GMAT Question of the Day - Daily to your Mailbox; hard ones only

It is currently 18 Aug 2018, 03:56

Close

GMAT Club Daily Prep

Thank you for using the timer - this advanced tool can estimate your performance and suggest more practice questions. We have subscribed you to Daily Prep Questions via email.

Customized
for You

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Track
Your Progress

every week, we’ll send you an estimated GMAT score based on your performance

Practice
Pays

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Not interested in getting valuable practice questions and articles delivered to your email? No problem, unsubscribe here.

Close

Request Expert Reply

Confirm Cancel

Explaining that one of its many difficulties had been the

  new topic post reply Question banks Downloads My Bookmarks Reviews Important topics  
Author Message
TAGS:

Hide Tags

Current Student
avatar
Joined: 14 May 2012
Posts: 72
Location: United States
Concentration: Finance, Strategy
GMAT 1: 710 Q49 V38
GPA: 3.8
WE: Corporate Finance (Venture Capital)
GMAT ToolKit User
Explaining that one of its many difficulties had been the  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 29 Jun 2012, 02:05
6
70
00:00
A
B
C
D
E

Difficulty:

  65% (hard)

Question Stats:

41% (00:44) correct 59% (00:56) wrong based on 2368 sessions

HideShow timer Statistics

Explaining that one of its many difficulties had been the recent growing injury list among starting players, the minor league baseball team said it would start a month-long search for better physical trainers and physicians.

(A) its many difficulties had been the recent
(B) its many difficulties has been the recently
(C) its many difficulties is the recently
(D) their many difficulties is the recent
(E) their many difficulties had been the recent
Most Helpful Expert Reply
Retired Moderator
User avatar
D
Status: worked for Kaplan's associates, but now on my own, free and flying
Joined: 19 Feb 2007
Posts: 4525
Location: India
WE: Education (Education)
Re: Minor league baseball team SC . Kapilan Diagnostic  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 29 Jun 2012, 06:36
13
7
The term team is singular and therefore you require its; the adverb recently can not modify the adjective growing. Therefore, you need an adjective – recent -. The word recent implies a finished event and the past perfect had been appropriately fits in. A is the one that fulfills all the criteria
_________________

you can know a lot about something and not really understand it."-- a quote
No one knows this better than a GMAT student does.
Narendran +9198845 44509

General Discussion
Manager
Manager
avatar
Joined: 16 May 2011
Posts: 66
Re: Minor league baseball team SC . Kapilan Diagnostic  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 29 Jun 2012, 06:13
1
2
A - this is a tense problem

"Had been" - happened before the team "said"
need the "had" otherwise we don't know which action happened first
Manager
Manager
avatar
Status: Sick of Refreshing Email
Joined: 10 Mar 2011
Posts: 91
Location: United States (TX)
Concentration: Finance, Economics
GMAT 1: 690 Q48 V35
GMAT 2: 690 Q50 V33
GMAT 3: 730 Q50 V39
GPA: 3.6
WE: Information Technology (Consulting)
GMAT ToolKit User Reviews Badge
Re: Minor league baseball team SC . Kapilan Diagnostic  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 02 Jul 2012, 12:57
2
2
Explaining that one of its many difficulties had been the recent growing injury list among starting players, the minor league baseball team said it would start a month-long search for better physical trainers and physicians.

If you look at the non underlined part, you see "would". This "would" signifies that the team did the explaining in the past and during that explaning it said that it will make some changes in the future.

Thats why had been is the only correct option.
_________________

Thanks
Sumeet
http://www.midasreturns.wordpress.com

MBA Section Director
User avatar
V
Joined: 19 Mar 2012
Posts: 5121
Location: India
GMAT 1: 760 Q50 V42
GPA: 3.8
WE: Marketing (Non-Profit and Government)
Re: Explaining that one of its many  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 18 Dec 2012, 05:06
4
6
skamal7 wrote:
Explaining that one of its many difficulties had been the recent growing injury list among starting players, the minor league baseball team said it would start a month-long search for better physical trainers and physicians.


its many difficulties had been the recent
its many difficulties has been the recently
its many difficulties is the recently
their many difficulties is the recent
their many difficulties had been the recent

Can any1 explain me why recently cant modify growing injury list??Wil be realy thankful


Blatant rip off of a MGMAT question I was pretty familiar with.
Here is my take on it.
Recent Vs Recently
As Marcab pointed out, recent=adjective and recently=adverb.
An adjective can modify ONLY a noun and an adverb can modify verbs/adjectives but NEVER anoun.
So recently can ONLY modify the participle (adjective) "growing". So recently means that it has started growing soon.
But its not true is it?
Recent is referred to mean that the injuries happened in the near past. So recent is used to modify injuries.
Its similar to saying,
I ate a delicious large donut as opposed to I ate a deliciously large donut.
The second one is just weird isn't it?
So recent>> recently!

