GMAT Question of the Day - Daily to your Mailbox; hard ones only

It is currently 19 Nov 2018, 21:48

Close

GMAT Club Daily Prep

Thank you for using the timer - this advanced tool can estimate your performance and suggest more practice questions. We have subscribed you to Daily Prep Questions via email.

Customized
for You

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Track
Your Progress

every week, we’ll send you an estimated GMAT score based on your performance

Practice
Pays

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Not interested in getting valuable practice questions and articles delivered to your email? No problem, unsubscribe here.

Close

Request Expert Reply

Confirm Cancel
Events & Promotions in November
PrevNext
SuMoTuWeThFrSa
28293031123
45678910
11121314151617
18192021222324
2526272829301
Open Detailed Calendar
  • How to QUICKLY Solve GMAT Questions - GMAT Club Chat

     November 20, 2018

     November 20, 2018

     09:00 AM PST

     10:00 AM PST

    The reward for signing up with the registration form and attending the chat is: 6 free examPAL quizzes to practice your new skills after the chat.
  • The winning strategy for 700+ on the GMAT

     November 20, 2018

     November 20, 2018

     06:00 PM EST

     07:00 PM EST

    What people who reach the high 700's do differently? We're going to share insights, tips and strategies from data we collected on over 50,000 students who used examPAL.

Digging in sediments in northern China, evidence has been gathered by

  new topic post reply Question banks Downloads My Bookmarks Reviews Important topics  
Author Message
TAGS:

Hide Tags

e-GMAT Representative
User avatar
G
Joined: 02 Nov 2011
Posts: 2746
Re: Digging in sediments in northern China, evidence has been gathered by  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 11 Dec 2013, 11:31
bagdbmba wrote:
egmat wrote:
Thanks, bagdbmba, for posting your query here as suggested. :-) Also, thanks to Mike for the very comprehensive response!

bagdbmba: to put it simply, when 'which' refers to the noun before it, there should be a comma between 'which' and the noun. Secondly, 'that' is incorrect in option E since it is functioning as a pronoun in this option, whereas the part after 'than' should actually refer to what the scientists had previously thought.

I hope this helps with your doubt! :-)

Regards,
Meghna


Thanks Meghna for your reply.

So what I understand from your reply is 'which' can even refer to something else (NOT noun) before it. And in that case it doesn't need to be preceded by a 'comma'. Please correct me if I'm wrong.

In comparison we mostly use 'that' as to indicate the noun replacement - as a pronoun in the second clause I think.
Let's consider this sentence : Temperature in Egypt is much higher than that in Moscow. ----> here 'that' represents 'Temperature' and is a pronoun. Right?

And 'that' in option E refers to the emergence of complex life-forms I think and it's not verb. And that's what the scientists had previously thought of...Right? Please clarify.


Yes, 'that' in option E is is incorrect since it should refer to what scientists had previously thought.

Regarding 'which', it should only refer to nouns. But there are cases where it is used in phrases such as "in which" or "for which", where there should not be a comma before it.

Regards,
Meghna
_________________












| '4 out of Top 5' Instructors on gmatclub | 70 point improvement guarantee | www.e-gmat.com

Manager
Manager
avatar
Joined: 15 Mar 2012
Posts: 51
Re: Digging in sediments in northern China, evidence has been gathered by  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 29 Mar 2014, 20:54
ChrisLele wrote:
With this question we can quickly home in on the 2:3 split. Notice the participial phrase beginning 'digging...'. The word that comes directly after the comma must describe who is doing the digging. Clearly it is the archaeologists, not the evidence, that is digging. Thus we can eliminate (A), (B).

Both (D) and (E) are filled with unnecessary verbiage. (D) 'than that which..' and (E) '...than that.' We simply need a phrase that modifies 'emerge.' 'That' is used to describe comparisons between nouns. 'That' is a pronoun that is used to refers to a noun. Therefore (C) is best: 'emerged...than previously thought.'


E is wrong only because it is wordier than C and maybe a bit awkward too. I couldnt find any grammatical error E since "that" is correctly referring to "the emergence of complex life-forms".
Am I right in my thought process? many thanks.
Magoosh GMAT Instructor
User avatar
G
Joined: 28 Dec 2011
Posts: 4488
Re: Digging in sediments in northern China, evidence has been gathered by  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 31 Mar 2014, 09:45
divineacclivity wrote:
ChrisLele wrote:
With this question we can quickly home in on the 2:3 split. Notice the participial phrase beginning 'digging...'. The word that comes directly after the comma must describe who is doing the digging. Clearly it is the archaeologists, not the evidence, that is digging. Thus we can eliminate (A), (B).

Both (D) and (E) are filled with unnecessary verbiage. (D) 'than that which..' and (E) '...than that.' We simply need a phrase that modifies 'emerge.' 'That' is used to describe comparisons between nouns. 'That' is a pronoun that is used to refers to a noun. Therefore (C) is best: 'emerged...than previously thought.'


