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Everyone who has graduated from TopNotch High School has an intelligen [#permalink]

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12 Jul 2008, 11:23

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Everyone who has graduated from TopNotch High School has an intelligence quotient (IQ) of over 120. Most students with an IQ of over 120 and all students with an IQ of over 150 who apply to one or more Ivy League universities are accepted to at least one of them.

The statements above, if true, best support which of the following conclusions?

(A) Every graduate of TopNotch High School with an IQ of 150 has been accepted to at least one Ivy-League school.

(B) If a person is a high-school graduate and has an IQ of less than 100, he or she could not have been a student at TopNotch High School.

(C) If a person has an IQ of 130 and is attending an Ivy-League school, it is possible for him or her to have graduated from TopNotch High School.

(D) At least one graduate from TopNotch high school who has applied to at least one Ivy-League university has been accepted to one of them.

(E) If a high-school graduate has an IQ of 150 and is not attending an Ivy-League school, then he or she did not apply to one of them.

Re: Everyone who has graduated from TopNotch High School has an intelligen [#permalink]

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12 Jul 2008, 11:31

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The statements above, if true, best support which of the following conclusions?

A. Every graduate of TopNotch High School with an IQ of 150 has been accepted to at least one Ivy-League school. >> To be sure we need an IQ of more than 150 ... not just 150 ... drop

B. If a person is a high-school graduate and has an IQ of less than 100, he or she could not have been a student at TopNotch High School. >> he could be a student of TN highschool ... but he wont graduate from it ... drop

C.If a person has an IQ of 130 and is attending an Ivy-League school, it is possible for him or her to have graduated from TopNotch High School. >> Keep it ... it is quite possible

D.At least one graduate from TopNotch high school who has applied to at least one Ivy-League university has been accepted to one of them. >> drop it .....

E.If a high-school graduate has an IQ of 150 and is not attending an Ivy-League school, then he or she did not apply to one of them. >> we can not say for sure ... may be he applied and got selected also ... but chnaged his mind and not attending becuase of other reasons .... drop it

Re: Everyone who has graduated from TopNotch High School has an intelligen [#permalink]

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12 Jul 2008, 11:44

durgesh79 wrote:

rao_1857 wrote:

E.If a high-school graduate has an IQ of 150 and is not attending an Ivy-League school, then he or she did not apply to one of them.

Wrong. probably he/she is not passed out of TOPnotch high school.

IMO C

i agree with the answer, but i dont agree with your reason for rejecting E.... no where it says that to get a sure selection both IQ >150 and passed out from TopNotch is required.....[/quote]

Sorry I messed up. I think the resoning should be - there might be some other reasons , than just applying.

Re: Everyone who has graduated from TopNotch High School has an intelligen [#permalink]

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12 Jul 2008, 16:27

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rao_1857 wrote:

durgesh79 wrote:

rao_1857 wrote:

E.If a high-school graduate has an IQ of 150 and is not attending an Ivy-League school, then he or she did not apply to one of them.

Wrong. probably he/she is not passed out of TOPnotch high school.

IMO C

i agree with the answer, but i dont agree with your reason for rejecting E.... no where it says that to get a sure selection both IQ >150 and passed out from TopNotch is required.....

Sorry I messed up. I think the resoning should be - there might be some other reasons , than just applying.[/quote]

Everyone who has graduated from TopNotch High School has an intelligence quotient (IQ) of over 120. Most students with an IQ of over 120 and all students with an IQ of over 150 who apply to one or more Ivy League universities are accepted to at least one of them

In Option E, a student with an IQ of 150 doesn't belong to the group of students who are over 150. So the score of 150 is within the range of students who have an IQ score of above 120. According to the argument, it says that MOST students get accepted. This also means that not ALL of them do get accepted. So in Option E, it's wrong to say that if the student is not in an Ivy-league school then it means that he never applied because it is possible that the student did apply, but he was among the remaining few students who didn't get accepted.

Re: Everyone who has graduated from TopNotch High School has an intelligen [#permalink]

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14 Jul 2008, 12:58

[quote="yavasani"]Everyone who has graduated from TopNotch High School has an intelligence quotient (IQ) of over 120. Most students with an IQ of over 120 and all students with an IQ of over 150 who apply to one or more Ivy League universities are accepted to at least one of them.

I fell for the contrapositive trap and chose B.

