Last visit was: 21 May 2024, 14:32 It is currently 21 May 2024, 14:32
Close
GMAT Club Daily Prep
Thank you for using the timer - this advanced tool can estimate your performance and suggest more practice questions. We have subscribed you to Daily Prep Questions via email.

Customized
for You

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Track
Your Progress

every week, we’ll send you an estimated GMAT score based on your performance

Practice
Pays

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History
Not interested in getting valuable practice questions and articles delivered to your email? No problem, unsubscribe here.
Close
Request Expert Reply
Confirm Cancel
SORT BY:
Date
Tags:
Difficulty: 705-805 Level,    Bold Face CR,                   
Show Tags
Hide Tags
User avatar
Senior Manager
Senior Manager
Joined: 21 Dec 2010
Posts: 266
Own Kudos [?]: 1342 [259]
Given Kudos: 51
Send PM
Most Helpful Reply
Alum
Joined: 19 Mar 2012
Posts: 4340
Own Kudos [?]: 51530 [63]
Given Kudos: 2326
Location: United States (WA)
Concentration: Leadership, General Management
Schools: Ross '20 (M)
GMAT 1: 760 Q50 V42
GMAT 2: 740 Q49 V42 (Online)
GMAT 3: 760 Q50 V42 (Online)
GPA: 3.8
WE:Marketing (Non-Profit and Government)
Send PM
Manager
Manager
Joined: 26 Dec 2015
Posts: 172
Own Kudos [?]: 609 [37]
Given Kudos: 1
Location: United States (CA)
Concentration: Finance, Strategy
WE:Investment Banking (Venture Capital)
Send PM
General Discussion
User avatar
Manager
Manager
Joined: 04 Oct 2013
Posts: 141
Own Kudos [?]: 591 [7]
Given Kudos: 29
Concentration: Finance, Leadership
GMAT 1: 590 Q40 V30
GMAT 2: 730 Q49 V40
WE:Project Management (Entertainment and Sports)
Send PM
Re: Consumer advocate: It is generally true, at least in this state, that [#permalink]
3
Kudos
4
Bookmarks
Consumer advocate: it is generally true, at least in this state, that lawyers who advertise a specific service
charge less for that service than lawyers who do not advertise. It is also true that each time restrictions on the
advertising of legal services have been eliminated, the number of lawyers advertising their services has
increased and legal costs to consumers have declined in consequence. However, eliminating the state
requirement that legal advertisements must specify fees for specific services would almost certainly increase
rather than further reduce consumer’s legal costs. Lawyers would no longer have an incentive to lower their fees
when they begin advertising and if no longer required to specify fee arrangements, many lawyers who now
advertise would increase their fees.

The conclusion represents the main thought of the author, indicators may help, but once you reach the end of the argument you should already have a clear idea about the author's position. That idea is the main point and the author's conclusion.

- General statemet
B1 - Adds more to the general statement
- Argues against boldface B1 (main idea of the passage)
B2 - supports the main idea

Additionally: B1 and B2 follow an opposite direction. Since B2 supports the main point and the main point argues against B1.


In the consumer advocate’s argument, the two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?

(A) The first is a generalization that the consumer advocate accepts as true; the second is presented as a
consequence that follows from the truth of that generalization.
B1 and B2 follow an opposite direction. wrong
(B) The first is a pattern of cause and effect that the consumer advocate argues will be repeated in the case at
issue; the second acknowledges a circumstance in which that pattern would not hold.
the second supports the main point. wrong
(C) The first is pattern of cause and effect that the consumer advocate predicts will not hold in the case at issue;
the second offers a consideration in support of that prediction.
Looks good, "prediction" is out main point, B2 supports the main point. B1 is indeed a pattern of cause and effect that won't hold true.
(D) The first is evidence that the consumer advocate offers in support of a certain prediction; the second is that
prediction.
B1 and B2 take a different direction. wrong
(E) The first acknowledges a consideration that weighs against the main position that the consumer advocate
defends; the second is that position.
The second supports the main position, it is not the main position itself. wrong