E is wrong only because it is wordier than C and maybe a bit awkward too. I couldn't find any grammatical error E since "that" is correctly referring to "the emergence of complex life-forms".
Am I right in my thought process? many thanks.

Dear divineacclivity,
I'm Chris' friend and colleague, and I am happy to respond. :-)

The brilliant thing about this official question is that there are almost no grammatical mistakes. Choice (A) certainly questionable with the odd verb tense, but the other four answer choices are free of grammatical errors. Naive GMAT takers thing the GMAT SC is simply about grammar. It's not. Grammar is only one of many things tested on the GMAT SC. This particular question is testing one of the most tested areas, something called Rhetorical Construction. For a description of this, see:
http://magoosh.com/gmat/2013/rhetorical ... orrection/
Logic and Rhetorical Construction are each as important as, if not more important than, grammar on the GMAT SC.

So, yes, choice (E) is 100% grammatically correct and rhetorically, it is an absolute trainwreck. It is far too wordy, and using "emergence" rather than the verb form, "emerge", makes it indirect and awkward.

Does all this make sense?
Mike :-)
_________________

Mike McGarry
Magoosh Test Prep


Education is not the filling of a pail, but the lighting of a fire. — William Butler Yeats (1865 – 1939)

Senior Manager
Senior Manager
avatar
Joined: 15 Aug 2013
Posts: 251
Re: Digging in sediments in northern China, evidence has been gathered by  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 05 May 2014, 19:30
Hi,

Can someone help me clarify why A/B are wrong b/c of the word "evidence" right after the comma and not "scientists"? Since Digging is a verb modifier, it doesn't need to touch anything it modifies, so theoretically, can't it modify "scientists" in A/B?
Magoosh GMAT Instructor
User avatar
G
Joined: 28 Dec 2011
Posts: 4488
Re: Digging in sediments in northern China, evidence has been gathered by  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 06 May 2014, 12:47
russ9 wrote:
Hi,
Can someone help me clarify why A/B are wrong b/c of the word "evidence" right after the comma and not "scientists"? Since Digging is a verb modifier, it doesn't need to touch anything it modifies, so theoretically, can't it modify "scientists" in A/B?

Dear russ9
I'm happy to help. :-)

Here's the question again:
Digging in sediments in northern China, evidence has been gathered by scientists suggesting that complex life-forms emerged much earlier than they had previously thought.
(A) evidence has been gathered by scientists suggesting that complex life-forms emerged much earlier than they had
(B) evidence gathered by scientists suggests a much earlier emergence of complex life-forms than had been
(C) scientists have gathered evidence suggesting that complex life-forms emerged much earlier than
(D) scientists have gathered evidence that suggests a much earlier emergence of complex life-forms than that which was
(E) scientists have gathered evidence which suggests a much earlier emergence of complex life-forms than that


The participial phrase "digging in sediments in northern China" is, here, a noun modifier. It's true, participles and participial phrases can modifier either a noun, or a verb, or an entire clause. It's very subtle to interpret which a given participle modifies. Here, "digging" is a very concrete action. If the participle denotes a concrete action, and the action is clearly attributable to a particular noun in the sentence, then the participle is a noun modifier. Here, the "digging" had to be done by the "scientists," without a doubt. Therefore, the phrase is a noun modifier modifier "scientists" and therefore needs to touch that word. That's precisely why (A) & (B) make the misplaced modifier mistake. See:
http://magoosh.com/gmat/2013/modifiers- ... orrection/

Participle modifiers are not easy. You have to ask yourself: is this a concrete action performed by someone in the sentence? Then that's a noun-modifier. Participial phrases modify verbs and clauses when they explain a further consequence of some action, or something caused not by the subject but by the action of the independent clause.
Stocks felt sharply yesterday, sending the bond market into a panic.
What "[sent] the bond market into a panic"? Not the noun "stocks" but the entire action, the fact that stocks fell.
The governor signed the new crime bill, sending a strong message to his harshest critics.
The concrete action is the one in the main clauses, "signing." The participle communicated a less concrete, more far-reaching effect of the action in the main clause.

Does all this make sense?
Mike :-)
_________________

Mike McGarry
Magoosh Test Prep


Education is not the filling of a pail, but the lighting of a fire. — William Butler Yeats (1865 – 1939)

Intern
Intern
avatar
Joined: 28 Oct 2014
Posts: 5
Re: Digging in sediments in northern China, evidence has been gathered by  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 29 Oct 2014, 04:57
I have some thoughts about the correct sentece. If I am wrong, please correct me.

I remember a worng example in the MGMAT GUIDE: I see the man clenning the steps yeasterday. since the "cleaning" and "see" don't happen at the same time, it is wrong.