Has been the recent Vs Had been the recent
What do we know about past perfect tense? A perfect tense establishes a timeline in which the action which is mentioned in perfect tense occurs BEFORE the action mentioned in the simple past tense. So for the existence of a perfect tense, THERE MUST BE a simple past tense lying around.

Now lets look at the other verb and its tense.
The baseball team said it would....
So now if we use past perfect tense we establish the timeline as:

At a certain time: Injuries starts to happen.
sometime later: the baseball team acknowledges and says that it will take action.

this is perfect.
Now if we would have used present perfect tense, it establishes a timeline such that the action mentioned by the present perfect occured in the past and is still going on. So the time line becomes weird here as there is a sense that the baseball team said that they would they would take actions even before the injuries started to happen.
Now that is not acceptable now is it?
The past perfect tense establishes a perfect timeline while the present perfect does not.

So had been it is.
Now take a bow Choice A. You win!
_________________

Have an MBA application Question? ASK ME ANYTHING!

My Stuff: Four Years to 760 | MBA Trends for Indian Applicants

My GMAT Resources
V30-V40: How to do it! | GMATPrep SC | GMATPrep CR | GMATPrep RC | Critical Reasoning Megathread | CR: Numbers and Statistics | CR: Weaken | CR: Strengthen | CR: Assumption | SC: Modifier | SC: Meaning | SC: SV Agreement | RC: Primary Purpose | PS/DS: Numbers and Inequalities | PS/DS: Combinatorics and Coordinates

My MBA Resources
Everything about the MBA Application | Over-Represented MBA woes | Fit Vs Rankings | Low GPA: What you can do | Letter of Recommendation: The Guide | Indian B Schools accepting GMAT score | Why MBA?

My Reviews
Veritas Prep Live Online

VP
VP
avatar
B
Joined: 23 Mar 2011
Posts: 1107
Concentration: Healthcare, Strategy
Schools: Duke '16 (M)
Premium Member
Re: Explaining that one of its many difficulties had been the  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 19 Dec 2012, 13:33
1
1
I was trolling through the forums and found this post. I remember fretting over this and "supposedly Mediterranean predecessors" question. (OG questions)

This will definitely help:
http://www.manhattangmat.com/forums/og- ... -t485.html

cheers
e-GMAT Representative
User avatar
G
Joined: 02 Nov 2011
Posts: 2619
Re: Explaining that one of its many difficulties had been the  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 19 Dec 2012, 14:36
2
Hi All,

Explaining that one of its many difficulties had been the recent growing injury list among starting players, the minor league baseball team said it would start a month-long search for better physical trainers and physicians.


Meaning Analysis:

The recent growing injury list had been the one of the many difficulties of the minor league baseball team. So it said that it would start a search for better physical trainers and physicians.

Error Analysis:

• Singular pronoun “its” correctly refers to its singular antecedent “the minor league baseball team”.
• “The stated problems” existed before the team decided to do something about it. In fact, there is a causal relationship here. Since the team found this problem of recent growing injury list among startling players, he decided to begin a month-long search. ‘reported’ about it.Hence, use of past perfect tense for describing “one of its many difficulties” is correct. It correctly shows the sequencing of the events in the sentence.
• Adjective “recent” correctly modifies noun “injury list”. Notice here that both “recent” and “growing” are adjectives for the noun “injury list”. The “injury list” is recent and it has been growing.
No errors.

