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# Disease X has afflicted cattle and cut into ranchers' profits. A genet

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Disease X has afflicted cattle and cut into ranchers' profits. A genet  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 18 Feb 2019, 03:52
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Disease X has afflicted cattle and cut into ranchers' profits. A genetic cause of the disease has been identified, as well as a gene therapy that can completely eradicate the cause of the disease in cattle. By applying this gene therapy to their cattle and eradicating the genetic susceptibility to the disease, ranchers will be able to carry on business in the future without incidence of Disease X in their cattle.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

(A) The gene therapy will not cause any defects in cattle.

(B) All cases of Disease X are equally severe.

(C) There are no treatments of Disease X that are more effective than the gene therapy in question.

(D) There are no diseases other than Disease X that currently threaten the cattle.

(E) There are no precursors to or triggers of Disease X, genetic or otherwise, other than the one targeted by the new gene therapy.

Why can't it be A or D? For ans A, if the gene therapy cause defects in cattle, the rancher's business will be affected too. For Ans D, if there are other diseases other than X, the rancher's business will be affected too? Both questioned the use of gene therapy.

Can anyone explain to me?

Thank you.

Originally posted by coolweez on 17 Sep 2016, 22:49.
Last edited by Bunuel on 18 Feb 2019, 03:52, edited 3 times in total.
Renamed the topic and edited the question.
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Re: Disease X has afflicted cattle and cut into ranchers' profits. A genet  [#permalink]

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17 Sep 2016, 23:16
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1
You have to look at the conclusion properly. Conclusion states that "ranchers will be able to carry on business in the future without incidence of Disease X in their cattle". So to weaken this we have to come up with something ,negation of which proves that the disease might not be eradicated fully. Negation of Option E clearly weakens the complete conclusion. However negation of option A says nothing about the eradication of the disease. For option D negation shows that there might be some other disease that can threaten the cattle but we are not concerned about other disease (out of scope). We only want the eradication of specific disease & ranchers carrying forward business.

Option E : there are two things: necessary condition and sufficient condition. Author assumes that gene therapy is sufficient condition for eradication of the disease . But if there are more than one causes for the disease and you are treating only one of them , eradication might not be happen.Targeting one of the causes represents necessary condition only. Sufficient condition would be that only one cause of the disease exists and targeting that particular factor will ensure eradication.
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Re: Disease X has afflicted cattle and cut into ranchers' profits. A genet  [#permalink]

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17 Sep 2016, 23:24
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In addition to the above explanation, I would like to add one more point.

Notice the premise "as well as a gene therapy that can completely eradicate the cause of the disease in cattle.".

So, the author is assuming that there wouldn't be any other cause for this diseases to occur. Hence, E is the right answer.
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Re: Disease X has afflicted cattle and cut into ranchers' profits. A genet  [#permalink]

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07 Nov 2016, 11:02
1
2
Disease X has afflicted cattle and cut into ranchers' profits. A genetic cause of the disease has been identified, as well as a gene therapy that can completely eradicate the cause of the disease in cattle. By applying this gene therapy to their cattle and eradicating the genetic susceptibility to the disease, ranchers will be able to carry on business in the future without incidence of Disease X in their cattle.

1) Paraphrase first: And find the crux to the argument. Assumption questions should have a logical flow.
I have seen users blindly negating assumption questions and choosing wrong.
2) About negation : Negating an option should "NOT" destroy the argument as a whole rather weaken it.
3) Always remember, assumption should be within the purview of the argument and logically connected to the conclusion.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

A. The gene therapy will not cause any defects in cattle.

"Will" always represents an extremity.
Negation : The gene therapy "does cause" defects to the cattle, This DESTROYS the argument as a whole.
The argument is about following the approach of gene therapy to eradicate Disease X, but if, the therapy itself causes defects, then the argument (Conclusion and premise) is null and void. OUT.

B. All cases of Disease X are equally severe.

Nothing about severity is mentioned. OUT.

C. There are no treatments of Disease X that are more effective than the gene therapy in question.

Effectiveness is not within the purview of the argument. OUT.

D. There are no diseases other than Disease X that currently threaten the cattle.

Even if there are diseases, the argument's concern is related to "Disease X". My point here is logical flow and within the purview. This option is clearly OUT.

E. There are no precursors to or triggers of Disease X, genetic or otherwise, other than the one targeted by the new gene therapy.

Scope of Argument: The option is speaking of triggers of "Disease X" --> Within the purview.