P.S. Timing is important but don't get stressed too much, Boldface are hard questions especially for non-natives like me. Figure out an approach that leads you to the correct answer and be consistent with it.
Manager
Manager
Joined: 10 Mar 2013
Posts: 136
Own Kudos [?]: 495 [0]
Given Kudos: 2412
GMAT 1: 620 Q44 V31
GMAT 2: 610 Q47 V28
GMAT 3: 700 Q49 V36
GMAT 4: 690 Q48 V35
GMAT 5: 750 Q49 V42
GMAT 6: 730 Q50 V39
GPA: 3
Send PM
Re: Consumer advocate: It is generally true, at least in this state, that [#permalink]
I picked (D) over (C), because I didn't agree with the fact that BF 2 was a consideration.
How is BF2 a consideration?
Magoosh GMAT Instructor
Joined: 28 Dec 2011
Posts: 4460
Own Kudos [?]: 28663 [6]
Given Kudos: 130
Re: Consumer advocate: It is generally true, at least in this state, that [#permalink]
4
Kudos
2
Bookmarks
Expert Reply
TooLong150 wrote:
I picked (D) over (C), because I didn't agree with the fact that BF 2 was a consideration.
How is BF2 a consideration?

Dear TooLong150,
The word "consideration" is a funny word. In colloquial speech, it is used to mean "courtesy" --- to show someone some consideration. That usage is far too casual for the GMAT.

In the formal sense, the word "consideration" means: a thought, an idea, an intelligent perspective, or an argument. Any well-thought out statement could be called a "consideration", so in that sense, virtually every sentence that appears in the GMAT CR could be called a "consideration."

Does this make sense?
Mike :-)
avatar
Manager
Manager
Joined: 01 Sep 2013
Status:suffer now and live forever as a champion!!!
Posts: 88
Own Kudos [?]: 426 [0]
Given Kudos: 74
Location: India
Dheeraj: Madaraboina
GPA: 3.5
WE:Information Technology (Computer Software)
Send PM
Re: Consumer advocate: It is generally true, at least in this state, that [#permalink]
Hi Mike,

I have a doubt regarding boldfaced CR question.

Do we need to evaluate what role the two bold faced statements play with regard to Conclusion ?
(or)
Do we have any other method to evaluate these kind of Questions.

As far as this question is concerned, my method of solving the question is this

If we consider "eliminating the state requirement that legal advertisements must specify fees for specific services would almost certainly increase rather than further reduce consumer’s legal costs" as Conclusion and then evaluate the two bold faced Statements then we get

a) first bold faced opposes (or) does not hold true
b) Second bold faced statement is in favor (or) Supports the conclusion.

Hence Answer is C.

Mike , could you please tell whether my approach is correct or wrong.

Thanks in advance :)
Magoosh GMAT Instructor
Joined: 28 Dec 2011
Posts: 4460
Own Kudos [?]: 28663 [3]
Given Kudos: 130
Re: Consumer advocate: It is generally true, at least in this state, that [#permalink]
2
Kudos
1
Bookmarks
Expert Reply
dheeraj24 wrote:
Hi Mike,

I have a doubt regarding boldfaced CR question.

Do we need to evaluate what role the two bold faced statements play with regard to Conclusion ?
(or)
Do we have any other method to evaluate these kind of Questions.

As far as this question is concerned, my method of solving the question is this

If we consider "eliminating the state requirement that legal advertisements must specify fees for specific services would almost certainly increase rather than further reduce consumer’s legal costs" as Conclusion and then evaluate the two bold faced Statements then we get

a) first bold faced opposes (or) does not hold true
b) Second bold faced statement is in favor (or) Supports the conclusion.

Hence Answer is C.

Mike , could you please tell whether my approach is correct or wrong.

Thanks in advance :)

Dear dheeraj24,
I'm happy to respond.

First of all, your approach in this question is correct. The sentence you quoted I would call the conclusion, and I agree with your interpretation of the two BF statements.