PoE:

A. its many difficulties had been the recent: Correct for reasons stated above.

B. its many difficulties has been the recently: Incorrect.
1. The difficulty occurred before the team took an action and “said that it would start a search””. Present perfect tense suggests problems happened after “said”. This sequencing is incorrect.Thus, past perfect tense is required here.
2. There is a difference between the meanings of “recent” and “recently”. “recent growing injury list” means the injury list is recent and it is growing. “recently growing injury list” that the list has started growing very recently. Per the original sentence, it is the “recent injury list”. Hence use of “recently” is incorrect.

C. its many difficulties is the recently: Inocrrect.
1. Same “recently” error as in choice B.
2. Simple present tense “is” suggests that the problems occurred after the retailer “said”. This verb sequencing is wrong.Same verb tense error as in choice B.

D. their many difficulties is the recent: Incorrect.
1. Plural pronoun “their” does not agree with singular antecedent “team”.
2. Simple present tense “is” suggests that the problems occurred after the retailer “said”. This verb sequencing is wrong.Same verb tense error as in Choice B.

E. their many difficulties had been the recent: Incorrect. Plural pronoun “their” does not agree with singular antecedent “team”.

Hope this helps. :-)
Thanks.
Shraddha
_________________












| '4 out of Top 5' Instructors on gmatclub | 70 point improvement guarantee | www.e-gmat.com

Retired Moderator
avatar
B
Joined: 23 Jul 2010
Posts: 521
GPA: 3.4
WE: General Management (Non-Profit and Government)
GMAT ToolKit User Premium Member
Re: Explaining that one of its many difficulties had been the  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 20 Dec 2012, 08:24
egmat wrote:
Hi All,

Explaining that one of its many difficulties had been the recent growing injury list among starting players, the minor league baseball team said it would start a month-long search for better physical trainers and physicians.


Meaning Analysis:

The recent growing injury list had been the one of the many difficulties of the minor league baseball team. So it said that it would start a search for better physical trainers and physicians.

Error Analysis:

• Singular pronoun “its” correctly refers to its singular antecedent “the minor league baseball team”.
• “The stated problems” existed before the team decided to do something about it. In fact, there is a causal relationship here. Since the team found this problem of recent growing injury list among startling players, he decided to begin a month-long search. ‘reported’ about it.Hence, use of past perfect tense for describing “one of its many difficulties” is correct. It correctly shows the sequencing of the events in the sentence.
• Adjective “recent” correctly modifies noun “injury list”. Notice here that both “recent” and “growing” are adjectives for the noun “injury list”. The “injury list” is recent and it has been growing.
No errors.

PoE:

A. its many difficulties had been the recent: Correct for reasons stated above.

B. its many difficulties has been the recently: Incorrect.
1. The difficulty occurred before the team took an action and “said that it would start a search””. Present perfect tense suggests problems happened after “said”. This sequencing is incorrect.Thus, past perfect tense is required here.
2. There is a difference between the meanings of “recent” and “recently”. “recent growing injury list” means the injury list is recent and it is growing. “recently growing injury list” that the list has started growing very recently. Per the original sentence, it is the “recent injury list”. Hence use of “recently” is incorrect.

C. its many difficulties is the recently: Inocrrect.
1. Same “recently” error as in choice B.
2. Simple present tense “is” suggests that the problems occurred after the retailer “said”. This verb sequencing is wrong.Same verb tense error as in choice B.

D. their many difficulties is the recent: Incorrect.
1. Plural pronoun “their” does not agree with singular antecedent “team”.
2. Simple present tense “is” suggests that the problems occurred after the retailer “said”. This verb sequencing is wrong.Same verb tense error as in Choice B.

E. their many difficulties had been the recent: Incorrect. Plural pronoun “their” does not agree with singular antecedent “team”.

Hope this helps. :-)
Thanks.
Shraddha


Hi Shraddha,

my doubt was how can a recent (Of the immediate past or just previous to the present time) thing still be growing??
its many difficulties had been the recent growing injury list
So I did not choose past perfect tense is option A
_________________

How to select your BSchool?
General Mistakes to Avoid on the GMAT
TOP 10 articles on Time Management on the GMAT
Thanks = Kudos. Kudos are appreciated

Rules for posting on the verbal forum

Manhattan Prep Instructor
User avatar
S
Joined: 22 Mar 2011
Posts: 1289
Re: Explaining that one of its many  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 21 Dec 2012, 13:17
I'm going to side with dentobizz on this one (see below). It would certainly help if we had an OA, but if the answer is supposed to be A, as it seems to be in the other thread I can find, then I don't think the problem is valid. We can have a "recent extended sales slump," but not a "recent growing injury list." If we want to say we have a "recent injury list," what purpose does "growing" serve at that point? The sentence only makes sense if we say that the list is "recently growing."

