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Either food scarcity or excessive hunting can threaten a population of

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Either food scarcity or excessive hunting can threaten a population of  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 16 Jun 2019, 21:55
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Which of the following most logically completes the reasoning?

Either food scarcity or excessive hunting can threaten a population of animals. If the group faces food scarcity, individuals in the group will reach reproductive maturity later than otherwise. If the group faces excessive hunting, individuals that reach reproductive maturity earlier will come to predominate. Therefore, it should be possible to determine whether prehistoric mastodons became extinct because of food scarcity or human hunting, since there are fossilized mastodon remains from both before and after mastodon populations declined, and __________.


(A) there are more fossilized mastodon remains from the period before mastodon populations began to decline than from after that period

(B) the average age at which mastodons from a given period reach reproductive maturity can be established from their fossilized remains

(C) it can be accurately estimated from fossilized remains when mastodons became extinct

(D) it is not known when humans first began hunting mastodons

(E) climate changes may have gradually reduced the food available to mastodons


Official Guide for GMAT Verbal Review 2018

Practice Question
Question No.: CR 130

Originally posted by HBSDreamer2015 on 19 Jan 2011, 18:19.
Last edited by Bunuel on 16 Jun 2019, 21:55, edited 7 times in total.
Edited the question.
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Re: Either food scarcity or excessive hunting can threaten a population of  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Jan 2011, 21:18
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Hi HBS, welcome the club!!

Find my comments in colors below.


HBSDreamer2015 wrote:
Which of the following most logically completes the reasoning?

Either food scarcity or excessive hunting can threaten a population of animals. If the group faces food scarcity, individuals in the group will reach reproductive maturity later than otherwise. If the group faces excessive hunting, individuals that reach reproductive maturity earlier will come to predominate. Therefore, it should be possible to determine whether prehistoric mastodons became extinct because of food scarcity or human hunting, since there are fossilized mastodon remains from both before and after mastodon populations declined, and __________.

A) there are more fossilized mastodon remains from the period before mastodon populations began to decline than from after that period. Incorrect-the quantity of available fossils before and after decline is not needed here
B) the average age at which mastodons from a given period reach reproductive maturity can be established from their fossilized remains Correct-To find out the reason of extinction of mastodons, we need to know the reproductive maturity mastodons.
C) it can be accurately estimated from fossilized remains when mastodons became extinct- Incorrect-time of extinction is ir-revlevant.
D) it is not known when humans first began hunting mastodons. Incorrect- period of hunting is ir-relevant.
E) climate changes may have gradually reduced the food available to mastodons. Incorrect-

Thanks


So, IMO "B"
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Re: Either food scarcity or excessive hunting can threaten a population of  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Jan 2011, 11:39
Yes it's B. Reproductive maturity is the only thing that enables one to find how they declined:
Late RM - Food scarcity
Earlier RM - Human hunting
Q - is about how they were able to find out which one of these two factors brought about the mastodon's decline. B clears it all up. IMHO
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Re: Either food scarcity or excessive hunting can threaten a population of  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Jan 2011, 13:38
Guys But what do the follized remains before and after the mastodons declined have to do with the objective ? Can someone elaborate
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Re: Either food scarcity or excessive hunting can threaten a population of  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Jan 2011, 07:14
mundasingh123 wrote:
Guys But what do the follized remains before and after the mastodons declined have to do with the objective ? Can someone elaborate


@mundasingh, According to the passage, when a certain animal popn declines it is either because b/c of human hunting or b/c or food scarcity. The fossilized remains are the things with which the scientists can determine whether their reproductive maturity was late or early (whether they were hunted or went hungry).

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Re: Either food scarcity or excessive hunting can threaten a population of  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Jan 2011, 07:44
mariyea wrote:
mundasingh123 wrote:
Guys But what do the follized remains before and after the mastodons declined have to do with the objective ? Can someone elaborate


@mundasingh, According to the passage, when a certain animal popn declines it is either because b/c of human hunting or b/c or food scarcity. The fossilized remains are the things with which the scientists can determine whether their reproductive maturity was late or early (whether they were hunted or went hungry).

HTH

Hi Mariyea thanks for the reply.In that case inspecting the fossilized remains of the mastodons after the decline for absence of sexul maturity should be enuf to find out the cause .
How will the fossilized reamins of the mastodons after the decline help ?
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Re: Either food scarcity or excessive hunting can threaten a population of  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Jan 2011, 09:02
mundasingh123 wrote:
mariyea wrote:
mundasingh123 wrote:
Guys But what do the follized remains before and after the mastodons declined have to do with the objective ? Can someone elaborate


@mundasingh, According to the passage, when a certain animal popn declines it is either because b/c of human hunting or b/c or food scarcity. The fossilized remains are the things with which the scientists can determine whether their reproductive maturity was late or early (whether they were hunted or went hungry).

HTH

Hi Mariyea thanks for the reply.In that case inspecting the fossilized remains of the mastodons after the decline for absence of sexul maturity should be enuf to find out the cause .
How will the fossilized reamins of the mastodons after the decline help ?


When the fossilized remains shows information on the mastodon's decline, it means something was causing their numbers to decrease.

The information (on whether human hunting or food scarcity caused a decrease in their number) can be found in the fossil remains. The fossil remains (after the decline) would have some information on the mastodon's sexual maturity (whether the mastodons matured faster than usual or they matured slower than usual). The option that (kind of) leans toward this statement is correct.
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Re: Either food scarcity or excessive hunting can threaten a population of  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Mar 2012, 18:15
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I have chosen the answer B for this question:

A. This answer choice only states the obvious assumption. Also, this statement does not help us identify whether the mastodon's became extinct because of food scarcity or excessive hunting.