Negation: There are triggers apart from the one targeted by the new gene therapy. If there are, then the ranchers may not be able to carry out business in the future. CORRECT.

Also notice that between A and E, A destroys the argument but E weakens it. That's the difference.
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Re: Disease X has afflicted cattle and cut into ranchers' profits. A genet  [#permalink]

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07 Nov 2016, 12:25
coolweez wrote:
Disease X has afflicted cattle and cut into ranchers' profits. A genetic cause of the disease has been identified, as well as a gene therapy that can completely eradicate the cause of the disease in cattle. By applying this gene therapy to their cattle and eradicating the genetic susceptibility to the disease, ranchers will be able to carry on business in the future without incidence of Disease X in their cattle.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

A. The gene therapy will not cause any defects in cattle.

B. All cases of Disease X are equally severe.

C. There are no treatments of Disease X that are more effective than the gene therapy in question.

D. There are no diseases other than Disease X that currently threaten the cattle.

E. There are no precursors to or triggers of Disease X, genetic or otherwise, other than the one targeted by the new gene therapy.

 Genetic Cause -----> Diesease XGene therapy can completely eradicate Diesease X in cattle -----> Ranchers can carry on Business

(A) Any other defects is not within the scope of the stimulus...

(B) Severity of diesease is not our concern..

(C) There may be other treatments , but we are not interested in it, neither does it come within the scope of the stimulus...

(D) Other diesease affecting cattle is out of scope...

(E) If there are other triggers of Diesease X then the gene therapy will not eradicate Diesease X in cattle and the problems will not be resolved...

Hence answer must be (E)...

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Re: Disease X has afflicted cattle and cut into ranchers' profits. A genet  [#permalink]

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16 Nov 2018, 03:55
Quote:
Disease X has afflicted cattle and cut into ranchers' profits. A genetic cause of the disease has been identified, as well as a gene therapy that can completely eradicate the cause of the disease in cattle. By applying this gene therapy to their cattle and eradicating the genetic susceptibility to the disease, ranchers will be able to carry on business in the future without incidence of Disease X in their cattle.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

A. The gene therapy will not cause any defects in cattle.

B. All cases of Disease X are equally severe.

C. There are no treatments of Disease X that are more effective than the gene therapy in question.

D. There are no diseases other than Disease X that currently threaten the cattle.

E. There are no precursors to or triggers of Disease X, genetic or otherwise, other than the one targeted by the new gene therapy.

HI GMATNinja , mikemcgarry , egmat , RonPurewal , DmitryFarber , MagooshExpert (Carolyn), ccooley , SarahPurewal , dave13

Can you please help me with this question.

A. The gene therapy will not cause any defects in cattle. --> Why is it wrong? If gene therapy causes some other defects how will be able carry on business in the future?

D. There are no diseases other than Disease X that currently threaten the cattle.

E. There are no precursors to or triggers of Disease X, genetic or otherwise, other than the one targeted by the new gene therapy.

Unable to eliminate among above three
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Re: Disease X has afflicted cattle and cut into ranchers' profits. A genet  [#permalink]

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16 Nov 2018, 05:16
1
NandishSS wrote:

Can you please help me with this question.

A. The gene therapy will not cause any defects in cattle. --> Why is it wrong? If gene therapy causes some other defects how will be able carry on business in the future?

D. There are no diseases other than Disease X that currently threaten the cattle.

E. There are no precursors to or triggers of Disease X, genetic or otherwise, other than the one targeted by the new gene therapy.

Unable to eliminate among above three

hello NandishSS how is your gmat life

lets read again:

Disease X has afflicted cattle and cut into ranchers' profits. A genetic cause of the disease has been identified, as well as a gene therapy that can completely eradicate the cause of the disease in cattle. By applying this gene therapy to their cattle and eradicating the genetic susceptibility to the disease, ranchers will be able to carry on business in the future without incidence of Disease X in their cattle.

To summarize:
some diseases occurred and infected cattle;
The cause of diseases was identified;
The genetic therapy WILL ERADDICATE THE GENETIC SUCEPTIBILITY TO THIS DISEASE; ( It means that cattle`s immune system won`t be susceptible to this diseases in future even if virus appears )
Farmers will be happy;

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends? ( based on my CR experience your assumption must be relevant to main idea of topic)

A. The gene therapy will not cause any defects in cattle. (This is out of scope, “the defects” are not mentioned at all) Also DEFECTS is not the main idea of the topic. We talk mainly about gene therapy that cures cattle.

