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# During the 1980’s approximately \$50 billion in private investment capi

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Joined: 11 Jun 2007
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During the 1980’s approximately \$50 billion in private investment capi  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 10 Aug 2019, 02:14
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Difficulty:

35% (medium)

Question Stats:

70% (01:29) correct 30% (01:34) wrong based on 576 sessions

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During the 1980’s approximately \$50 billion in private investment capital is estimated to have left Mexico and added to the strain on the country’s debt-ridden economy.

(A) During the 1980’s approximately \$50 billion in private investment capital is estimated to have left Mexico and added

(B) During the 1980’s it is estimated that approximately \$50 billion in private investment capital left Mexico and added

(C) It is estimated that there was approximately \$50 billion in private investment capital that left Mexico during the 1980’s and added

(D) It is estimated that during the 1980’s approximately \$50 billion in private investment capital left Mexico, adding

(E) Approximately \$50 billion in private investment capital is estimated as having left Mexico during the 1980’s, adding

Can someone please explain why 'estimated as having left' in (E) is wrong? I would appreciate if the reason provided is more helpful than 'sounds awkward' )-.

I understand that 'estimated to be' is idiomatic but looks like 'estimated as' is also idiomatic.

Originally posted by eyunni on 24 Oct 2007, 09:15.
Last edited by Bunuel on 10 Aug 2019, 02:14, edited 1 time in total.
Renamed the topic and edited the question.
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Re: During the 1980’s approximately \$50 billion in private investment capi  [#permalink]

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06 Apr 2010, 20:49
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5
Hey All,

Just wanted to weigh in on this one quickly. You've all arrived at the right answer, but there's been some misinformation spread about why some of the answer choices are wrong. Let's look at them one by one.

During the 1980’s approximately \$50 billion in private investment capital is estimated to have left Mexico and added to the strain on the country’s debt-ridden economy.

The two major issues here are Modifiers and Parallelism. If you don't see that...it's time to buy the MGMAT SC guide! : )

(A) During the 1980’s approximately \$50 billion in private investment capital is estimated to have left Mexico and added
PROBLEMS:

MODIFIER: Prepositional phrases will often be bounced around sentences. This will necessarily change the meaning. DO NOT think that it doesn't matter where these prepositional phrases go. The phrase here is "During the 1980s" which is modifying the verb "is estimated" in this answer choice. But the estimation didn't happen during the 1890s, the money left during the 1980s. ALSO, the word "have" is not incorrect. It is neither singular nor plural, but part of the infinitive form "to have".

PARALLEL: The capital did not "leave Mexico" and "add strain". The FACT that money disappeared added strain, not the money itself.

(B) During the 1980’s it is estimated that approximately \$50 billion in private investment capital left Mexico and added

PROBLEMS:

MODIFIER: Same as A.

PARALLEL: Same as A.

(C) It is estimated that there was approximately \$50 billion in private investment capital that left Mexico during the 1980’s and added

PROBLEMS:

MODIFIER: This issue is fixed because the "during the 1980's" comes AFTER the estimation now.

PARALLEL: Same as A.

(D) It is estimated that during the 1980’s approximately \$50 billion in private investment capital left Mexico, adding

MODIFIER: This issue is fixed, because the "during the 1980s" comes AFTER the word estimated now.

PARALLEL: Instead of keeping capital as the subject of the verb "add", we've changed the verb "add" to the participle/modifier "adding", which modifies the FACT that the money left Mexico. This is what we were looking for all along.

(E) Approximately \$50 billion in private investment capital is estimated as having left Mexico during the 1980’s, adding

MODIFIER: During the 198s is okay.

IDIOM: You have to say "estimate to", not "estimate as" or even "estimate at".

Hope that helps!

-tommy
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Re: During the 1980’s approximately \$50 billion in private investment capi  [#permalink]

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24 Oct 2007, 09:36
1
eyunni wrote:
260. During the 1980’s approximately \$50 billion in private investment capital is estimated to have left Mexico and added to the strain on the country’s debt-ridden economy.
(A) During the 1980’s approximately \$50 billion in private investment capital is estimated to have left Mexico and added
(B) During the 1980’s it is estimated that approximately \$50 billion in private investment capital left Mexico and added
(C) It is estimated that there was approximately \$50 billion in private investment capital that left Mexico during the 1980’s and added
(D) It is estimated that during the 1980’s approximately \$50 billion in private investment capital left Mexico, adding
(E) Approximately \$50 billion in private investment capital is estimated as having left Mexico during the 1980’s, adding

Can someone please explain why 'estimated as having left' in (E) is wrong? I would appreciate if the reason provided is more helpful than 'sounds awkward' )-.