B. This is the correct answer. By knowing the average age of reproductive maturity of the fossils, you can identify whether the fossils are in the "early stages" or whether they are in the "late stages." This will essentially tell you how the mastodon's became extinct - food scarcity or excessive hunting.

C. This answer choice tells us nothing. However, if the fossils were before the time of "hunting," then we could assume that the mastodons became extinct because of food scarcity.

D. Since it is not known when humans began hunting, this answer choice cannot be correct.

E. The fact that climate changes "may have" caused scarcity indicates some uncertainty. Also, it doesn't give us any additional information about the fossils.
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Re: Either food scarcity or excessive hunting can threaten a population of  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Jul 2013, 17:43
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One way I find you can resolve this kind of questions which doesn't show direct flow is to sketch simple diagram

species ->hunted
|
early rep.

species -> less food
|
late rep.

this helps me not to re-read the premise again & waste time / get confused
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Re: Either food scarcity or excessive hunting can threaten a population of  [#permalink]

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New post 29 May 2016, 02:32
HBSDreamer2015 wrote:
Official Guide for GMAT Verbal Review, 2nd Edition

Practice Question
Question No.: 25
Page: 124
Difficulty:


Which of the following most logically completes the reasoning?

Either food scarcity or excessive hunting can threaten a population of animals. If the group faces food scarcity, individuals in the group will reach reproductive maturity later than otherwise. If the group faces excessive hunting, individuals that reach reproductive maturity earlier will come to predominate. Therefore, it should be possible to determine whether prehistoric mastodons became extinct because of food scarcity or human hunting, since there are fossilized mastodon remains from both before and after mastodon populations declined, and __________.

A) there are more fossilized mastodon remains from the period before mastodon populations began to decline than from after that period.
B) the average age at which mastodons from a given period reach reproductive maturity can be established from their fossilized remains
C) it can be accurately estimated from fossilized remains when mastodons became extinct
D) it is not known when humans first began hunting mastodons
E) climate changes may have gradually reduced the food available to mastodons.

This is a question from the Verbal Review book from The Official Guide. Explanations would be greatly appreciated
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Thanks


Food scarcity --------> Late reproductive maturity
Excessive hunting---> Early reproductive maturity


Quote:
it should be possible to determine whether prehistoric mastodons became extinct because of food scarcity or human hunting,


Attachment:
Untitled.png
Untitled.png [ 3.34 KiB | Viewed 14329 times ]


Determination of the possible cause of extinction of prehistoric mastodons if possible only only when -

1. We have fossil remains of mastodons
2. We can compare the age reproductive maturity

Thus among the given options only (B) matches, and is the correct answer..
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Re: Either food scarcity or excessive hunting can threaten a population of  [#permalink]

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New post 31 May 2018, 21:28
Question Stem:-
Either food scarcity (hereafter FS) or excessive hunting (hereafter EH) can threaten a population of animals.
FS, individuals reach reproductive maturity later than otherwise.
EH, individuals that reach reproductive maturity earlier will come to predominate.

Required:- whether prehistoric mastodons became extinct because of food scarcity or human hunting

Correct answer choice should identify whether reproductive maturity was sooner or later from analysis of fossilized fuels. Answer choice B does that perfectly:-

(B) the average age at which mastodons from a given period reach reproductive maturity can be established from their fossilized remains
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Re: Either food scarcity or excessive hunting can threaten a population of  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Jun 2018, 06:31
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Premise:
-Food scarcity or excessive hunting can threaten a population of animals
-Food scarcity: individuals will reach reproductive maturity LATER than OTHERWISE
-Excessive Hunting: individuals who reach reproductive maturity EARLIER will come to predominate.

Conclusion:
-It should be possible to determine whether mastodons became extinct because of FOOD SCARCITY OR HUMAN HUNTING, since there are fossil remains from before and after mastodon populations declined and ______

Pre-thinking:
There appear to be 2 causes that can impact reproductive maturity (food scarcity - leads to LATER maturity; excessive hunting - leads to EARLIER maturity). But earlier or later THAN WHAT? The prompt doesn't establish what the "normal" time is. The prompt concludes that there should be a way to figure out whether mastodons were victims of food scarcity or human hunting though, so I'd be looking for an answer that establishes the "normal" age of maturity of the mastodon. That way, having the fossils will allow us to figure out if they matured earlier or later than normal.
(B) the average age at which mastodons from a given period reach reproductive maturity can be established from their fossilized remains ---- this option is on same lines. Correct response.

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Re: Either food scarcity or excessive hunting can threaten a population of  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Oct 2018, 23:22
Argument Construction

Situation In a population of animals, food scarcity causes later reproductive maturity; if that population is hunted excessively, earlier-maturing animals will be more numerous in the population.

Reasoning What point would most logically complete the argument? For the information given to be of use in determining what caused mastodons' extinction, mastodon fossils would need to indicate the age at which mastodons reached reproductive maturity, since that is what the argument suggests can indicate cause of extinction. If fossilized remains exist from before and after mastodon populations began to decline, and if the age at which those fossilized mastodons reached reproductive maturity can be determined, then we will have a good idea of what caused their extinction: if they reached reproductive maturity late, it was probably food scarcity, but if they matured earlier, it was most likely hunting.

Correct answer is option B This statement properly identifies a point that logically completes the argument: it explains how the fossilized mastodon remains could be used to help determine what caused mastodons' extinction.
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Re: Either food scarcity or excessive hunting can threaten a population of  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Dec 2018, 01:29
Pretend the normal maturity age is 10
Stem tells us x > 10 means less food, and x < 10 means being hunted

(B) says we can determine x, therefore, we will know whether the animal was hunted or there was a food scarcity
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Re: Either food scarcity or excessive hunting can threaten a population of   [#permalink] 01 Dec 2018, 01:29
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