I would say: in every every every GMAT CR, you should know exactly what the conclusion is. If you don't understand what the conclusion of an argument is, then you don't understand the argument. More than that, you should always understand the role of every single sentence in every single argument, and how it relates to the conclusion. Don't think of boldface questions as a separate category ---- they are simply testing a skill that you should be applying 100% of the time in every sentence of every argument. If you find arguments in which you don't understand the roles of individual sentences, those are fantastic questions to post here on GMAT Club and ask experts for their advice. You are always more than welcome to send me a p.m. asking for my input.

Mike :-)
Tutor
Joined: 10 Jul 2015
Status:Expert GMAT, GRE, and LSAT Tutor / Coach
Affiliations: Harvard University, A.B. with honors in Government, 2002
Posts: 1180
Own Kudos [?]: 2426 [3]
Given Kudos: 273
Location: United States (CO)
Age: 44
GMAT 1: 770 Q47 V48
GMAT 2: 730 Q44 V47
GMAT 3: 750 Q50 V42
GMAT 4: 730 Q48 V42 (Online)
GRE 1: Q168 V169

GRE 2: Q170 V170
Send PM
Re: Consumer advocate: It is generally true, at least in this state, that [#permalink]
3
Kudos
Expert Reply
Attached is a visual that should help.
Attachments

Screen Shot 2016-03-31 at 1.00.41 AM.png
Screen Shot 2016-03-31 at 1.00.41 AM.png [ 113.96 KiB | Viewed 54525 times ]

Magoosh GMAT Instructor
Joined: 28 Dec 2011
Posts: 4460
Own Kudos [?]: 28663 [7]
Given Kudos: 130
Consumer advocate: It is generally true, at least in this state, that [#permalink]
5
Kudos
2
Bookmarks
Expert Reply
The crucial distinction between (B) & (C) concerns what exactly is the "case at issue"?

The way to think about this is to step back and apply a central RC strategy. What's the main idea of the prompt argument? In other words, if some author wrote this in an article in a journal or magazine, what would have been that author's principal concern?

Well, in the past, there was a clear pattern: fewer restrictions --> more ads --> more consumer savings. Clear cause & effect.

Now, when they abrogate the requirement for displaying fees, consumer prices will rise. Clearly, the author, a consumer advocate, is concerned about this, and this prompt may well be part of a larger argument about why we should NOT get rid of the requirement for lawyers to display their fees---that would likely be a consumer advocate's larger agenda with respect to this issue. Clearly, this consumer advocate is on the lookout for consumers and is bothered about the fact that, if this requirement is lifted, the consumers will be paying more and more. Therefore, this is the "case at issue," the thing that really concerns the author.

That's the gigantic problem with (B). The "case at issue," namely what would happen if the fee requirement is abolished, is clearly a case in which the past pattern would no longer hold. Option (B) mistakenly calls some other unspecified concern the "case at issue," and treats this important issue, the author's main point, as a throwaway extra detail. It entirely misses the point of what is important to the author.

Choice (C) gets it right: the cause & effect pattern discussed in the first BF statement will NOT play out in the "case at hand." The "case at hand" that deeply concerns this author is the case in which fees would go up, and the second BF "offers a consideration in support of" the prediction that fees could go up. The best answer is (C).

This question, in a way, is almost a hybrid between CR and RC, and in many ways, we have to have sharp RC skills to analyze the prompt argument. It's not a trivial detail to note that the speaker is a "consumer advocate," i.e. someone who is deeply concerned with what would be fair for all the good hard-working people who are struggling to get by. Knowing that the speaker comes from that perspective is crucial for identifying the "case at issue." For success on the GMAT Verbal, you have to have this general sense of what kinds of professionals are for or against what kinds of things. What do consumer advocates want? What do advertisers want? What do consulting firms want?" What do politicians want? etc. etc. It's very important to develop this real-world intuition. See:
GMAT Critical Reasoning and Outside Knowledge

