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Consumer advocate: It is generally true, at least in this state, that

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Re: Consumer advocate: It is generally true, at least in this state, that [#permalink]

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New post 12 Oct 2015, 23:28
Public health advocate: It is generally true that medications that undergo the extensive FDA Phase III clinical safety testing are much safer than less-researched drugs. It is also true that whenever such trials are conducted, fewer people have experienced unexpected harmful side effects, thus reducing public health risks. However, eliminating the requirement that even FDA-tested medications continue to include extensive warnings about individual risk factors would almost certainly harm rather than help public health. Consumers would tend to rely on the FDA’s general certification of safety, and if no longer encouraged to read about individual risks and drug interactions, many patients would suffer serious adverse reactions.

The two bolded statements serve what purpose in the context of the public health advocate’s argument?

The first bold face "such trials are conducted, fewer people have experienced unexpected harmful side effects, thus reducing public health risks" expresses cause and effect relationship. FDI trials of medications -------------> few harmful side effects observed

This paragraph "However, eliminating the requirement that even FDA-tested medications continue to include extensive warnings about individual risk factors would almost certainly harm rather than help public health" expresses a resulting possibility of a course of action i.e. if warnings about risk factors would be removed from FDA tested medication.

This paragraph "Consumers would tend to rely on the FDA’s general certification of safety, and if no longer encouraged to read about individual risks and drug interactions, many patients would suffer serious adverse reactions" supports the second para stating that consumer without having individual guidelines about safety and drug effects would have serious adverse reaction.- Second bold face contradicts the cause-effect relationship if warnings are removed.

A. The first is a general pattern that the advocate accepts as true; the second is said to be a natural consequence that must follow if the general pattern applies.

B. The first is a causal relationship that the advocate believes will happen again in the case at issue; the second admits a situation in which the relationship
would not hold.

C. The first describes a cause and effect relationship that the advocate believes will not hold in the case at issue;
the second suggests a consideration that supports that belief. ------ Only C fits in the slot.

D. The first is proof that the advocate uses to support a prediction; the second states that prediction.

E. The first acknowledges a consideration that weighs against the stance that the advocate supports; the second is that stance.
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Re: Consumer advocate: It is generally true, at least in this state, that [#permalink]

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New post 07 Jan 2016, 09:53
Solved it in 3.47. Made a mistake by not reading the question before the argument. Reading the question before the argument helps.
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Re: Consumer advocate: It is generally true, at least in this state, that [#permalink]

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New post 13 Feb 2016, 15:08
It is a tough one.
And i need to solve it around 3 minutes.
(normally, i need 3-3.5 minutes to solve a tough Boldface)
One technique i use is to catch relation between first part and second part. (are they in the same tone or not)
In this question, first and second part are not in the same tone.
Only B and C have a twist.
But B is wrong for the description of second part.
Thus, i pick C. (actually i picked B in a mock test under timing pressure, and i only use to around 1:45 minutes)
Next time, i will definitely slow down to solve such tough boldface question.

My two cents :)
If you like my post, plz kudo it.
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Re: Consumer advocate: It is generally true, at least in this state, that [#permalink]

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New post 31 Mar 2016, 00:01
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Attached is a visual that should help.
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Screen Shot 2016-03-31 at 1.00.41 AM.png
Screen Shot 2016-03-31 at 1.00.41 AM.png [ 113.96 KiB | Viewed 3888 times ]


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Re: Consumer advocate: It is generally true, at least in this state, that [#permalink]

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New post 02 Nov 2016, 07:06
garimavyas wrote:
Consumer advocate: it is generally true, at least in this state, that lawyers who advertise a specific service
charge less for that service than lawyers who do not advertise. It is also true that each time restrictions on the
advertising of legal services have been eliminated, the number of lawyers advertising their services has
increased and legal costs to consumers have declined in consequence.
However, eliminating the state
requirement that legal advertisements must specify fees for specific services would almost certainly increase
rather than further reduce consumer’s legal costs. Lawyers would no longer have an incentive to lower their fees
when they begin advertising and if no longer required to specify fee arrangements, many lawyers who now
advertise would increase their fees.