In the correct sentence: Digging in sediments in northern China, scientists have gathered evidence suggesting that complex life-formsemerged much earlier than previously thought.
In my views, "suggesting" and “gathered" also do not happened at the same time, but "suggest" is diffrent from the verb "clean" which happens instantly. "Suggest" is a constant action which happens all the time. Thus, that's why "suggesting" is correct here. Am I right?
Magoosh GMAT Instructor
User avatar
G
Joined: 28 Dec 2011
Posts: 4488
Re: Digging in sediments in northern China, evidence has been gathered by  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 29 Oct 2014, 09:17
2
liu1993918 wrote:
I have some thoughts about the correct sentece. If I am wrong, please correct me.

I remember a worng example in the MGMAT GUIDE: I see the man clenning the steps yeasterday. since the "cleaning" and "see" don't happen at the same time, it is wrong.

In the correct sentence: Digging in sediments in northern China, scientists have gathered evidence suggesting that complex life-formsemerged much earlier than previously thought.
In my views, "suggesting" and “gathered" also do not happened at the same time, but "suggest" is diffrent from the verb "clean" which happens instantly. "Suggest" is a constant action which happens all the time. Thus, that's why "suggesting" is correct here. Am I right?

Dear liu1993918,
I'm happy to respond. :-) Yes, as you found out from MGMAT, a present participle (verb + "ing") takes on the tense of the main verb. If we need to establish a different time, we need to use a subordinate clause.
I see the man cleaning the steps yesterday. = wrong
I see the man who was cleaning the steps yesterday. = correct

Now, in this sentence, the very tricky thing is --- what is the tense of the main verb? The main verb is NOT "gathered," a past tense verb. The main verb is "have gathered," which is a present perfect verb. For more on the perfect tenses, see:
https://magoosh.com/gmat/2012/gmat-verb ... ct-tenses/

The present perfect tense is a notoriously tricky tense, because even though it refers to an action that began in the past, either the action is still continuing, or its effect or relevance is still continuing. In some way, the action or its consequences are still very much present to us, even though the beginning of the action is in the past
"...scientists have gathered evidence ..."
Suppose that is factually true. What does it mean? Either the scientists are still gathering the evidence now, or the evidence-gathering has come to an end but the process of sorting through the evidence, interpreting it, and deciding what it means is still very much present to use In one way or another, the action of evidence-gathering is having a profound impact on our present moment. That is precisely what the present perfect tense implies.

The participle is completely correct --- the "digging" was simultaneous with the "evidence gathering" --- they are both in the present-perfect-tense time frame.

There's absolutely no problem here Does this make sense?
Mike :-)
_________________

Mike McGarry
Magoosh Test Prep


Education is not the filling of a pail, but the lighting of a fire. — William Butler Yeats (1865 – 1939)

Intern
Intern
avatar
Joined: 29 Jan 2015
Posts: 2
Re: Digging in sediments in northern China, evidence has been gathered by  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 16 Feb 2015, 06:15
Hi, is it right to use past perfect in choice A&B?
I think it's better to use past tense since there is "previously" in this sentence, am I right?
If not, please correct me. Thanks!
Magoosh GMAT Instructor
User avatar
G
Joined: 28 Dec 2011
Posts: 4488
Re: Digging in sediments in northern China, evidence has been gathered by  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 17 Feb 2015, 10:08
Ptting wrote:
Hi, is it right to use past perfect in choice A&B?
I think it's better to use past tense since there is "previously" in this sentence, am I right?
If not, please correct me. Thanks!

Dear Ptting,
I'm happy to respond. :-)

Here's a blog on the perfect tenses:
https://magoosh.com/gmat/2012/gmat-verb ... ct-tenses/

In (A) & (B), the sentence would end " . . . much earlier than they had previously thought." Yes, using the past perfect with "previously" is a wee bit redundant, a wee bit awkward. Here's the important thing to understand, though: it's not deal-breaker wrong. In other words, sometimes, the OA on an official SC question is a bit awkward, a bit less than ideal --- it's just better than all the other answers. This kind of small picayune mistake could be part of an OA on the GMAT. It's not trainwreck wrong. It's less than ideal, but in a pinch, could be passable.

All of mathematics has that very clear right vs. wrong distinction. Grammar has that on a few things, such as SVA, but for the most part, it is a lot of shades of gray. Using "previously" with the past perfect is not pure white, but it's not jet black either: it's light gray.

Does all this make sense?
Mike :-)
_________________

Mike McGarry
Magoosh Test Prep


Education is not the filling of a pail, but the lighting of a fire. — William Butler Yeats (1865 – 1939)

Manager
Manager
User avatar
Joined: 12 Jan 2015
Posts: 200
Re: Digging in sediments in northern China, evidence has been gathered by  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 19 Jan 2016, 14:37
Hi mikemcgarry / daagh / chetan2u,


If we have options like-

(C) scientists have gathered evidence suggesting that complex life-forms emerged much earlier than
(D) scientists have gathered evidence that suggests complex life-forms emerged much earlier than

Is there any difference between two OR both are exactly same..??