Does all this make sense?
Mike :-)
Manager
Manager
Joined: 12 Nov 2016
Posts: 117
Own Kudos [?]: 77 [1]
Given Kudos: 87
Concentration: Entrepreneurship, Finance
GMAT 1: 620 Q36 V39
GMAT 2: 650 Q47 V33
Send PM
Re: Consumer advocate: It is generally true, at least in this state, that [#permalink]
1
Kudos
I am not satisfied with explanation at all. I think that this question is hard because choices B and C are almost identical, however, I root for choice B because in my opinion there is nothing in the first bold face portion that indicates that indicates prediction that this pattern for reduction of costs will not hold! Am I blind? Missing something?
C'mon - this is the first bold portion "...each time restrictions on the advertising of legal services have been eliminated, the number of lawyers advertising their services has increased and legal costs to consumers have declined in consequence". Where in this entire bold portion 1 you see prediction that this pattern will not hold? Not in this portion at all. There is nothing to indicate that this argument is not correct, not in this boldface portion. A second portion acknowledges a circumstance in which pattern will not hold - exactly C. Look, the pattern is valid but not in case if requirement to specify fee arrangements ceases.
Magoosh GMAT Instructor
Joined: 28 Dec 2011
Posts: 4460
Own Kudos [?]: 28663 [4]
Given Kudos: 130
Re: Consumer advocate: It is generally true, at least in this state, that [#permalink]
4
Kudos
Expert Reply
Erjan_S wrote:
I am not satisfied with explanation at all. I think that this question is hard because choices B and C are almost identical, however, I root for choice B because in my opinion there is nothing in the first bold face portion that indicates that indicates prediction that this pattern for reduction of costs will not hold! Am I blind? Missing something?
C'mon - this is the first bold portion "...each time restrictions on the advertising of legal services have been eliminated, the number of lawyers advertising their services has increased and legal costs to consumers have declined in consequence". Where in this entire bold portion 1 you see prediction that this pattern will not hold? Not in this portion at all. There is nothing to indicate that this argument is not correct, not in this boldface portion. A second portion acknowledges a circumstance in which pattern will not hold - exactly C. Look, the pattern is valid but not in case if requirement to specify fee arrangements ceases.

Dear Erjan_S,

I'm happy to respond. :-)

I agree, there's something subtle going on here--what exactly is the "case at hand" discussed in (B) & (C)?

One way to think about this is to think about the the personality of the person making an argument. First, think about a general argument:
Premise #1 (we all agree on this)
Premise #2 (we all agree on this)
Conclusion (this is what I really wanted to say to you)
If I am the person making the argument, the premises are just things I say to lay the groundwork, to establish agreement points with others before I try to change how they thing; by contrast, the conclusion represents my thoughts, what I really have to say. That's my focus and concern. In any argument, the focus is the conclusion.

In this argument, the first two sentences are premises. That's what has started in the past and has been true for a long time. There's nothing new happening there, just the same old patterns. What has been happening for years is not the "case at hand," the pressing issue of the moment.

In sentence #3, we hear about something that sounds new: "eliminating the state requirement that legal advertisements must specify fees for specific services." This is a new element, apparently up for discussion right now, so this is the "case at hand." This is the controversial issue. This is where the focus of the author is. This is the matter under debate: everyone agrees on the premises, but presumably not everyone agrees with this author--he wouldn't have to make his argument if everyone else agreed with him! He is making his argument, his case, about this possible new change in the law.

Thus, BF #1 is something that preceded the case at hand, and the author expects that that pattern will not continue to hold in the case at hand.
BF #2 is a reason why that pattern will not hold in the case at hand.
This is precisely what (C) says.

Does all this make sense?
Mike :-)
User avatar
Intern
Intern
Joined: 05 Aug 2011
Posts: 10
Own Kudos [?]: 15 [1]
Given Kudos: 60
Location: United States (NY)
Undergraduate: Stanford
GMAT 1: 700 Q47 V40
WE:Asset Management (Consulting)
Send PM
Re: Consumer advocate: It is generally true, at least in this state, that [#permalink]
1
Bookmarks
1. Bold Face
2. Look for conclusion: However, eliminating the state requirement that legal advertisements must specify fees for specific services would almost certainly increase rather than further reduce consumer’s legal costs.