The stimulus says :

Everyone who has graduated from TopNotch High School has an intelligence quotient (IQ) of over 120.

Re: Everyone who has graduated from TopNotch High School has an intelligen [#permalink]

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08 Mar 2010, 12:55

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Got it from another forum:

e) If a high-school graduate has an IQ of 150 and is not attending an Ivy-League school, then he or she did not apply to one of them.

The negative statements are an attempt to flip the positive premise "all students with an IQ of over 150 who apply to one or more Ivy League universities are accepted to at least one of them"

(E) is not a valid GMAT conclusion because of not only the mismatch between exactly 150 and over 150, but also the mismatch between attending and being accepted at an Ivy-League school.

Re: Everyone who has graduated from TopNotch High School has an intelligen [#permalink]

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11 Mar 2010, 07:45

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I am surprised that I picked the right answer for this CR. I picked (C)

My reasoning is below

Everyone who has graduated from TopNotch High School has an intelligence quotient (IQ) of over 120. Most students with an IQ of over 120 and all students with an IQ of over 150 who apply to one or more Ivy League universities are accepted to at least one of them.

The statements above, if true, best support which of the following conclusions?

1]Every graduate of TopNotch High School with an IQ of 150 has been accepted to at least one Ivy-League school. >>> Every graduate of TopNotch HS will get accepted only if everyone applies. A graduate can get an IQ of 150 but still decide not to apply.

2]If a person is a high-school graduate and has an IQ of less than 100, he or she could not have been a student at TopNotch High School. >>> We are talking of students graduated from TopNotch High School and not students who were at TopNotch High School. It is quite possible that a student studied at TopNotch High School for few years and then changed HighSchool and got less than 100 when he or she graduated. He/she will still be called as someone who was student at TopNotch High School.

3]If a person has an IQ of 130 and is attending an Ivy-League school, it is possible for him or her to have graduated from TopNotch High School. >>> THIS IS CORRECT.

4]At least one graduate from TopNotch high school who has applied to at least one Ivy-League university has been accepted to one of them. >>> Not necessarily.

5]If a high-school graduate has an IQ of 150 and is not attending an Ivy-League school, then he or she did not apply to one of them. >>> The premise says all students with an IQ of over 150 will get accepted. So we cannot say that a student who has an IQ of 150 will get accepted and that if he is not attending than that is because he did not apply.

Re: Everyone who has graduated from TopNotch High School has an intelligen [#permalink]

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16 Oct 2010, 14:40

vscid wrote:

Everyone who has graduated from TopNotch High School has an intelligence quotient (IQ) of over 120. Most students with an IQ of over 120 and all students with an IQ of over 150 who apply to one or more Ivy League universities are accepted to at least one of them.

The statements above, if true, best support which of the following conclusions?

1]Every graduate of TopNotch High School with an IQ of 150 has been accepted to at least one Ivy-League school. 2]If a person is a high-school graduate and has an IQ of less than 100, he or she could not have been a student at TopNotch High School. 3]If a person has an IQ of 130 and is attending an Ivy-League school, it is possible for him or her to have graduated from TopNotch High School. 4]At least one graduate from TopNotch high school who has applied to at least one Ivy-League university has been accepted to one of them. 5]If a high-school graduate has an IQ of 150 and is not attending an Ivy-League school, then he or she did not apply to one of them.

I picked C.

I was down to choice between B and C. It's not B because it doesn't take the information given about Ivy-league schools into consideration. C is better choice than B because it doesn't give an absolute answer about the student (like everyone with an IQ above 120 can be an Ivy league student). It uses the term "it is possible for him or her..." which makes it more likely than B.

Re: Everyone who has graduated from TopNotch High School has an intelligen [#permalink]

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05 Nov 2010, 09:15

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@seekmba, your explanations for this one are great! People still seem a little confused on A and D, so let's look at those one more time.

A) Every graduate of TopNotch High School with an IQ of 150 has been accepted to at least one Ivy-League school.

We can't conclude that every graduate of TopNotch with a 150+ IQ has APPLIED to an Ivy-League school. If they apply, the argument tells us that they will be accepted to at least one, but there's nothing in the prompt to suggest that every 150+ student applies to at least one Ivy.

D) At least one graduate from TopNotch high school who has applied to at least one Ivy-League university has been accepted to one of them.