Please assist.


Thanks and Regrds
Prakhar
_________________

Thanks and Regards,
Prakhar

Magoosh GMAT Instructor
User avatar
G
Joined: 28 Dec 2011
Posts: 4488
Re: Digging in sediments in northern China, evidence has been gathered by  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 19 Jan 2016, 16:42
1
RAHKARP27071989 wrote:
If we have options like-

(C) scientists have gathered evidence suggesting that complex life-forms emerged much earlier than
(D) scientists have gathered evidence that suggests complex life-forms emerged much earlier than

Is there any difference between two OR both are exactly same..??

Please assist.

Thanks and Regrds
Prakhar

Dear Prakhar,
I'm happy to respond. :-)

First of all, I will point out a grammar mistake in your question. It's not
If we have options like-
It should be:
If we have options such as-

The GMAT is usually fussy about having a "that" to begin a "that" clause, such as the one beginning with "complex life-forms . . ." The verb "to suggest" is a verb that takes "that"-clauses, and if this verb is followed by a clause, the GMAT usually wants the word "that" to appear.

(C) scientists have gathered evidence suggesting that complex life-forms emerged much earlier than . . . = perfect

(D1) scientists have gathered evidence that suggests complex life-forms emerged much earlier than . . . = missing the "that," probably not acceptable by GMAT standards

(D1) scientists have gathered evidence that suggests that complex life-forms emerged much earlier than . . . = technically correct, but awkward and redundant-sounding, so not ideal.

The best of the three is option (C).

Does all this make sense?
Mike :-)
_________________

Mike McGarry
Magoosh Test Prep


Education is not the filling of a pail, but the lighting of a fire. — William Butler Yeats (1865 – 1939)

Manager
Manager
User avatar
Joined: 12 Jan 2015
Posts: 200
Re: Digging in sediments in northern China, evidence has been gathered by  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 20 Jan 2016, 01:56
mikemcgarry wrote:
RAHKARP27071989 wrote:
If we have options like-

(C) scientists have gathered evidence suggesting that complex life-forms emerged much earlier than
(D) scientists have gathered evidence that suggests complex life-forms emerged much earlier than

Is there any difference between two OR both are exactly same..??

Please assist.

Thanks and Regrds
Prakhar

Dear Prakhar,
I'm happy to respond. :-)

First of all, I will point out a grammar mistake in your question. It's not
If we have options like-
It should be:
If we have options such as-

The GMAT is usually fussy about having a "that" to begin a "that" clause, such as the one beginning with "complex life-forms . . ." The verb "to suggest" is a verb that takes "that"-clauses, and if this verb is followed by a clause, the GMAT usually wants the word "that" to appear.

(C) scientists have gathered evidence suggesting that complex life-forms emerged much earlier than . . . = perfect

(D1) scientists have gathered evidence that suggests complex life-forms emerged much earlier than . . . = missing the "that," probably not acceptable by GMAT standards

(D1) scientists have gathered evidence that suggests that complex life-forms emerged much earlier than . . . = technically correct, but awkward and redundant-sounding, so not ideal.

The best of the three is option (C).

Does all this make sense?
Mike :-)


Hi mikemcgarry,

Thanks alot for such a debrief.
I agree that in the above-mentioned examples, C is best.

But what I am more concerned about is that.

Is NOUN + THAT + VERB = NOUN + VERB-ing OR it depends on context..??
If depends on context, then can you please provide few examples so that I can comprehend this concept at my best.

Thanks and Regards,
Prakhar
_________________

Thanks and Regards,
Prakhar

Manager
Manager
User avatar
Joined: 12 Jan 2015
Posts: 200
Re: Digging in sediments in northern China, evidence has been gathered by  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 20 Jan 2016, 05:49
Hi mikemcgarry,

I come across question on same concept:

In 1850 Lucretia Mott published her Discourse on Women, arguing in a treatise for
women to have equal political and legal rights
and for changes in the married women’s
property laws.

A. arguing in a treatise for women to have equal political and legal rights
B. arguing in a treatise for equal political and legal rights for women
C. a treatise that advocates women’s equal political and legal rights
D. a treatise advocating women’s equal political and legal rights
E. a treatise that argued for equal political and legal rights for women

OA- E

I agree that we need parallelism after legal rights ( For women and for changes)
But, if we leave this aside..
Is there any difference between C and D..??

Thanks and Regards,
Prakhar
_________________

Thanks and Regards,
Prakhar

Magoosh GMAT Instructor
User avatar
G
Joined: 28 Dec 2011
Posts: 4488
Re: Digging in sediments in northern China, evidence has been gathered by  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 20 Jan 2016, 11:14
1
1
RAHKARP27071989 wrote:
Hi mikemcgarry,

Thanks alot for such a debrief.
I agree that in the above-mentioned examples, C is best.

But what I am more concerned about is that.