B. All cases of Disease X are equally severe. (we are not concerned about how severe disease is because this is not the main idea of the topic)

C. There are no treatments of Disease X that are more effective than the gene therapy in question. (you can`t assume this because you don’t know)

D. There are no diseases other than Disease X that currently threaten the cattle. (you can`t assume this because you don’t know, how can you know this ? )

E. There are no precursors to or triggers of Disease X, genetic or otherwise, other than the one targeted by the new gene therapy. ( Correct. Let me remind you the extract below:

By applying this gene therapy to their cattle and eradicating the genetic susceptibility to the disease, ranchers will be able to carry on business in the future without incidence of Disease X in their cattle.

So as per vet docs there no precursors i.e. signs of disease X, other than the one that is being eradicated through genetic therapy.

Based on option E, you can safely assume that X diseases is ONLY triggered by THAT ONE GENETIC CAUSE THAT IS BEING ERADICATED THROUGH GENETIC THERAPY BECAUSE ranchers will be able to carry on business in the future without incidence of Disease X in their cattle.

have a great day!
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Re: Disease X has afflicted cattle and cut into ranchers' profits. A genet  [#permalink]

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16 Nov 2018, 05:28
dave13

Quote:

hello NandishSS

how is your gmat life Struggle is real, but won't give up

A. The gene therapy will not cause any defects in cattle. (This is out of scope, “the defects” are not mentioned at all) Also DEFECTS is not the main idea of the topic. We talk mainly about gene therapy that cures cattle.

Assumption can be new info as well

have a great day!

have a great day you too!
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Re: Disease X has afflicted cattle and cut into ranchers' profits. A genet  [#permalink]

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16 Nov 2018, 05:41
NandishSS wrote:

Assumption can be new info as well

have a great day you too!

NandishSS
Assumption can be new Info YET RELEVANT TO MAIN IDEA, ( defects in cattle - is NOT MAIN IDEA/ NOT A PRIMARY PURPOSE OF "PASSAGE"

thanks
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Re: Disease X has afflicted cattle and cut into ranchers' profits. A genet  [#permalink]

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18 Dec 2018, 23:24
Narrowing down to A and E
E seems more correct as assuming that there is no alternate cause for the same
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Re: Disease X has afflicted cattle and cut into ranchers' profits. A genet  [#permalink]

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04 Feb 2019, 03:34
E is the right answer. A is immaterial to the conclusion, whether or not the gene therapy will cause defects does not change the fact that there will be no more incidences of Disease X. B is completely immaterial, as are C and D. The presence of other diseases that threaten cattle, presence of more effective treatments and relative severity of each individual case does not affect the conclusion. E is the right answer since this assumptions closes the possibility that here could be something that could cause Disease X that the gene therapy does not target.
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Re: Disease X has afflicted cattle and cut into ranchers' profits. A genet  [#permalink]

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04 Apr 2019, 23:27
1
Quote:
Disease X has afflicted cattle and cut into ranchers' profits. A genetic cause of the disease has been identified, as well as a gene therapy that can completely eradicate the cause of the disease in cattle. By applying this gene therapy to their cattle and eradicating the genetic susceptibility to the disease, ranchers will be able to carry on business in the future without incidence of Disease X in their cattle.

Conclusion: Ranchers will be able to carry on business in the future without incidence of Disease X in their cattle. Why?
Because gene therapy will eradicate the genetic susceptibility to the disease.
But is genetic susceptibility the only cause of disease X ? what if there are other causes that gene therapy cannot cure?

Quote:
Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

Quote:
(A) The gene therapy will not cause any defects in cattle.

Defects in cattle is out of scope for the argument. It is a matter of whether Disease X can be eradicated or not.

Quote:
(B) All cases of Disease X are equally severe.

Severity of Disease X is out of scope.

Quote:
(C) There are no treatments of Disease X that are more effective than the gene therapy in question.

Effectiveness of gene therapy is out of scope.

Quote:
(D) There are no diseases other than Disease X that currently threaten the cattle.

Scope of discussion is Disease X. We are not concerned about other Diseases.

Quote:
(E) There are no precursors to or triggers of Disease X, genetic or otherwise, other than the one targeted by the new gene therapy

This sentence simplifies to - there are no other causes for Disease X, other than the one gene therapy can eradicate. Hence, correct.
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Re: Disease X has afflicted cattle and cut into ranchers' profits. A genet   [#permalink] 04 Apr 2019, 23:27
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