Let's say that every TopNotch graduate who applies to an Ivy-League school has an IQ between 120 and 150 (so nobody with a 150+ IQ applies). We only know that MOST students with a 120+ IQ who apply to an Ivy-League school are accepted to at least one. Therefore, there exists the possibility that nobody from TopNotch would be accepted to an Ivy, so D has to be eliminated.

Hope that helps for those two choices!
_________________

Everyone who has graduated from TopNotch High School has an intelligence quotient (IQ) of over 120. Most students with an IQ of over 120 and all students with an IQ of over 150 who apply to one or more Ivy League universities are accepted to at least one of them.

The statements above, if true, best support which of the following conclusions?

A: Every graduate of TopNotch High School with an IQ of 150 has been accepted to at least one Ivy-League school. B: If a person is a high-school graduate and has an IQ of less than 100, he or she could not have been a student at TopNotch High School. C: If a person has an IQ of 130 and is attending an Ivy-League school, it is possible for him or her to have graduated from TopNotch High School. D: At least one graduate from TopNotch high school who has applied to at least one Ivy-League university has been accepted to one of them. E: If a high-school graduate has an IQ of 150 and is not attending an Ivy-League school, then he or she did not apply to one of them.

OA:C

My question is - I took > 5 minutes and still got it wrong. I got the answer later on. But, i havent seen such CRs in OG Sad

Everyone who has graduated from TopNotch High School has an intelligence quotient (IQ) of over 120. Most students with an IQ of over 120 and all students with an IQ of over 150 who apply to one or more Ivy League universities are accepted to at least one of them.

The statements above, if true, best support which of the following conclusions?

A: Every graduate of TopNotch High School with an IQ of 150 has been accepted to at least one Ivy-League school.

This will be true only if EVERY graduate with more than 150-IQ APPLIED for at least 1 ivy-league school. If EVEN ONE of those uber intelligent 150-IQ fellows did not apply for ANY ivy-league, this statement fails.

B: If a person is a high-school graduate and has an IQ of less than 100, he or she could not have been a student at TopNotch High School.

This is tricky. He/She could have been a student at Topnotch. For sure he/she did not GRADUATE from Topnotch. He/She might have failed and later graduated from somewhere else OR might have simply transferred his/her school.

C: If a person has an IQ of 130 and is attending an Ivy-League school, it is possible for him or her to have graduated from TopNotch High School.

This is definitely possible. Because if she/he graduated from Topnotch, for sure he/she has more than 120-IQ. This person can very well be one of those graduates. Note: it is possible for him or her

D: At least one graduate from TopNotch high school who has applied to at least one Ivy-League university has been accepted to one of them. This is tricky AND second most likely choice. Because, we don't know whether he/she has >150IQ, we can't be sure of this. If ALL graduates from TopNotch have an IQ between 119 and 150, exclusive, then it is possible that some could be accepted but there is no guarantee that he HAS been accepted. The question type is must be true and we should make sure that no way the statement can be false. If you present one case that invalidates the statement, reject it.

e.g. If there are 1 million blue balls and 1 yellow ball in a jar. If a man randomly picks a ball, that ball should be blue in color. NOT TRUE for this question type. If a man randomly picks a ball, it is highly likely that ball is blue in color. COULD BE TRUE but eliminate other choices. If a man randomly picks a ball, it cannot be red in color. 100% true. No need for elimination.

E: If a high-school graduate has an IQ of 150 and is not attending an Ivy-League school, then he or she did not apply to one of them. We need to think a step further. Alright the student has applied and is accepted. Then she changed her mind and went for some non-ivy league school. In this case, she is not attending ivy-league but she applied and was of course accepted.

My approach for this: Don't follow the elimination process. Just tick the right choice and go ahead. I chose "C" because I knew it was correct, I didn't bother to dig into rest of the choices.
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Re: Everyone who has graduated from TopNotch High School has an intelligen [#permalink]

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03 Aug 2011, 08:53

durgesh79, I liked your reasoning for dropping B, but your reasoning for dropping A is just like missing the forest b/c of the trees. The extreme word EVERY is enough. I.e. not ALL graduates of TN were accepted. Some people may not apply at all; no need to point to issue of "equal and greater than " OR "greater than" 150. However, that's right, too.
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Re: Everyone who has graduated from TopNotch High School has an intelligen [#permalink]

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03 Aug 2011, 23:22

before reading the questions: all TN has 120+ most 120+ and all 150+ are accepted. now possibilities: 1. there might be a TN with 150+. 2. there might be all TN'S are between 120-150. 3. there can be at least 1 person with 120+ which is from TN.