Is NOUN + THAT + VERB = NOUN + VERB-ing OR it depends on context..??
If depends on context, then can you please provide few examples so that I can comprehend this concept at my best.

I come across question on same concept:

In 1850 Lucretia Mott published her Discourse on Women, arguing in a treatise for
women to have equal political and legal rights
and for changes in the married women’s
property laws.

A. arguing in a treatise for women to have equal political and legal rights
B. arguing in a treatise for equal political and legal rights for women
C. a treatise that advocates women’s equal political and legal rights
D. a treatise advocating women’s equal political and legal rights
E. a treatise that argued for equal political and legal rights for women

OA- E

I agree that we need parallelism after legal rights ( For women and for changes)
But, if we leave this aside..
Is there any difference between C and D..??

Thanks and Regards,
Prakhar

Dear Prakhar,
I'm happy to respond. :-)

The short answer is: it depends.

In the structure [noun]"that"[verb], the "that" clause is clearly a noun-modifier modifying the noun it touches. That's the only option.

In the structure [noun][participle], the participle usually would be an noun-modifier modifying the noun, but participles can be either noun-modifiers or verb modifier, and this allows them considerably more flexibility in their use. Example
Yankee Doodle came to town riding on a pony.
In that oft-quoted sentence, the participle "riding" is acting as a verb modifier, modifying the action of the clause. It describes the manner in which Yankee Doodle "came." The participle "riding" is not modifying the noun "town;" thus, the "that" clause substitution would produce a very different, illogical, and incorrect sentence.
Yankee Doodle came to a town that rides on a pony (!)

Often if the participle is a verb or clause modifier, it would be separated from the noun by a comma:
The teacher yelled at the class, scaring the students into obedience.

It all depends on context. In the question about Lucretia Mott (OG13, SC #41; OG2016, SC #60), (C) & (D) have identical meanings, but as you know, both are wrong in the larger context of that sentence.

My friend, it is 100% impossible to arrive at mastery of SC by learning some ideal collection of rules. The problem is that there is always too much that depends on context. To arrive at mastery, it is absolutely indispensable to develop the habit of reading. See:
http://magoosh.com/gmat/2014/how-to-imp ... bal-score/

Does all this make sense?
Mike :-)
_________________

Mike McGarry
Magoosh Test Prep


Education is not the filling of a pail, but the lighting of a fire. — William Butler Yeats (1865 – 1939)

Board of Directors
User avatar
P
Status: QA & VA Forum Moderator
Joined: 11 Jun 2011
Posts: 4230
Location: India
GPA: 3.5
WE: Business Development (Commercial Banking)
GMAT ToolKit User Premium Member
Re: Digging in sediments in northern China, evidence has been gathered by  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 06 Sep 2016, 07:22
alokspa wrote:
Digging in sediments in northern China, evidence has been gathered by scientists suggesting that complex life-forms emerged much earlier than they had previously thought.

(A) evidence has been gathered by scientists suggesting that complex life-forms emerged much earlier than they had

(B) evidence gathered by scientists suggests a much earlier emergence of complex life-forms than had been

(C) scientists have gathered evidence suggesting that complex life-forms emerged much earlier than

(D) scientists have gathered evidence that suggests a much earlier emergence of complex life-forms than that which was

(E) scientists have gathered evidence which suggests a much earlier emergence of complex life-forms than that


Digging in sediments in northern China,..................must modify something which comes here ( After the comma )

(D) and (E) are verbose , hence correct answer will be (C)

_________________

Thanks and Regards

Abhishek....

PLEASE FOLLOW THE RULES FOR POSTING IN QA AND VA FORUM AND USE SEARCH FUNCTION BEFORE POSTING NEW QUESTIONS

How to use Search Function in GMAT Club | Rules for Posting in QA forum | Writing Mathematical Formulas |Rules for Posting in VA forum | Request Expert's Reply ( VA Forum Only )

Senior Manager
Senior Manager
avatar
B
Joined: 17 Sep 2016
Posts: 255
Re: Digging in sediments in northern China, evidence has been gathered by  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 26 Oct 2016, 03:19
hi experts,
I genuinely want your help to distinct A and C, although I totally got that evidence as the subject of sentence is incorrect,
I am confused for the OE for A and C, because I want to make it clear why "suggesting" in A is ambiguous.
OE for A wrote:
Furthermore, the dependent clause starting with suggesting may be construed with either the evidence or the scientists,


C, which is correct, use "suggesting" as well,
why suggesting in C is correct , while suggesting in A is ambiguous.

one more question,
OE for D wrote:
D In this context it would be preferable to use a verb (emerged),

my understand is that suggest introduce a THAT clause include action and doer, or introduce a noun/noun phrase that won't include both doer and action,
am I right?


waiting for your reply
have a nice day
>_~
Magoosh GMAT Instructor
User avatar
G
Joined: 28 Dec 2011
Posts: 4488
Re: Digging in sediments in northern China, evidence has been gathered by  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 26 Oct 2016, 10:11
zoezhuyan wrote:
hi experts,
I genuinely want your help to distinct A and C, although I totally got that evidence as the subject of sentence is incorrect,
I am confused for the OE for A and C, because I want to make it clear why "suggesting" in A is ambiguous.

