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Digging in sediments in northern China, evidence has been gathered by

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Magoosh GMAT Instructor
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Re: Digging in sediments in northern China, evidence has been gathered by  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Mar 2017, 15:45
sakshamgmat wrote:
Hi Mike,

(C) scientists have gathered evidence suggesting that complex life-forms emerged much earlier than

In this option than previously thought needs a subject...who previously thought ?
like in A) atleast this part is covered and it says that the scientists had previously thought

(A) evidence has been gathered by scientists suggesting that complex life-forms emerged much earlier than they had

I understand A) is wrong due to other reasons,but I feel C) is correct if it was
scientists have gathered evidence suggesting that complex life-forms emerged much earlier than they had

Please correct me me if I am wrong .

Saksham.

Dear Saksham,

I'm happy to respond. :-)

My friend, choice (C) is perfect as it---it doesn't need the pronoun subject to be correct. In fact, that extra word is not needed, so in a way, it's redundant, and the GMAT doesn't like redundancy.

This is one of the hardest thing for students, especially non-native speakers, to appreciate: in the second branch of parallelism, words that already have been stated in the first branch often do not need to be repeated, because they are implied. See:
Dropping Common Words in Parallel on the GMAT

When two clauses are in parallel with a "than" comparison, it's strongly implied, unless there is evidence to the contrary, that the subject is the same. Because the subject is the same here, we don't need any pronoun.

Does all this make sense?
Mike :-)
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Re: Digging in sediments in northern China, evidence has been gathered by  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Sep 2017, 10:13
Digging in sediments in northern China, evidence has been gathered by scientists suggesting that complex life-forms emerged much earlier than they had previously thought.

(A) evidence has been gathered by scientists suggesting that complex life-forms emerged much earlier than they had

(B) evidence gathered by scientists suggests a much earlier emergence of complex life-forms than had been

(C) scientists have gathered evidence suggesting that complex life-forms emerged much earlier than

(D) scientists have gathered evidence that suggests a much earlier emergence of complex life-forms than that which was

(E) scientists have gathered evidence which suggests a much earlier emergence of complex life-forms than that
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Re: Digging in sediments in northern China, evidence has been gathered by  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Oct 2017, 19:29
not sure why this is the case but i just took a custom quiz via the OG's software, and, even though i selected answer choice "C" with "evidence suggesting", i was marked incorrect. the online answer says "D" is correct. please help
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Re: Digging in sediments in northern China, evidence has been gathered by  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Oct 2017, 09:51
LakerFan24 wrote:
not sure why this is the case but i just took a custom quiz via the OG's software, and, even though i selected answer choice "C" with "evidence suggesting", i was marked incorrect. the online answer says "D" is correct. please help

Dear LakerFan24,

I'm happy to respond. :-)

This question is SC #65 in OG13 and SC #726 in both OG2017 and OG2018. I checked all three versions of the OG--(C) is the OA consistently in all three printed books.

It's possible that there's a flaw in the OG software. Is it possible to take a screen shot of that particular question? If the software is telling you that the train wreck (D) is the answer, then that's a flaw that we need to send to GMAC.

Mike :-)
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Re: Digging in sediments in northern China, evidence has been gathered by  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Dec 2017, 08:42
akadmin wrote:
https://gmatclub.com/forum/digging-in-sediments-in-northern-china-evidence-has-been-136456.html

Please tell me how is C correct. i dont see apple to apple comparison. am expecting 'emerged much earlier than <time> but option c says previously thought... how is this a proper comparison


Consider this usage a special type of comparison, in which the second element is a combination of an omitted noun and a phrase or a clause modifiying the omitted noun - the phrase or the clause represents or defines the omitted noun.

He can run faster than I imagined... here the clause "I imagined" represents someone (ficitituous) who runs fast: "someone" is the omitted noun here.