As for the past perfect, it's true that the problem began before the team made the announcement. Therefore, technically, we might get away with the past perfect. However, we typically use past perfect to emphasize the relationships of different events in time. We don't need to emphasize here that the problem was going on before the announcement--that's clear from the context, and as dentobizz says, we certainly don't want to imply that the problem is over.

The only reasonable objection someone might make to B is that it uses the present perfect in conjunction with the simple past. However, if the team recently made the announcement, and the problem is still ongoing, then the present perfect makes sense, and it's certainly better than the simple present in C.

Of course, D&E are out because of "their."

dentobizz wrote:

'recently' is the adverb which modifies adj 'growing' that in turn modifies the noun 'injury list' . if you use recent , then both recent and growing will incorrectly modify injury list.hence options A,D,E are ruled out. Between B and C .
The present prefect tense is preferred since the action started in the past and continues into the present--THIS is indicated when the team said 'recently growing'-indicating a problem which started out in the past and is still persistent Vs past prefect tense that indicates that the problem existed at some point in the past and why would the team take a step to solve the problem in the future if is existed only in the past, it doesn't make sense. so it B.

_________________


Dmitry Farber | Manhattan GMAT Instructor | New York


Manhattan GMAT Discount | Manhattan GMAT Course Reviews | View Instructor Profile |
Manhattan GMAT Reviews

Retired Moderator
avatar
B
Joined: 23 Jul 2010
Posts: 521
GPA: 3.4
WE: General Management (Non-Profit and Government)
GMAT ToolKit User Premium Member
Re: Explaining that one of its many difficulties had been the  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 21 Dec 2012, 14:57
dentobizz wrote:

Explaining that one of its many difficulties had been the recent growing injury list among starting players, the minor league baseball team said it would start a month-long search for better physical trainers and physicians.

my doubt was how can a recent (Of the immediate past or just previous to the present time) thing still be growing??
its many difficulties had been the recent growing injury list
So I did not choose past perfect tense is option A




This is the point I had been making, I think the question is faulty and has been built on the MGMT mock question posted a few post earlier (extended sales slump...).
I hope the original posted sites the source and OA for this one.

Thanks Dmitry for your explanation.
_________________

How to select your BSchool?
General Mistakes to Avoid on the GMAT
TOP 10 articles on Time Management on the GMAT
Thanks = Kudos. Kudos are appreciated

Rules for posting on the verbal forum

Manhattan Prep Instructor
User avatar
S
Joined: 22 Mar 2011
Posts: 1289
Re: Explaining that one of its many difficulties had been the  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 21 Dec 2012, 15:38
"Recent" doesn't have to refer to something that is over--it can refer to something current or ongoing, as long as it is relatively new.

By the way, the other question you're referring to ("extended sales slump") isn't ours--it's #48 in the 2nd edition Verbal Review.
_________________


Dmitry Farber | Manhattan GMAT Instructor | New York


Manhattan GMAT Discount | Manhattan GMAT Course Reviews | View Instructor Profile |
Manhattan GMAT Reviews

Senior Manager
Senior Manager
User avatar
B
Joined: 01 Nov 2013
Posts: 316
GMAT 1: 690 Q45 V39
WE: General Management (Energy and Utilities)
Reviews Badge
Re: Explaining that one of its many difficulties had been the  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 10 Mar 2015, 04:56
kapilhede17 wrote:
Explaining that one of its many difficulties had been the recent growing injury list among starting players, the minor league baseball team said it would start a month-long search for better physical trainers and physicians.

(A) its many difficulties had been the recent
(B) its many difficulties has been the recently
(C) its many difficulties is the recently
(D) their many difficulties is the recent
(E) their many difficulties had been the recent



Clearly choice A is correct.

its refers to minor league baseball team; We can take the clue from the second' it' that follows 'said' in the sentence.
So, D and E are out.

C is out because the overall tense of the sentence in past tense as indicated by the non-underlined part of the sentence.