OE for A: Furthermore, the dependent clause starting with suggesting may be construed with either the evidence or the scientists,

C, which is correct, use "suggesting" as well,
why suggesting in C is correct , while suggesting in A is ambiguous.

one more question,
OE for D: D In this context it would be preferable to use a verb (emerged),
my understand is that suggest introduce a THAT clause include action and doer, or introduce a noun/noun phrase that won't include both doer and action,
am I right?

waiting for your reply
have a nice day
>_~

Dear zoezhuyan,
I'm happy to respond, my friend. :-)

If I may make a suggestion: please don't use the quote function for ordinary quotes from books or from the problem. The quote function is typically used, as above, to indicate the quote of another speaker on GMAT Club. Using it for each quote from a book makes your post chunkier and harder to follow. See how I used colors and quote marks in what I quoted above.

The problem with (A) is NOT the word "suggesting." The problem is the misplaced modifier. Consider (A) in the context of the whole underlined sentence:
Digging in sediments in northern China, evidence has been gathered by scientists . . .
Who was "digging in sediments in northern China"? That's a noun-modifier, and according to the Modifier Touch Rule, it should be touching the noun that it modifies. Well, we know that "evidence" was NOT doing the "digging." This is a classic misplaced modifier mistake. It's tricky because we can't look at the underlined part alone and figure this out: we have to look at how the choice "plugs in" to the sentence around it. Choice (A) is a train wreck when read with the non-underlined part that precedes it.

That's the problem with (A). Also, (A) has a weird passive construction that comes across as lily-livered. It has multiple problems. Nevertheless, the word "suggesting" in (A) is 100% perfectly fine, as it is in (C).

Now, let's talk about (D). (D) is 100% grammatically correct. In terms of grammar, it is completely flawless. Despite this, it is an abysmally wrong answer choice. It passes in terms of grammar but it spectacularly fails in terms of rhetoric. You are 100% right: grammatically, the word "suggest" can be followed by a "that" clause or by a noun. That's correct but besides the point.

Consider (C) & (D) side by side:
(C) scientists have gathered evidence suggesting that complex life-forms emerged much earlier than
(D) scientists have gathered evidence that suggests a much earlier emergence of complex life-forms than that which was
These two have the same meaning, and both are 100% grammatically correct. Version (C) is like a lean Olympic athletic, sleek, efficient, direct, powerful. By contrast, (D) is the longest answer--rarely is the longest answer the correct one! Here, (D) is bloated, weak, indirect, flabby---it seems to be trying to win a contest for saying what it has to say in the most words possible. Any answer choice trying to win that contest is automatically wrong on the GMAT.

I realize it can be hard for a non-native speaker to sense the rhetorical construction. One important clue is when a single word switches between noun vs. verb among the answer choices. As a very general guideline, we usually get a more powerful and more direct sentence when use the verb form, the action form, rather than a noun.
"...suggesting that complex life-forms emerged..." = That's an action! That's direct & powerful!
"...that suggests a much earlier emergence of ..." = Yawn! Boring!

My friend, here's what I'll say. Look at advertising slogans. The grammar is often atrocious, but ads are packed with direct and powerful language, including lots of commands. Play a game with these: try restating the slogans using nouns rather than verbs and using more indirect language.
Original: Our product changes people's lives!
Changed: A change in peoples lives takes place because of our product.
The business that had the second version as its advertising slogan would go out of business very quickly! Have fun changing advertising slogans, making them as indirect and weak as possible. Once you appreciate the pattern of changing direct language to indirect language, it will give you more appreciate for how the test writer changes the direct language of an OA, such as (C), and creates an obviously wrong answer, such as (D).

Does all this make sense?

Have a good day, my friend! :-)
Mike :-)
_________________

Mike McGarry
Magoosh Test Prep


Education is not the filling of a pail, but the lighting of a fire. — William Butler Yeats (1865 – 1939)

Senior Manager
Senior Manager
avatar
B
Joined: 17 Sep 2016
Posts: 255
Re: Digging in sediments in northern China, evidence has been gathered by  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 26 Oct 2016, 23:37
mikemcgarry wrote:
If I may make a suggestion: please don't use the quote function for ordinary quotes from books or from the problem. The quote function is typically used, as above, to indicate the quote of another speaker on GMAT Club. Using it for each quote from a book makes your post chunkier and harder to follow. See how I used colors and quote marks in what I quoted above.

thanks Mike,
I will pay attention

mikemcgarry wrote:
Nevertheless, the word "suggesting" in (A) is 100% perfectly fine, as it is in (C).
Now, let's talk about (D). (D) is 100% grammatically correct.


glad to get your explanation.

