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Re: During Dostoyevskys time there were two significant and opposing dire [#permalink]
Q1 - Why E is correct and A is not correct. How is "the importance of formal aspects in a literary work" justified?

Q6 - Please explain in detail with relevant portions of the passage
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Re: During Dostoyevskys time there were two significant and opposing dire [#permalink]
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desertEagle wrote:
Q1 - Why E is correct and A is not correct. How is "the importance of formal aspects in a literary work" justified?

Q6 - Please explain in detail with relevant portions of the passage


Explanation


1. Which one of the following most accurately expresses the main point of the passage?

Difficulty Level: 650-700

Explanation

Refer to the bottom line to find the answer. The passage explains the literary view of Dostoyevsky, specifically showing how it is distinct from the prevailing theories of his time by differing about the definition of reality, the artistry of literature, and the requirement that literature serve a useful purpose.

A. No. The passage does not mention that Dostoyevsky derived his views from the two opposing strains of literary criticism.

B. No. The passage indicates that Dostoyevsky had a different definition of “reality” and that he insisted that writers expand this reality for the reader.

C. No. The passage points to three ways Dostoyevsky differed from the two dominant strains of Russian literary criticism.

D. No. The passage argues that Dostoyevsky differed in three ways from the two dominant strains of Russian literary criticism. The depiction of reality was only one of those three elements that comprise the main point of the passage.

E. Yes. The passage discusses these three elements as ways Dostoyevsky differed from the two dominant strains of Russian literary criticism.

Answer: E
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Re: During Dostoyevskys time there were two significant and opposing dire [#permalink]
1
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desertEagle wrote:
Q1 - Why E is correct and A is not correct. How is "the importance of formal aspects in a literary work" justified?

Q6 - Please explain in detail with relevant portions of the passage


Explanation


6. It can be inferred from the passage that Dostoyevsky would most likely have agreed with which one of the following statements about the view held by some Russian critics that art should stand high above the present and everyday?

Difficulty Level: 750

Explanation

The credited response should be consistent with Dostoyevsky’s three definitions as they relate to the first position mentioned in the second sentence of the passage.

A. No. Dostoyevsky does not define “artistic” as having a strong element of fantasy.

B. No. The first position does not recognize that reality is more than the details of life.

C. Yes. The first paragraph states Dostoyevsky’s belief that reality is the crucial source of all literature.(Lines 10-12)

D. No. The first paragraph indicates that for Dostoyevsky there was “no distinction in principle between fantasy and reality,” so he would not have criticized others for agreeing with him.

E. No. The first position insists that art exists above the present and the every day and not that it furthers a societal end, which is the view of the radical critics.

Answer: C
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Re: During Dostoyevskys time there were two significant and opposing dire [#permalink]
What's wrong with option C in Q8 ? Anyone ?
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Re: During Dostoyevskys time there were two significant and opposing dire [#permalink]
Expert Reply
Shadyshades wrote:
What's wrong with option C in Q8 ? Anyone ?


The second paragraph’s discussion of Dostoyevsky’s views on reality does not mention removing elements of concrete reality. His beliefs insisted that literature not be limited to perceptible reality. Hence (C) is wrong.
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Re: During Dostoyevskys time there were two significant and opposing dire [#permalink]
Q7 - Please explain in detail with relevant portions of the passage
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Re: During Dostoyevskys time there were two significant and opposing dire [#permalink]
Expert Reply
Vibhatsu wrote:
Q7 - Please explain in detail with relevant portions of the passage


Explanation


7. Given the information in the passage, Dostoyevsky would have been most likely to agree with which one of the following statements about works of literature?

Difficulty Level: 750

Explanation

The credited response will be consistent with a statement about Dostoyevsky from the passage. Refer back to the text of the passage to confirm the answer.

A. Yes. The third paragraph discusses Dostoyevsky’s definition of “artistic” that states that a work of literature is artistic if it conveys the thoughts of the author through characters and events. A work that serves a political view would necessarily need to be well-written to convey the view successfully.

B. No. Dostoyevsky’s definition of “artistic,” which he states is wellwritten, does not require the author to convey a particular political point of view.

C. No. Dostoyevsky’s definition of “artistic,” which he states is wellwritten, does not define non-artistic works of art as serving a political view.

D. No. Dostoyevsky’s definition of “artistic,” which he states is wellwritten, does not require the author to convey a particular political point of view.

E. No. Dostoyevsky’s definition of “artistic,” which he states is wellwritten, does not define non-artistic works of art as serving a political view.

Answer: A
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Re: During Dostoyevskys time there were two significant and opposing dire [#permalink]
1
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1. Which one of the following most accurately expresses the main point of the passage?

(A) By drawing on elements from the two opposing strains of Russian literary criticism, Dostoyevsky developed the theoretical apparatus for a new direction in Russian literature.
Dostoyevsky championed his own interpretation of depiction of reality through art. This was at significant variance to the twos trains of Russian literary criticism discussed in the first few lines of the passage.