Similarly,
Life-forms emerged earlier than previously thought... here the phrase "previously thought" represents a time in past ( which was thought to be the time when life-form emerged): the omitted noun here is "time".
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Re: Digging in sediments in northern China, evidence has been gathered by  [#permalink]

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New post 02 Jan 2018, 12:48
ChrisLele wrote:
With this question we can quickly home in on the 2:3 split. Notice the participial phrase beginning 'digging...'. The word that comes directly after the comma must describe who is doing the digging. Clearly it is the archaeologists, not the evidence, that is digging. Thus we can eliminate (A), (B).

Both (D) and (E) are filled with unnecessary verbiage. (D) 'than that which..' and (E) '...than that.' We simply need a phrase that modifies 'emerge.' 'That' is used to describe comparisons between nouns. 'That' is a pronoun that is used to refers to a noun. Therefore (C) is best: 'emerged...than previously thought.'


Hi Chris,

'C' seems to say that scientists gathering the evidence is suggesting rather than evidence suggesting. What i mean is - it is gathering the evidence which is suggesting rather than the evidence itself. Isn't that the case? Am i reading it wrong?

I really liked your CR videos in Magoosh.

Thanks,
Anvesh
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New post 03 Jan 2018, 14:53
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Anvesh2608 wrote:
Hi Chris,

'C' seems to say that scientists gathering the evidence is suggesting rather than evidence suggesting. What i mean is - it is gathering the evidence which is suggesting rather than the evidence itself. Isn't that the case? Am i reading it wrong?

I really liked your CR videos in Magoosh.

Thanks,
Anvesh

Dear Anvesh2608,

I'm happy to respond in the place of my friend & colleague Chris. :-)

Here's the relevant text of (C):
. . . scientists have gathered evidence suggesting that . . .
The participle modifier "suggesting" is touching the noun "evidence": this juxtaposition makes it pretty clear that the participle modifies the noun "evidence." Choice (A) & (B) have more ambiguous modification patterns--that's one of the many reasons these are incorrect.

Does this make sense?
Mike :-)
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Re: Digging in sediments in northern China, evidence has been gathered by  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Sep 2018, 10:35
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betterscore wrote:

Digging in sediments in northern China, evidence has been gathered by scientists suggesting that complex life-forms emerged much earlier than they had previously thought.

(A) evidence has been gathered by scientists suggesting that complex life-forms emerged much earlier than they had

(B) evidence gathered by scientists suggests a much earlier emergence of complex life-forms than had been

(C) scientists have gathered evidence suggesting that complex life-forms emerged much earlier than

(D) scientists have gathered evidence that suggests a much earlier emergence of complex life-forms than that which was

(E) scientists have gathered evidence which suggests a much earlier emergence of complex life-forms than that


Important: When a sentence begins with a with noun modifier (as it does in the above sentence), stop at the comma and ask the question that the modifier raises.

So, once we read, Digging in sediments in northern China, we should stop and ask . . .

"Who or what was digging in sediments?"

If the sentence is properly constructed, the part that immediately follows the comma will answer that question in a logical manner.

Reading on we get...

A) ...evidence. Evidence was digging in sediments?
Makes no sense.
ELIMINATE A

B) ...evidence. Evidence was digging in sediments?
Makes no sense.
ELIMINATE B

C, D, E) ...scientists. Scientists were digging in sediments?
Makes sense.
KEEP C, D and E

Now examine the differences in the remaining answer choice
(C) scientists have gathered evidence suggesting that complex life-forms emerged much earlier than (previously thought)
Looks fine.
We have "life-forms emerged much earlier than previously thought"
KEEP for now

(D) scientists have gathered evidence that suggests a much earlier emergence of complex life-forms than that which was (previously thought)
First off, this version should seem quite awkward, and unnecessarily verbose.
Also, it is unclear what that is referring to.
ELIMINATE D

(E) scientists have gathered evidence which suggests a much earlier emergence of complex life-forms than that (previously thought)
First of all, there's an issue with "which" (for more on this see the "that vs which" video below.
Also,it is unclear what that is referring to.
ELIMINATE E

Answer: C

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Re: Digging in sediments in northern China, evidence has been gathered by &nbs [#permalink] 07 Sep 2018, 10:35

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