I am reviewing the OG16SC again,

I figured out that it will save time if I can break the effective approach or catch the test points
different approach costs different time.

I focus more on OE this time, because OE mentions the test points of each SC,
unfortunately, I realized that OE confused me, and I would suspect whether I missed something or misunderstand something.
such as "suggesting" in this case, I review it correct while OE says it is ambiguous.

I feel better after getting your explanation
thanks again Mike.

I genuinely want your suggestion of my focus on OE

mikemcgarry wrote:

I realize it can be hard for a non-native speaker to sense the rhetorical construction.
Mike :-)


Yes, not easy for me
what I get now is if no ambiguous, more concise , more better.
sometimes, ambiguous is not easy either.
I always fail the ambiguity such as
plants are efficient at acquiring carbon than fungi. (incorrect SC of OG16, #41)

it is common, but.. I always realize afterwards. I hope I could catch the ambiguity at first glance. :war :war

have a nice day
>_~
Magoosh GMAT Instructor
User avatar
G
Joined: 28 Dec 2011
Posts: 4488
Re: Digging in sediments in northern China, evidence has been gathered by  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 27 Oct 2016, 15:17
zoezhuyan wrote:
glad to get your explanation.

I am reviewing the OG16SC again,

I figured out that it will save time if I can break the effective approach or catch the test points
different approach costs different time.

I focus more on OE this time, because OE mentions the test points of each SC,
unfortunately, I realized that OE confused me, and I would suspect whether I missed something or misunderstand something.
such as "suggesting" in this case, I review it correct while OE says it is ambiguous.

I feel better after getting your explanation
thanks again Mike.

I genuinely want your suggestion of my focus on OE

mikemcgarry wrote:

I realize it can be hard for a non-native speaker to sense the rhetorical construction.
Mike :-)


Yes, not easy for me
what I get now is if no ambiguous, more concise , more better.
sometimes, ambiguous is not easy either.
I always fail the ambiguity such as
plants are efficient at acquiring carbon than fungi. (incorrect SC of OG16, #41)

it is common, but.. I always realize afterwards. I hope I could catch the ambiguity at first glance. :war :war

have a nice day
>_~

Dear zoezhuyan,
I'm happy to respond, my friend. :-)

Keep in mind that, in the GMAT, there's a BIG difference between the quality of the questions and the quality of the explanations. The questions are among the finest standardized test questions on the planet. These questions are released questions from the real GMAT: each one had to have a mountain of data behind it to get onto the test, and then it acquired another mountain of data while it was on the GMAT. These are some of the best measured, best documented questions ever created. By contrast, the explanations were written only when the OG was prepared, probably by some starving grad student. Maybe it was proofread once or twice, but essentially no statistical quality-control procedure was implemented on the explanations. Some are excellent, some are OK, and some are lacking. They are not consistent at all. I write questions & explanations for a living: some of my very best questions, < 1%, possibly may approach the level of the questions in the OG, but almost every explanation I write is better than the one given in the OG. You see, it's tricky, because it's all in the same book, in the same font: it makes a naive student believe that it's all of the same quality, but it's not.

The moral is: spend time studying the OG questions, but don't expect the OE in the book to be very illuminating. Sometimes it will help, but not always. Instead, come here to GMAT Club. The GC experts such as souvik101990 or sayantanc2k or I can give much better explanations than you find in the OG. Always search for an official question before posting it again, but you definitely will find much better explanations here than you will find in the OG. Later this year, Magoosh will be issuing a "companion to the OG" app that will have solutions to all the OG SC questions.

As for spotting ambiguity, one trick is to recognize the typical patterns. The one you cite (OG16, SC #41) has a very typical pattern, one a call a "subjective comparison" vs. an "objective comparison." Consider the ambiguous sentence:
Mike likes opera more than Chris.
That's ambiguous, because it could be either a "subjective comparison" (i.e. a comparison to the subject of the sentence) or an "objective comparison" (a comparison to the direct object of the sentence).
unambiguous subjective comparison: Mike likes opera more than Chris does.
unambiguous objective comparison: Mike likes opera more than he likes Chris.
In real life, I am quite fond of my friend Chris despite the fact that he doesn't like opera and I do, so the subjective comparison is the true statement.

That's an example of a formulaic ambiguity. Not all ambiguities on the GMAT follow a pattern like this, but some do, and the more patterns you can spot, the quicker you will be.

Does all this make sense?

Have a wonderful day, my friend. :-)
Mike :-)
_________________

Mike McGarry
Magoosh Test Prep


Education is not the filling of a pail, but the lighting of a fire. — William Butler Yeats (1865 – 1939)

Intern
Intern
avatar
B
Joined: 02 Nov 2016
Posts: 21
Schools: ISB '18
WE: Consulting (Consulting)
Re: Digging in sediments in northern China, evidence has been gathered by  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 04 Mar 2017, 07:45
mikemcgarry wrote:
bagdbmba wrote:
Digging in sediments in northern China, evidence has been gathered by scientists suggesting that complex life-forms emerged much earlier than they had previously thought.