Label all sentences:
- background / doesn't support conclusion
- background / doesn't support conclusion
- doesn't support conclusion
- conclusion
- premise

3. Looking for background / premise combination

4. Focusing on identifying the role of the first boldface...
A: Ok. Author does say "it is true"
B: No. The conclusion states the pattern will not hold. Eliminate
C: Ok. True.
D: No. This doesn't support the conclusion
E: Ok. Hold onto this.

Now looking for the second bold face:
A: No. The second boldface is contrary to the prediction.
C: Ok. This works. Hold.
E: No. The second boldface is not a conclusion.

My selection: Choice C

Some people might ask, how to tell which of the following is conclusion?:

X: However, eliminating the state requirement that legal advertisements must specify fees for specific services would almost certainly increase rather than further reduce consumer’s legal costs.
Y: Lawyers would no longer have an incentive to lower their fees when they begin advertising and if no longer required to specify fee arrangements, many lawyers who now advertise would increase their fees.

X: This sentence is a prediction/claim that doesn't have any support.
Y: States a condition that if met, an outcome follows. The condition mentioned is used as premise.
Manager
Manager
Joined: 03 Jul 2017
Status:IF YOU CAN DREAM IT, YOU CAN DO IT
Posts: 147
Own Kudos [?]: 33 [0]
Given Kudos: 27
Location: India
Concentration: Finance, International Business
Send PM
Re: Consumer advocate: It is generally true, at least in this state, that [#permalink]
can someone please tell me why option B is incorrect .
Magoosh GMAT Instructor
Joined: 28 Dec 2011
Posts: 4460
Own Kudos [?]: 28663 [4]
Given Kudos: 130
Re: Consumer advocate: It is generally true, at least in this state, that [#permalink]
3
Kudos
1
Bookmarks
Expert Reply
longhaul123 wrote:
can someone please tell me why option B is incorrect .

Dear longhaul123,

I'm happy to respond. :-)

My friend, because I have high hopes for your excellence, I am going to chide you. What you have presented here is not a high quality question. It probably took you less than 60 seconds to formulate and post this question. The low effort you invested is indicative of how little your question stands to help you. You see, students naively believe that education is something that experts "do" to students. In fact, you are 100% responsible for your education: it is something you "do" to yourself, by yourself, and for yourself. We experts can provide information, but the hard work of learning and assimilation falls firmly on your shoulders.

It would be of much greater benefit to you to ask a high quality question. Such a question would make clear everything about your approach to the question. You would explain your understanding of the prompt and the reasons you believe that (B) is a valid answer. You see, in writing all that, you would be forced to reflect and to articulate your reflection, and these processes would engage aspects of the human brain that were not engaged when you posted the above question. The more of brain is engaged, the more deeply you will learn and understand. Sometimes, this reflection allows you to deepen your understanding enough that you see the answer to your own question: that is ideal. Short of that, all this work "primes" your brain to receive the answer of an expert. The detailed question also allows the expert to give you a more focused response that address your need in particular. Doing what you can to prepare your brain to receive information is a crucial and vastly underestimated part of learning. I would guess that 95% of people taking the GMAT have access to all the information that would be required to get 730+ on the GMAT, but because it's so hard to learn and assimilate all that information, and retain it under pressure, only 4% of test takers actually score in the 730+ range. Information is widely available, but the truly outstanding students are those who can remember and retain what they learn. Asking excellent questions is one of the best ways to prepare you mind to receive a particular piece of information. See:
Asking Excellent Questions

My friend, my challenge to you is (a) to read that blog article thorough, (b) read this entire thread with all the discussion, and (c) if you still have a question at that point, to spend time crafting the highest quality question you can formulate. If you do that, I will be more than happy to answer it.