In the consumer advocate’s argument, the two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?
(A) The first is a generalization that the consumer advocate accepts as true; the second is presented as a
consequence that follows from the truth of that generalization.
(B) The first is a pattern of cause and effect that the consumer advocate argues will be repeated in the case at
issue; the second acknowledges a circumstance in which that pattern would not hold.
(C) The first is pattern of cause and effect that the consumer advocate predicts will not hold in the case at issue;
the second offers a consideration in support of that prediction.
(D) The first is evidence that the consumer advocate offers in support of a certain prediction; the second is that
prediction.
(E) The first acknowledges a consideration that weighs against the main position that the consumer advocate
defends; the second is that position.

OA after discussion, please post your timing too


agree on C.
first is a cause-effect known at the moment
second is a premise to support the author's position.

C fits, C is the answer.
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Re: Consumer advocate: It is generally true, at least in this state, that [#permalink]

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Consumer advocate: It is generally true, at least in this state, that lawyers who advertise a specific service charge less for that service than lawyers who do not advertise. It is also true that each time restrictions on the advertising of legal services have been eliminated, the number of lawyers advertising their services has increased and legal costs to consumers have declined in consequence. However, eliminating the state requirement that legal advertisements must specify fees for specific services would almost certainly increase rather than further reduce consumer’s legal costs. Lawyers would no longer have an incentive to lower their fees when they begin advertising and if no longer required to specify fee arrangements, many lawyers who now advertise would increase their fees.

In the consumer advocate’s argument, the two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?

IDENTIFY CONCLUSION: However, eliminating the state requirement that legal advertisements must specify fees for specific services would almost certainly increase rather than further reduce consumer’s legal costs.
> BF2 = premise supporting the Conclusion


(A) The first is a generalization that the consumer advocate accepts as true; the second is presented as a consequence that follows from the truth of that generalization.
- BF2 is NOT a consequence...

(B) The first is a pattern of cause and effect that the consumer advocate argues will be repeated in the case at issue; the second acknowledges a circumstance in which that pattern would not hold.
- BF2 does not acknowledge a circumstance in which a pattern (identified by BF1) does not hold

(C) The first is pattern of cause and effect that the consumer advocate predicts will not hold in the case at issue; the second offers a consideration in support of that prediction.
- correct as is. pattern will not hold b/c author goes on to say that eliminating requirements would increase costs (instead of eliminating them). also, BF2 is supporting the prediction (conclusion)

(D) The first is evidence that the consumer advocate offers in support of a certain prediction; the second is that prediction.
- BF2 is not a conclusion or prediction -- it is evidence/a premise

(E) The first acknowledges a consideration that weighs against the main position that the consumer advocate defends; the second is that position.
- BF2 is not a conclusion

What is great about this question is once you've identified the Conclusion, it's easy to spot what BF2 does (support the conclusion). Examine the A/C -- all of the incorrect ones do not categorize BF2 properly.

Kudos please if helpful :)
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Re: Consumer advocate: It is generally true, at least in this state, that [#permalink]

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New post 01 Nov 2017, 02:32
I am not satisfied with explanation at all. I think that this question is hard because choices B and C are almost identical, however, I root for choice B because in my opinion there is nothing in the first bold face portion that indicates that indicates prediction that this pattern for reduction of costs will not hold! Am I blind? Missing something?
C'mon - this is the first bold portion "...each time restrictions on the advertising of legal services have been eliminated, the number of lawyers advertising their services has increased and legal costs to consumers have declined in consequence". Where in this entire bold portion 1 you see prediction that this pattern will not hold? Not in this portion at all. There is nothing to indicate that this argument is not correct, not in this boldface portion. A second portion acknowledges a circumstance in which pattern will not hold - exactly C. Look, the pattern is valid but not in case if requirement to specify fee arrangements ceases.
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Re: Consumer advocate: It is generally true, at least in this state, that [#permalink]