(B) In opposition to the views of the two most prominent groups of Russian literary critics, Dostoyevsky believed that literature should keep itself removed from reality.
Dostoyevsky understanding of reality went deeper than the one prevailing among radical critics (lines 10-12). He didn't subscribe to the view that 'literature should keep itself removed from reality' -- as mentioned in this prompt.

(C) Dostoyevsky’s indictment of the radical Russian critics rested solely on his objection to the radical critics’ stipulation that literature be useful to society.
extreme option..there was variance also regarding understanding of reality, the aspects of literary work etc.

(D) In his critical writings, Dostoyevsky championed the freedom of the artist against the narrow constraints imposed by the radical Russian critics’ concern with the depiction of reality.
mentions only a part of the views of Dostoevsky...one of the several premises mentioned in the passage..Hence,NOT the main point of the passage.

(E) Dostoyevsky’s position on literature differed sharply from that of the radical Russian critics with respect to the nature of reality, the importance of formal aspects in a literary work, and the utility of art.
Includes all the aspects highlighted regarding interpretation of depiction of reality through art. Also, Dostoyevsky’s position was at significant variance to the twos trains of Russian literary criticism discussed in the first few lines of the passage...CORRECT option

(E) is the correct option
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During Dostoyevskys time there were two significant and opposing dire [#permalink]
1
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2. Which one of the following works most clearly exemplifies writing Dostoyevsky would have deemed “artistic”?


Reference from the Passage. Lines 36-40 highlights the following :- But what does it mean to say that a work is “artistic”? Dostoyevsky defined it thus: “To say that a novelist is ‘artistic’ means that he possesses a talent to express his thoughts in characters and images so that when the reader has finished the novel, he has fully understood the author’s thoughts.


(A) a fictionalized account based on interviews with patients that illustrates the brutal facts of illness
expression through thoughts/ideas ---NOT in line with a form of writing that Dostoyevsky would have deemed “artistic”

(B) a novel in which the author’s ideas are given substance through suitable characters and events
exemplification through characters and images --highlights this prompt as the CORRECT option

(C) a novel in which the author attempted to use allegory to communicate a criticism of feudal society
expression through symbolism ---NOT in line with a form of writing that Dostoyevsky would have deemed “artistic”

(D) an autobiographical essay in which the author chronicles the outstanding events in his life
expression through only the 'outstanding' events --- again NOT in line with a form of writing that Dostoyevsky would have deemed “artistic”

(E) a short story in which the characters debate how to solve various social problems
again, this implies expression through thoughts/ideas ---NOT in line with a form of writing that Dostoyevsky would have deemed “artistic”

(B) is the correct option
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Re: During Dostoyevskys time there were two significant and opposing dire [#permalink]
1
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3. According to the passage, Dostoyevsky disagreed with the radical critics’ view of realism in literature because he believed

(A) reality is not independent of the experiences of individuals
Dostoyevsky opined that reality depends on individual's perception, so the reality alone, as perceived by one individual, may not encompass complete scope of literary criticism; thus, he disagreed with the radical critics’ view of realism in literature..CORRECT answer

(B) realism is unequal to the task of representing political views
representation of political views -- not supported by Dostoyevsky

(C) art should be elevated above the portrayal of reality
though correct interpreation of Dostoyevsky's views; however this was not the reason why he disagreed with the radical critics’ view of realism in literature

(D) realism does not in fact facilitate the exposure of social inequities or contribute to the creation of a new society
contrary to Dostoyevsky's views !!

(E) reality is not the crucial source of successful literature
in fact, Dostoyevsky contended with the view that reality was the source of successful literature..contrary to what was argued by Dostoyevsky

(A) is the CORRECT answer
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During Dostoyevskys time there were two significant and opposing dire [#permalink]
1
Kudos
4. In the context of the passage, the description of a work of literature as “useful” mainly refers to its

Note :- the description of a work of literature as “useful” relates to the radical Russian critics' view


(A) proficiency at depicting the realm of the fantastic
realm of the fantastic not supported by the Russian critics' interpretation of the 'usefulness' of the literature

(B) effectiveness at communicating the author’s ideas
Dostoevsky's view of effective 'literature', while the 'usefulness' of the literature is related to the radical Russian critics' view

(C) ability to help bring about social change
this was precisely the idea propagated by the radical Russian critics..CORRECT answer

(D) facility for exploding the boundaries of the tangible world
again, this prompt relates to Dostoevsky's view of effective 'literature', while the 'usefulness' of the literature is related to the radical Russian critics' view

(E) capacity to advance a particular theory of literature
Irrelevant option

(C) is the CORRECT answer
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Re: During Dostoyevskys time there were two significant and opposing dire [#permalink]
1
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5. Which one of the following most accurately describes the organization of the material presented in the passage?