Does all this make sense?
Mike :-)
Current Student
Joined: 19 Jan 2018
Posts: 105
Own Kudos [?]: 115 [0]
Given Kudos: 3160
Send PM
Re: Consumer advocate: It is generally true, at least in this state, that [#permalink]
This question is very similar to this GMATprep question:
https://gmatclub.com/forum/public-healt ... 40641.html
Current Student
Joined: 08 Aug 2018
Posts: 106
Own Kudos [?]: 32 [1]
Given Kudos: 42
Location: United States (GA)
Concentration: Technology, Entrepreneurship
GPA: 3.14
WE:Information Technology (Computer Software)
Send PM
Re: Consumer advocate: It is generally true, at least in this state, that [#permalink]
1
Kudos
AndrewN Could you help me organize thoughts on such questions? I also had trouble identifying conclusion vs premise around the second boldface sentence.
Volunteer Expert
Joined: 16 May 2019
Posts: 3512
Own Kudos [?]: 6899 [0]
Given Kudos: 500
Re: Consumer advocate: It is generally true, at least in this state, that [#permalink]
Expert Reply
AlphaCentauri4ly wrote:
AndrewN Could you help me organize thoughts on such questions? I also had trouble identifying conclusion vs premise around the second boldface sentence.

Hello, AlphaCentauri4ly. I would first suggest that you not treat boldface passages any differently from how you would typically read a passage. Just go sentence by sentence, looking to understand how one idea transitions to another. Sure, you want to pay attention to how the two boldface portions may play off each other, but not to the exclusion of all the other contextual information. Also, you can sometimes focus on one boldface portion or the other to make eliminations in some of the answer choices. I was looking at another tough (700-level) question with somebody recently, and we simply stopped reading the passage once were about halfway through to discuss the first boldface only. Two of the answer choices made no sense whatsoever based on that part, so, without any need to jump across the semicolon in the answer choices, we had already eliminated 40 percent of the answer choices. (Note that there is a difference between knowing something is wrong and thinking it may be wrong. Do not eliminate unless you have cause to do so.) It was just an exercise, but the point is that you should not make yourself work any harder on these questions. If you can find an easy target, pick it off.

I would suggest you read the Most Helpful Expert Reply, conveniently titled Analyzing a Critical Reasoning Boldface Question, at the top of the thread for a thorough analysis of one approach to boldface questions. I would also suggest checking out GMAT Ninja's Critical Reasoning Resource Collection. Part 2 includes a subsection on boldface questions, with one dedicated video and three lengthy written responses to questions in their respective threads.

That should get you started. Thank you for thinking to ask.

- Andrew
Director
Director
Joined: 17 Aug 2009
Posts: 667
Own Kudos [?]: 41 [0]
Given Kudos: 26
Send PM
Re: Consumer advocate: It is generally true, at least in this state, that [#permalink]
Understanding the argument structure -
Consumer advocate:
It is generally true, at least in this state, that lawyers who advertise a specific service charge less for that service than lawyers who do not advertise. - Fact

It is also true that each time restrictions on the advertising of legal services have been eliminated, the number of lawyers advertising their services has increased and legal costs to consumers have declined in consequence. - Fact. The cause and effect relationship. Restrictions eliminated > more lawyers advertise> as the lawyers who advertise charge less, so the more lawyers advertise, the lower the cost for consumers.

However, eliminating the state requirement that legal advertisements must specify fees for specific services would almost certainly increase rather than further reduce consumers’ legal costs (Conclusion and the Prediction by Consumer Advocate).

Lawyers would no longer have an incentive to lower their fees when they begin advertising and if no longer required to specify fee arrangements, many lawyers who now advertise would increase their fees. (supports the conclusion/prediction)

In the consumer advocate’s argument, the two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?

(B) The first is a pattern of cause and effect that the consumer advocate argues (concludes) will be repeated in the case at issue (no, the CA says that pattern will be broken and the prices for consumers will increase rather than go down and that's a concern for CA); the second acknowledges a circumstance (Fact) in which that pattern would not hold. (correct) - but overall, this option is wrong because of the first part.

(C) The first is a pattern of cause and effect that the consumer advocate predicts (what prediction - would almost certainly increase rather than further reduce consumers’ legal costs) will not hold in the case at issue (exactly - that's what the conclusion/prediction that the costs will increase and not decrease); the second offers a consideration in support of that prediction. (yes, the second supports that prediction/conclusion.)
Director
Director
Joined: 14 Jun 2014
Posts: 582
Own Kudos [?]: 305 [0]
Given Kudos: 413
Send PM
Re: Consumer advocate: It is generally true, at least in this state, that [#permalink]
souvik101990 wrote:

Analyzing a Critical Reasoning Boldface Question


- Form the Manhattan GMAT Blog
Try this problem out! Give yourself about 2 minutes (though it’s okay to stretch to 2.5 minutes on a long one like this as long as you are making progress.)