I understand that 'estimated to be' is idiomatic but looks like 'estimated as' is also idiomatic.

\$50 million was the estimated amount that had supposedly left mexico.

More than the grammar involved just look at E - it says Approx 50 mil is estimated has having left mexico - indicating that the estimate was that the money had left mexico - where as the it was the AMOUNT whose estimated value was 50 Million THAT had left mexico.

All things considered D sounds best.
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Re: During the 1980’s approximately \$50 billion in private investment capi  [#permalink]

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24 Oct 2007, 10:19
3
1
A, B, C are all bad because of the "and added"...the capital itself wasn't added to the strain.

E uses the very strange "as having", which might be grammatically correct but is clearly stylistically inferior to D.

D
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Re: During the 1980’s approximately \$50 billion in private investment capi  [#permalink]

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04 May 2008, 00:25
3
1
Nihit wrote:
During the 1980’s approximately \$50 billion in private investment capital is estimated to have left Mexico and added to the strain on the country’s debt-ridden economy.
(A) During the 1980’s approximately \$50 billion in private investment capital is estimated to have left Mexico and added
(B) During the 1980’s it is estimated that approximately \$50 billion in private investment capital left Mexico and added
(C) It is estimated that there was approximately \$50 billion in private investment capital that left Mexico during the 1980’s and added
(D) It is estimated that during the 1980’s approximately \$50 billion in private investment capital left Mexico, adding
(E) Approximately \$50 billion in private investment capital is estimated as having left Mexico during the 1980’s, adding

This is one in my error log. Fortunately, someday ago I choose it correct. And here is my reasoning. Admittedly, this error is one of the toghest one I face

(A) During the 1980’s approximately \$50 billion in private investment capital is estimated to have left Mexico and added

"during the 1980's" modifies 50 billion, so "main verb-IS" must be "WAS"

(B) During the 1980’s it is estimated that approximately \$50 billion in private investment capital left Mexico and added

Again, "During the 1980's" modifies "it", "IS" must be "WAS"

(C) It is estimated that there was approximately \$50 billion in private investment capital that left Mexico during the 1980’s and added

"during the 1980's" modifies Verb-left, so the meaning changed

(D) It is estimated that during the 1980’s approximately \$50 billion in private investment capital left Mexico, adding
(E) Approximately \$50 billion in private investment capital is estimated as having left Mexico during the 1980’s, adding
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Re: During the 1980’s approximately \$50 billion in private investment capi  [#permalink]

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02 Feb 2016, 19:40
1
The core problem lies in equating the capital 'leaving' the country with 'the adding' to the strain. Adding to the strain is an effect of the 'leaving'. Hence leaving should be given the prime status and be referred by a verb. The adding part should be referred by a 'comma + ing' present participle (, adding) and not by ‘added’. Therefore, we can eliminate ABC on that score alone. Between D and E, D outplaces E with the better idiomatic use of 'estimated that'.
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Re: During the 1980’s approximately \$50 billion in private investment capi  [#permalink]

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21 Mar 2017, 02:46
During the 1980’s approximately \$50 billion in private investment capital is estimated to have left Mexico and added to the strain on the country’s debt-ridden economy.

(A) During the 1980’s approximately \$50 billion in private investment capital is estimated to have left Mexico and added --> Looks like estimation was done in 1980. Illogical
(B) During the 1980’s it is estimated that approximately \$50 billion in private investment capital left Mexico and added --> Same as A
(C) It is estimated that there was approximately \$50 billion in private investment capital that left Mexico during the 1980’s and added --> Investment left and investment added. ILLOGICAL
(D) It is estimated that during the 1980’s approximately \$50 billion in private investment capital left Mexico, adding
(E) Approximately \$50 billion in private investment capital is estimated as having left Mexico during the 1980’s, adding --> Same as A and I hate Having.
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Re: During the 1980’s approximately \$50 billion in private investment capi  [#permalink]

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26 Jun 2018, 03:15
it is hard to realize modification between doing and main clause. in this case, two action is not separate and is considered one action. the action in doing can be context, reason, or effect of action in main clauses. the meaning relation is relation of reason, effect and contest and, so, is called versatile relation.
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25 Nov 2019, 11:01
Hello from the GMAT Club VerbalBot!

Thanks to another GMAT Club member, I have just discovered this valuable topic, yet it had no discussion for over a year. I am now bumping it up - doing my job. I think you may find it valuable (esp those replies with Kudos).

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Re: good one   [#permalink] 25 Nov 2019, 11:01
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