The first paragraph of the passage highlights two views as mentioned below :-

two significant and opposing directions in Russian literary criticism. One position maintained that art stood high above the present and the everyday, while the radical view maintained that art had a right to exist only if it found its sources in concrete reality, and, through the exposure of want and injustice, it contributed to the creation of a new society; literature, in other words, should be useful.

While, the balance three paragraphs highlight/explain differences of Dostoyevsky's views vis-a-vis the aforementioned 'radical 'view (ie, the 2nd view)

(A) Three positions are presented and each is elaborated in detail.
Incorrect as explained above

(B) Three positions are presented and the third is differentiated from the first two in detail.
the third view (Dostoyevsky's view) has been differerentiated vis-a-vis the aforementioned 'radical 'view (ie, the 2nd view) only

(C) Three positions are presented and the third is differentiated from the second in detail.
the three paragraphs (2,3 & 4) are dedicated towards differences of Dostoyevsky's views vis-a-vis the aforementioned 'radical 'view (ie, the 2nd view)

(D) Three positions are presented and the third is shown to be superior to the first two.
No comparisons drawn in the passage..passage's contents are descriptive in nature, not analytical

(E) Three positions are presented and the third is shown to be inferior to the second.
same explanation as above..No comparisons drawn in the passage..passage's contents are descriptive in nature, not analytical

(C) is the correct answer
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During Dostoyevskys time there were two significant and opposing dire [#permalink]
1
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6. It can be inferred from the passage that Dostoyevsky would most likely have agreed with which one of the following statements about the view held by some Russian critics that art should stand high above the present and everyday?

(A) It is correct because of its requirement that art have a strong element of the fantastic.
'high above the present and everyday' does not imply the inclusion of the 'fantastic'

(B) It is correct because it recognizes that reality is more than just an enumeration of the mundane details of life.
Dostoyevsky didn't agree to the Russian critics' view about perception of reality

(C) It is incorrect because reality must be the foundation of all literature.
Dostoyevsky held the view that that reality is the framework for effective literature, hence he considered the Russian critics' view as incorrect..CORRECT option

(D) It is incorrect because it makes no distinction between reality and fantasy.
this was not the basis for Dostoyevsky holding the Russian critics' view as incorrect

(E) It is incorrect because of its insistence that art further some societal end.
societal end was also supported by Dostoyevsky bu inclusion of reality (through characters and images) along with the fantastic

(C) is the correct answer
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During Dostoyevskys time there were two significant and opposing dire [#permalink]
1
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7. Given the information in the passage, Dostoyevsky would have been most likely to agree with which one of the following statements about works of literature?

Reference from the Passage. (Lines 35-41) But what does it mean to say that a work is “artistic”? Dostoyevsky defined it thus: “To say that a novelist is ‘artistic’ means that he possesses a talent to express his thoughts in characters and images so that when the reader has finished the novel, he has fully understood the author’s thoughts. Therefore, artistry is quite simply the ability to write well


(A) Only works of literature that are well written can serve a particular political view.
It can be inferred from the aforementioned extract that only well written literature can express thoughts in an effective manner, and hence can serve a particular view

(B) Only works of literature that serve a particular political view can be said to be well written.
Not necessarily correct in view of the aforementioned extract of the passage

(C) Works of literature that are not well written always attempt to serve a particular political view.
'Not well written literature' will never serve to justify the embedded views

(D) A work of literature that is well written cannot serve any particular political view.
Incorrect interpretation..well written literary work will always serve the embedded view

(E) A work of literature that serves a particular political view cannot be well written.
Contrary to the argument as per the above passage reference

(A) is the CORRECT answer
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During Dostoyevskys time there were two significant and opposing dire [#permalink]
1
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8. The passage suggests that Dostoyevsky’s attitude toward the radical critics’ view would be most softened if the radical critics were to


Reference from the Passage. (Lines 35-41) But what does it mean to say that a work is “artistic”? Dostoyevsky defined it thus: “To say that a novelist is ‘artistic’ means that he possesses a talent to express his thoughts in characters and images so that when the reader has finished the novel, he has fully understood the author’s thoughts. Therefore, artistry is quite simply the ability to write well


(A) draw a sharper distinction between reality and fantasy when evaluating the content of a literary work

(B) put clarity of purpose ahead of formal aspects when evaluating a literary work

(C) acknowledge the importance of eliminating elements of concrete reality from literary works

(D) recognize the full significance of artistic merit when evaluating literary works
significance of artistic merit has been emphasized by Dostoyevsky, as evident from lines 35-41 of the passage..hence if radical critics were to acknowledge the same, Dostoyevsky would contend with such views of radical critics

(E) explain more fully their demand that reality be depicted as it is

(D) is the correct answer
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Re: During Dostoyevskys time there were two significant and opposing dire [#permalink]
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Re: During Dostoyevskys time there were two significant and opposing dire [#permalink]
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