Consumer advocate: It is generally true, at least in this state, that lawyers who advertise a specific service charge less for that service than lawyers who do not advertise. It is also true that each time restrictions on the advertising of legal services have been eliminated, the number of lawyers advertising their services has increased and legal costs to consumers have declined in consequence. However, eliminating the state requirement that legal advertisements must specify fees for specific services would almost certainly increase rather than further reduce consumers’ legal costs. Lawyers would no longer have an incentive to lower their fees when they begin advertising and if no longer required to specify fee arrangements, many lawyers who now advertise would increase their fees.

In the consumer advocate’s argument, the two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?

(A) The first is a generalization that the consumer advocate accepts as true; the second is presented as a consequence that follows from the truth of that generalization.

(B) The first is a pattern of cause and effect that the consumer advocate argues will be repeated in the case at issue; the second acknowledges a circumstance in which that pattern would not hold.

(C) The first is a pattern of cause and effect that the consumer advocate predicts will not hold in the case at issue; the second offers a consideration in support of that prediction.

(D) The first is evidence that the consumer advocate offers in support of a certain prediction; the second is that prediction.

(E) The first acknowledges a consideration that weighs against the main position that the consumer advocate defends; the second is that position.

Step 1: Identify the Question


The argument itself contains the most common clue for a Describe the Role question: boldface font in the text. This clue doesn’t always exist but it is usually there. The question stem also signals the type by asking for the role played by the two portions in boldface.

Step 2: Deconstruct the Argument


All right, this is a Role question. The argument will contain a conclusion, and the boldface portions will relate to the conclusion in one of three broad ways:

The boldface text could be the conclusion.
The boldface text could support the conclusion.
The boldface text could be anything else (including neutral background), though most commonly it will be either counter-premise or a counter-conclusion.

Here’s what I thought and wrote while I did the problem. Your own thought process won’t be exactly the same as mine and, of course, your notes will probably look quite different, since we all have our own ways of abbreviating things. (Note: R = Describe the Role)



Step 3: State the Goal


This is a Role question, so I have to figure out what roles the two boldface statements play.

The first one does NOT go along with the CA’s argument, so it must be category 3. The information is interesting: the CA acknowledges that it is generally true, but just doesn’t think that it applies to one specific circumstance.

The second boldface supports the CA’s conclusion.

Work from Wrong to Right





The correct answer is (C).

Note that the language of the answer choices is very confusing. Try to keep the three main categories in mind: (1) it IS the conclusion, (2) it SUPPORTS the conclusion, (3) it’s anything other than 1 or 2. That classification will make it easier to get rid of some answer choices, even if you don’t fully follow the convoluted language.

Take-aways for CR Role questions:


(1) The question stem will usually include the word role and will almost always (but not always!) include bold font in the argument.

(2) Once you realize you have a Role question, classify the boldface font into one of the three categories discussed above.

(3) If you struggle to understand what a choice says, ask yourself whether the language most likely goes with category 1, 2, or 3. That might be enough to help you eliminate the answer.

Attachment:
00000325.png
Attachment:
00000326.png


C states that The first is a pattern of cause and effect . The "cause and effect" is not true. Cause and effect means there has to be a cause and effect will definitely follow. Here if it were the case, the effect would have definitely happen. Secondly, the first boldface is a correlation and not causation as it has been defied in the issue at hand. Its like result of an experiment. You tossed coin 3 times and u got heads on all three tosses. Now, can we say whenever we will toss a coin, we will get a head?

Kindly explain why "cause and effect" hold here.
GMAT Club Bot
Re: Consumer advocate: It is generally true, at least in this state, that [#permalink]
 1   2   
Moderators:
GMAT Club Verbal Expert
6936 posts
GMAT Club Verbal Expert
238 posts
CR Forum Moderator
832 posts