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New post 01 Nov 2017, 09:13
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Erjan_S wrote:
I am not satisfied with explanation at all. I think that this question is hard because choices B and C are almost identical, however, I root for choice B because in my opinion there is nothing in the first bold face portion that indicates that indicates prediction that this pattern for reduction of costs will not hold! Am I blind? Missing something?
C'mon - this is the first bold portion "...each time restrictions on the advertising of legal services have been eliminated, the number of lawyers advertising their services has increased and legal costs to consumers have declined in consequence". Where in this entire bold portion 1 you see prediction that this pattern will not hold? Not in this portion at all. There is nothing to indicate that this argument is not correct, not in this boldface portion. A second portion acknowledges a circumstance in which pattern will not hold - exactly C. Look, the pattern is valid but not in case if requirement to specify fee arrangements ceases.

Dear Erjan_S,

I'm happy to respond. :-)

I agree, there's something subtle going on here--what exactly is the "case at hand" discussed in (B) & (C)?

One way to think about this is to think about the the personality of the person making an argument. First, think about a general argument:
Premise #1 (we all agree on this)
Premise #2 (we all agree on this)
Conclusion (this is what I really wanted to say to you)
If I am the person making the argument, the premises are just things I say to lay the groundwork, to establish agreement points with others before I try to change how they thing; by contrast, the conclusion represents my thoughts, what I really have to say. That's my focus and concern. In any argument, the focus is the conclusion.

In this argument, the first two sentences are premises. That's what has started in the past and has been true for a long time. There's nothing new happening there, just the same old patterns. What has been happening for years is not the "case at hand," the pressing issue of the moment.

In sentence #3, we hear about something that sounds new: "eliminating the state requirement that legal advertisements must specify fees for specific services." This is a new element, apparently up for discussion right now, so this is the "case at hand." This is the controversial issue. This is where the focus of the author is. This is the matter under debate: everyone agrees on the premises, but presumably not everyone agrees with this author--he wouldn't have to make his argument if everyone else agreed with him! He is making his argument, his case, about this possible new change in the law.

Thus, BF #1 is something that preceded the case at hand, and the author expects that that pattern will not continue to hold in the case at hand.
BF #2 is a reason why that pattern will not hold in the case at hand.
This is precisely what (C) says.

Does all this make sense?
Mike :-)
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Re: Consumer advocate: It is generally true, at least in this state, that [#permalink]

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New post 01 Nov 2017, 09:56
mikemcgarry wrote:
,

I'm happy to respond. :-)

I agree, there's something subtle going on here--what exactly is the "case at hand" discussed in (B) & (C)?

One way to think about this is to think about the the personality of the person making an argument. First, think about a general argument:
Premise #1 (we all agree on this)
Premise #2 (we all agree on this)
Conclusion (this is what I really wanted to say to you)
If I am the person making the argument, the premises are just things I say to lay the groundwork, to establish agreement points with others before I try to change how they thing; by contrast, the conclusion represents my thoughts, what I really have to say. That's my focus and concern. In any argument, the focus is the conclusion.

In this argument, the first two sentences are premises. That's what has started in the past and has been true for a long time. There's nothing new happening there, just the same old patterns. What has been happening for years is not the "case at hand," the pressing issue of the moment.

In sentence #3, we hear about something that sounds new: "eliminating the state requirement that legal advertisements must specify fees for specific services." This is a new element, apparently up for discussion right now, so this is the "case at hand." This is the controversial issue. This is where the focus of the author is. This is the matter under debate: everyone agrees on the premises, but presumably not everyone agrees with this author--he wouldn't have to make his argument if everyone else agreed with him! He is making his argument, his case, about this possible new change in the law.

Thus, BF #1 is something that preceded the case at hand, and the author expects that that pattern will not continue to hold in the case at hand.
BF #2 is a reason why that pattern will not hold in the case at hand.
This is precisely what (C) says.