(A) Every graduate of TopNotch High School with an IQ of 150 has been accepted to at least one Ivy-League school. W-TN MIGHT CONCLUDE ONLY 120-130 OR 120-140 OR 120 TO 149 (B) If a person is a high-school graduate and has an IQ of less than 100, he or she could not have been a student at TopNotch High School. W-IT REVERSES THE LOGIC OF THE ORIGINAL SENTENCE. IF A (TN) then B(120+). if not A then not B. THE ANSWER CLAIMS IF NOT B THEN NOT A. (C) If a person has an IQ of 130 and is attending an Ivy-League school, it is possible for him or her to have graduated from TopNotch High School. R- it is possible since all TN are 120+ (possibility 3 bove) (D) At least one graduate from TopNotch high school who has applied to at least one Ivy-League university has been accepted to one of them. W-MOST WITH 120+ ARE ACCEPTED, BUT ID DOES NOT MEAN THAT IT MUST BE A TN WITH 120+. IT CAN BE OTHER SCHOOLS. (E) If a high-school graduate has an IQ of 150 and is not attending an Ivy-League school, then he or she did not apply to one of them. W- MUST ADMIT. I DID NOT SEE ANY CONNECTION TO THE EVIDENCE IN THE QUESTION.

Re: Everyone who has graduated from TopNotch High School has an intelligen [#permalink]

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04 Aug 2011, 03:33

Why not D The text claims that most 120(NOT ALL) and higher accepted.

Lets say that TN has 100 students with 120+. And lets say that total people in the world with 120+ is 10000.

So if most 120+ are accepted it can be from 1-100 TN and from 4901 TO 9998 from others (1 fromTN and 9998 from others (9999 is most of 10000) is still "most" and 100 from TN and and 4901 from others (5001 is most of 10000)

But it can be also 0 from TN and 5001 to 9999 from others, and still holds to the term "most".

so to say that at least 1 student from TN is accepted is False( because we see that accepting O(none) from TN and 5001 i.e from the total applicants is still accepting most 120+)

Everyone who has graduated from TopNotch High School has an intelligence quotient (IQ) of over 120. Most students with an IQ of over 120 and all students with an IQ of over 150 who apply to one or more Ivy League universities are accepted to at least one of them.

The statements above, if true, best support which of the following conclusions?

1]Every graduate of TopNotch High School with an IQ of 150 has been accepted to at least one Ivy-League school. 2]If a person is a high-school graduate and has an IQ of less than 100, he or she could not have been a student at TopNotch High School. 3]If a person has an IQ of 130 and is attending an Ivy-League school, it is possible for him or her to have graduated from TopNotch High School. 4]At least one graduate from TopNotch high school who has applied to at least one Ivy-League university has been accepted to one of them. 5]If a high-school graduate has an IQ of 150 and is not attending an Ivy-League school, then he or she did not apply to one of them.

Responding to a pm:

The question isn't tough. You just need to analyze the words very carefully. It doesn't have any ambiguity.

Argument: Everyone who graduates from topnotch high school has IQ > 120. Most > 120 and all > 150 students who apply get accepted to at least one Ivy league university.

1]Every graduate of TopNotch High School with an IQ of 150 has been accepted to at least one Ivy-League school. We don't know whether every graduate has applied so we cannot say that every graduate has been accepted.

2]If a person is a high-school graduate and has an IQ of less than 100, he or she could not have been a student at TopNotch High School. All we know is that everyone who graduates from top notch has IQ > 120. It is possible that someone with IQ = 100 is a student of a top notch high school for a while but graduates from some other school.

3]If a person has an IQ of 130 and is attending an Ivy-League school, it is possible for him or her to have graduated from TopNotch High School. This statement says that it is possible that an IQ = 130 Ivy league school student graduated from top notch high school. This is true. It is certainly possible. Mind you, it is not essential that an IQ 130 ivy league student must have graduated from a top notch school but it is certainly possible. Hence (C) is the answer.

