflies. If not, it does not cause the caterpillars as much harm as the statement claims.
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Re: Certain genetically modified strains of maize produce a [#permalink]

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New post 14 Sep 2017, 22:08
gmataquaguy wrote:
ttar wrote:
Certain genetically modified strains of maize produce a powerful natural insecticide. The
insecticide occurs throughout the plant, including its pollen. Maize pollen is dispersed by
the wind and frequently blows onto milkweed plants that grow near maize fields.
Caterpillars of monarch butterflies feed exclusively on milkweed leaves. When these
caterpillars are fed milkweed leaves dusted with pollen from modified maize plants, they
die. Therefore, by using genetically modified maize, farmers put monarch butterflies at
risk.
Which of the following would it be most useful to determine in order to evaluate the
argument?
A. Whether the natural insecticide is as effective against maize-eating insects as
commercial insecticides typically used on maize are
B. Whether the pollen of genetically modified maize contains as much insecticide as
other parts of these plants
C. Whether monarch butterfly caterpillars are actively feeding during the part of the
growing season when maize is releasing pollen
D. Whether insects that feed on genetically modified maize plants are likely to be
killed by insecticide from the plant’s pollen
E. Whether any maize-eating insects compete with monarch caterpillars for the
leaves of milkweed plants growing near maize fields


Question Type: Evaluate an argument.
Conclusion: Genetically modified maize present danger to butterflies.
My AC is C.

A: Boot out. Argument stem doesnt discuss about "maize-eating insects" and commerical Vs natural insecticide. Out of Scope.
B: Boot out. The argument stem isnt concerned with which part of hte maize plant produces most or least insectiticide.
C: Good Point. Are the catterpillar feeding during the time pollen is released? Keep AC.
D: Boot out. Out of Scope? Insects? We are talking of the sequence of events between maize plants and catterpillar.
E: Boot out. Out of Scope. Why does it matter if there is competition or not.


IMO E is also contender.
If caterpillars face competition, they die because of competition rather than eating pollen. So it will be helpful to know option E.
Can someone please explain logic behind eliminating E?
Re: Certain genetically modified strains of maize produce a   [#permalink] 14 Sep 2017, 22:08

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