Does all this make sense?
Mike :-)

Thanks a lot for response. So, I do not have to take literally into instructions the premise "the first bold portion" and take as there is nothing exists around?
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Consumer advocate: It is generally true, at least in this state, that [#permalink]

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New post 09 Dec 2017, 13:40
1. Bold Face
2. Look for conclusion: However, eliminating the state requirement that legal advertisements must specify fees for specific services would almost certainly increase rather than further reduce consumer’s legal costs.

Label all sentences:
- background / doesn't support conclusion
- background / doesn't support conclusion
- doesn't support conclusion
- conclusion
- premise

3. Looking for background / premise combination

4. Focusing on identifying the role of the first boldface...
A: Ok. Author does say "it is true"
B: No. The conclusion states the pattern will not hold. Eliminate
C: Ok. True.
D: No. This doesn't support the conclusion
E: Ok. Hold onto this.

Now looking for the second bold face:
A: No. The second boldface is contrary to the prediction.
C: Ok. This works. Hold.
E: No. The second boldface is not a conclusion.

My selection: Choice C

Some people might ask, how to tell which of the following is conclusion?:

X: However, eliminating the state requirement that legal advertisements must specify fees for specific services would almost certainly increase rather than further reduce consumer’s legal costs.
Y: Lawyers would no longer have an incentive to lower their fees when they begin advertising and if no longer required to specify fee arrangements, many lawyers who now advertise would increase their fees.

X: This sentence is a prediction/claim that doesn't have any support.
Y: States a condition that if met, an outcome follows. The condition mentioned is used as premise.
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Re: Consumer advocate: It is generally true, at least in this state, that [#permalink]

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New post 10 Jan 2018, 06:20
can someone please tell me why option B is incorrect .
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Re: Consumer advocate: It is generally true, at least in this state, that [#permalink]

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New post 10 Jan 2018, 16:22
longhaul123 wrote:
can someone please tell me why option B is incorrect .

Dear longhaul123,

I'm happy to respond. :-)

My friend, because I have high hopes for your excellence, I am going to chide you. What you have presented here is not a high quality question. It probably took you less than 60 seconds to formulate and post this question. The low effort you invested is indicative of how little your question stands to help you. You see, students naively believe that education is something that experts "do" to students. In fact, you are 100% responsible for your education: it is something you "do" to yourself, by yourself, and for yourself. We experts can provide information, but the hard work of learning and assimilation falls firmly on your shoulders.

It would be of much greater benefit to you to ask a high quality question. Such a question would make clear everything about your approach to the question. You would explain your understanding of the prompt and the reasons you believe that (B) is a valid answer. You see, in writing all that, you would be forced to reflect and to articulate your reflection, and these processes would engage aspects of the human brain that were not engaged when you posted the above question. The more of brain is engaged, the more deeply you will learn and understand. Sometimes, this reflection allows you to deepen your understanding enough that you see the answer to your own question: that is ideal. Short of that, all this work "primes" your brain to receive the answer of an expert. The detailed question also allows the expert to give you a more focused response that address your need in particular. Doing what you can to prepare your brain to receive information is a crucial and vastly underestimated part of learning. I would guess that 95% of people taking the GMAT have access to all the information that would be required to get 730+ on the GMAT, but because it's so hard to learn and assimilate all that information, and retain it under pressure, only 4% of test takers actually score in the 730+ range. Information is widely available, but the truly outstanding students are those who can remember and retain what they learn. Asking excellent questions is one of the best ways to prepare you mind to receive a particular piece of information. See:
Asking Excellent Questions

My friend, my challenge to you is (a) to read that blog article thorough, (b) read this entire thread with all the discussion, and (c) if you still have a question at that point, to spend time crafting the highest quality question you can formulate. If you do that, I will be more than happy to answer it.

Does all this make sense?
Mike :-)
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Re: Consumer advocate: It is generally true, at least in this state, that   [#permalink] 10 Jan 2018, 16:22

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