4]At least one graduate from TopNotch high school who has applied to at least one Ivy-League university has been accepted to one of them. Not necessary. It is possible that no student from top notch has IQ > 150 or even if there are students with IQ > 150, they may not have applied. We know that most students with IQ > 120 who apply get accepted but it is possible that all those who applied from top notch (and hence had IQ>120) got rejected. (Number of people who applied from top notch could be a very small % of the total number of people with IQ > 120 who applied)

5]If a high-school graduate has an IQ of 150 and is not attending an Ivy-League school, then he or she did not apply to one of them. Again, if one has IQ > 150 and applies to Ivy league, one gets accepted. Whether one eventually attends the school or not is up to the individual. So a high school graduate with IQ > 150 could have applied (and would have been accepted) but may not be attending the school.

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Re: Everyone who has graduated from TopNotch High School has an intelligen [#permalink]

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07 Aug 2012, 13:20

yavasani wrote:

Everyone who has graduated from TopNotch High School has an intelligence quotient (IQ) of over 120. Most students with an IQ of over 120 and all students with an IQ of over 150 who apply to one or more Ivy League universities are accepted to at least one of them.

The statements above, if true, best support which of the following conclusions?

(A) Every graduate of TopNotch High School with an IQ of 150 has been accepted to at least one Ivy-League school. (B) If a person is a high-school graduate and has an IQ of less than 100, he or she could not have been a student at TopNotch High School. (C) If a person has an IQ of 130 and is attending an Ivy-League school, it is possible for him or her to have graduated from TopNotch High School. (D) At least one graduate from TopNotch high school who has applied to at least one Ivy-League university has been accepted to one of them. (E) If a high-school graduate has an IQ of 150 and is not attending an Ivy-League school, then he or she did not apply to one of them.

Student of e-GMAT here. I used their process to come up with the correct answer. However, it definitely took me over the 2 min mark (at around 3 mins and 30 seconds) and this was difficult due to its tricky wording. Nevertheless, here's my process.

Conclusion: MOST students (not all) with an IQ of 120+ and ALL students with 150+ who apply to one or more Ivy League universities get accepted to at least one Ivy League university. Phew...kinda long, but makes a lot of sense.

The only premise we have to work with is that TN Highschool has students with IQs of over 120. Which means that if these students apply to 1+ Ivy league universities, most of them are likely to get into at least one of them.

Basic pre-thinking: I won't lie here, but this was somewhat challenging for me. I came up with some flimsy assumptions in this. I'd love to see what you guys think about them. - IQ is the only factor required here for university admissions with 150+ scores - Students are likely to apply to Ivy league university. (I quickly realised that this was a false assumption and scratched it off).

Alright! With some pre-thinking, I at least had a better idea of the argument, so I could move onto the answer choices.

A. This does not have to be true. Some students may not have applied to an Ivy league university (or any university to begin with). Out. B. Not necessarily true. What if IQ goes down with age? I was great at tennis 10 years ago as a kid, but now I absolutely suck at it (even when playing with a 12 year old). No where in the argument does it state that IQ remains stable with age. C. Yeah. This seems right. D. Well maybe. Let's say that there are 100 students at this school. 99 students decided to start working after high school. The remaining student applied to only one Ivy league university and his score happened to be 125. Although it is likely that he'll get accepted, it is not certain that he will. E. She could have applied but decided not to go.

C is the right choice. I definitely struggled with B and D. First in comprehending what they were saying and then in thinking of cases where the statements could fall apart.

Hope this thorough breakdown of my process helps others.

Re: Everyone who has graduated from TopNotch High School has an intelligen [#permalink]

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07 Aug 2013, 13:58

To be more precise on E's confusion it can be said acceptance and attendance are two different things, hence its not conclusive. Remember we have to be in the scope of the argument when deriving conclusion. Assumptions is a different game but conclusion has to be substantial. Since answer choice E talks about attendance and argument doesnt we can discard E

Re: Everyone who has graduated from TopNotch High School has an intelligen [#permalink]

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08 Aug 2013, 19:24

durgesh79 wrote:

The statements above, if true, best support which of the following conclusions?

B. If a person is a high-school graduate and has an IQ of less than 100, he or she could not have been a student at TopNotch High School. >> he could be a student of TN highschool ... but he wont graduate from it ... drop

Answer C

Please read the choice more carefully. It says that this fictitious person is already a high school graduate. Whether he will or will not graduate from TopNotch High School is a rather moot point. Already a high school graduate.