(A) evidence has been gathered by scientists suggesting that complex life-forms emerged much earlier than they had
(B) evidence gathered by scientists suggests a much earlier emergence of complex life-forms than had been
(C) scientists have gathered evidence suggesting that complex life-forms emerged much earlier than
(D) scientists have gathered evidence that suggests a much earlier emergence of complex life-forms than that which was
(E) scientists have gathered evidence which suggests a much earlier emergence of complex life-forms than that

I'm not able to understand why C is preferred over E?
IMO, in option E -emergence of complex life-forms actually (per the evidence) is compared to that previously thought. It seems more clear to me where as option C sounds better but misses 'that' I guess.

Please explain.

krakgmat wrote:
Mike, Can you please clarify the question below. Especially, why choice D is not correct? Thank you for your help. Thanks

Dear bagdbmba & krakgmat,
I'm happy to respond. :-) You are asking about (E) & (D) respectively, so I will ignore (A) & (B), which are clearly wrong.

First of all, look at the split "evidence that" vs. "evidence which" ---- which of these two is correct? See these two posts:
http://magoosh.com/gmat/2012/that-vs-which-on-the-gmat/
http://magoosh.com/gmat/2012/gmat-gramm ... modifiers/
The fact that there is no comma following the word "evidence" means that the modifier following it is a vital noun modifier, a.k.a. a restrictive modifier. The GMAT always uses "that" for restrictive/vital modifiers, and always uses "which" for non-restrictive/non-vital modifiers. Thus, the "which" is wrong here: that's one problem with (E).

Here's the larger issue. Think about it this way. Let's state the sentence without dropping any of the repeated words in parallel. Let's pretend we can't omit anything and have to state everything explicitly. Then, we would have:

Digging in sediments in northern China, scientists have gathered evidence suggesting that complex life-forms emerged much earlier than when complex life-forms were previously thought to emerge.

Clearly, that's very awkward and much too long. We are allowed to drop everything among those orange words that are a repeat or are obvious form context. The only piece that is truly different from the part before the word "than" is "previously thought", so that's all we need.

(C) ..... than previously thought. Clear, concise, unambiguous, and grammatically correct.
(D) ..... than that which was previously thought --- very wordy, and it's unclear to what the word "that" refers
(E) ..... than that previously thought -- it's unclear to what the word "that" refers.
Think about "that previously thought" --- to what does the "that" refer? What exactly is "previously thought"? What did the scientist think at an earlier time? This really refers to the verb, to the action of the verb "emerged" --- previously, scientists thought that these critters emerged later, and now the evidence suggest that they emerged earlier. The entire comparison revolves around the verb --- when did they emerge. We cannot use the pronoun "that" to refer to the action of a verb. If we want to use "that" correctly, we would have to change around the whole sentence -----

..... gathered evidence suggesting that complex life-forms had an emergence that was much earlier than that previously thought.

Now, that version is an abominable trainwreck. Even in this version, that word "that" is entirely optional --- the phrase "than previously thought" is still 100% correct by itself, but at least in this sentence, the "that" isn't absolutely wrong when it's included, because there's a clear noun antecedent. In choices (D) & (E), the word "that" is 100% wrong, because it is trying to refer to the action of a verb, which is not allowed.

This is why (C) is not only the best answer but the only possible answer.

Does all this make sense?
Mike :-)



Hi Mike,

(C) scientists have gathered evidence suggesting that complex life-forms emerged much earlier than

In this option than previously thought needs a subject...who previously thought ?
like in A) atleast this part is covered and it says that the scientists had previously thought

(A) evidence has been gathered by scientists suggesting that complex life-forms emerged much earlier than they had

I understand A) is wrong due to other reasons,but I feel C) is correct if it was
scientists have gathered evidence suggesting that complex life-forms emerged much earlier than they had

Please correct me me if I am wrong .

Saksham.
GMAT Club Bot
Re: Digging in sediments in northern China, evidence has been gathered by &nbs [#permalink] 04 Mar 2017, 07:45

Go to page   Previous    1   2   3    Next  [ 49 posts ] 

Display posts from previous: Sort by

Digging in sediments in northern China, evidence has been gathered by

  new topic post reply Question banks Downloads My Bookmarks Reviews Important topics  


Copyright

GMAT Club MBA Forum Home| About| Terms and Conditions and Privacy Policy| GMAT Club Rules| Contact| Sitemap

Powered by phpBB © phpBB Group | Emoji artwork provided by EmojiOne

Kindly note that the GMAT® test is a registered trademark of the Graduate Management Admission Council®, and this site has neither been reviewed nor endorsed by GMAC®.