Re: Everyone who has graduated from TopNotch High School has an intelligen [#permalink]

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09 Aug 2013, 02:44

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haihai89 wrote:

Can anyone modify the sentence D so that it can become a correct answer?

yavasani wrote:

Everyone who has graduated from TopNotch High School has an intelligence quotient (IQ) of over 120. Most students with an IQ of over 120 and all students with an IQ of over 150 who apply to one or more Ivy League universities are accepted to at least one of them.

The statements above, if true, best support which of the following conclusions?

(A) Every graduate of TopNotch High School with an IQ of 150 has been accepted to at least one Ivy-League school. (B) If a person is a high-school graduate and has an IQ of less than 100, he or she could not have been a student at TopNotch High School. (C) If a person has an IQ of 130 and is attending an Ivy-League school, it is possible for him or her to have graduated from TopNotch High School. (D) At least one graduate from TopNotch high school who has applied to at least one Ivy-League university has been accepted to one of them. (E) If a high-school graduate has an IQ of 150 and is not attending an Ivy-League school, then he or she did not apply to one of them.

Well, the problem with D is that, for example,if only one student applied we can't be 100% sure that he will be accepted. Moreover we do not know nothing about his IQ, which affects his chances. So we need to correct these parts of the answer choice.

(D) At least one graduate -with a QI of over 150- from TopNotch high school who has applied to at least one Ivy-League university has been accepted to one of them.

This works because we know that "students with an IQ of over 150 who apply to one or more Ivy League universities are accepted to at least one of them"; I removed "at least one" also because ALL 150+ students who apply are accepted, not at least one.

I think this would work because it's basically a rewording of the later part of the second sentence.
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Re: Everyone who has graduated from TopNotch High School has an intelligen [#permalink]

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09 Aug 2013, 18:32

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Dear Zarrolou, Thanks for your explanation. You said that we know nothing about his IQ, but from the question, we have already known that he must have IQ of over 120. Furthermore, "most students with an IQ of over 120...are accepted...". So I infer that among all TN students who applied to Ivy League uni., there will be at leat one accepted. For the OA C, I just wonder that "it is possible for him or her to have graduated from TopNotch High School." is not a good conclusion (I donot say that it's wrong) because he or she can be from any high school in the world. Above is my few thoughts. Correct me if I'm wrong. Again, thanks guy!

Zarrolou wrote:

haihai89 wrote:

Can anyone modify the sentence D so that it can become a correct answer?

yavasani wrote:

Everyone who has graduated from TopNotch High School has an intelligence quotient (IQ) of over 120. Most students with an IQ of over 120 and all students with an IQ of over 150 who apply to one or more Ivy League universities are accepted to at least one of them.

The statements above, if true, best support which of the following conclusions?

(A) Every graduate of TopNotch High School with an IQ of 150 has been accepted to at least one Ivy-League school. (B) If a person is a high-school graduate and has an IQ of less than 100, he or she could not have been a student at TopNotch High School. (C) If a person has an IQ of 130 and is attending an Ivy-League school, it is possible for him or her to have graduated from TopNotch High School. (D) At least one graduate from TopNotch high school who has applied to at least one Ivy-League university has been accepted to one of them. (E) If a high-school graduate has an IQ of 150 and is not attending an Ivy-League school, then he or she did not apply to one of them.

Well, the problem with D is that, for example,if only one student applied we can't be 100% sure that he will be accepted. Moreover we do not know nothing about his IQ, which affects his chances. So we need to correct these parts of the answer choice.

(D) At least one graduate -with a QI of over 150- from TopNotch high school who has applied to at least one Ivy-League university has been accepted to one of them.

This works because we know that "students with an IQ of over 150 who apply to one or more Ivy League universities are accepted to at least one of them"; I removed "at least one" also because ALL 150+ students who apply are accepted, not at least one.

I think this would work because it's basically a rewording of the later part of the second sentence.

We’ve given one of our favorite features a boost! You can now manage your profile photo, or avatar , right on WordPress.com. This avatar, powered by a service...

Sometimes it’s the extra touches that make all the difference; on your website, that’s the photos and video that give your content life. You asked for streamlined access...

“Keep your head down, and work hard. Don’t attract any attention. You should be grateful to be here.” Why do we keep quiet? Being an immigrant is a constant...

“Keep your head down, and work hard. Don’t attract any attention. You should be grateful to be here.” Why do we keep quiet? Being an immigrant is a constant...