Between A and B , A is correct-

In B, the tense has wrongly been changed to present perfect which is wrong.
Moreover , recently is an adverb which seems to modify the participle verb Growing which is actually modifying the noun injury list.

But we need to modify the NOUN PHRASE- growing injury list and so we need an adjective-RECENT.

Hope it helps!!!

Kudos if you like the post
_________________

Our greatest weakness lies in giving up. The most certain way to succeed is always to try just one more time.

I hated every minute of training, but I said, 'Don't quit. Suffer now and live the rest of your life as a champion.-Mohammad Ali

Senior Manager
Senior Manager
User avatar
B
Joined: 01 Nov 2013
Posts: 316
GMAT 1: 690 Q45 V39
WE: General Management (Energy and Utilities)
Reviews Badge
Re: Explaining that one of its many difficulties had been the  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 10 Mar 2015, 04:57
kapilhede17 wrote:
Explaining that one of its many difficulties had been the recent growing injury list among starting players, the minor league baseball team said it would start a month-long search for better physical trainers and physicians.

(A) its many difficulties had been the recent
(B) its many difficulties has been the recently
(C) its many difficulties is the recently
(D) their many difficulties is the recent
(E) their many difficulties had been the recent



Clearly choice A is correct.

its refers to minor league baseball team; We can take the clue from the second' it' that follows 'said' in the sentence.
So, D and E are out.

C is out because the overall tense of the sentence in past tense as indicated by the non-underlined part of the sentence.

Between A and B , A is correct-

In B, the tense has wrongly been changed to present perfect which is wrong.
Moreover , recently is an adverb which seems to modify the participle verb Growing which is actually modifying the noun injury list.

But we need to modify the NOUN PHRASE- growing injury list and so we need an adjective-RECENT.

Hope it helps!!!

Kudos if you like the post
_________________

Our greatest weakness lies in giving up. The most certain way to succeed is always to try just one more time.

I hated every minute of training, but I said, 'Don't quit. Suffer now and live the rest of your life as a champion.-Mohammad Ali

Manager
Manager
User avatar
Joined: 01 Oct 2013
Posts: 86
Schools: Haas '16, AGSM '16
GMAT ToolKit User
Re: Explaining that one of its many difficulties had been the  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 13 Mar 2015, 21:25
Explaining that one of its many difficulties had been the recent growing injury list among starting players, the minor league baseball team said it would start a month-long search for better physical trainers and physicians.

(A) its many difficulties had been the recent

(B) its many difficulties has been the recently

(C) its many difficulties is the recently

(D) their many difficulties is the recent

(E) their many difficulties had been the recent
Intern
Intern
avatar
Joined: 07 Jul 2014
Posts: 11
Re: Explaining that one of its many difficulties had been the  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 20 Jun 2015, 11:19
At the risk of sounding very ignorant, may I ask why can't C be the correct answer? Is it the verb form? Does that mean that with "will" in place of "would" C can be the right answer choice.
And also why is 'recently growing" wrong.

Thanks
Current Student
User avatar
B
Joined: 05 Apr 2015
Posts: 416
Reviews Badge
Re: Explaining that one of its many difficulties had been the  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 21 Jun 2015, 21:45
daagh wrote:
The term team is singular and therefore you require its; the adverb recently can not modify the adjective growing. Therefore, you need an adjective – recent -. The word recent implies a finished event and the past perfect had been appropriately fits in. A is the one that fulfills all the criteria


Hi,

Could someone pls clarify why B is wrong. I feel the adverb can modify a verb/adjective/other adverbs... Also "had been" means that the list has stopped growing

while clearly the list is growing...(hence has been is correctly used).

Regards,
Dom.
Queens MBA Thread Master
avatar
Joined: 24 Oct 2012
Posts: 181
Concentration: Leadership, General Management
Re: Explaining that one of its many difficulties had been the  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 21 Jun 2015, 23:07
dominicraj wrote:
daagh wrote:
The term team is singular and therefore you require its; the adverb recently can not modify the adjective growing. Therefore, you need an adjective – recent -. The word recent implies a finished event and the past perfect had been appropriately fits in. A is the one that fulfills all the criteria


Hi,

Could someone pls clarify why B is wrong. I feel the adverb can modify a verb/adjective/other adverbs... Also "had been" means that the list has stopped growing

while clearly the list is growing...(hence has been is correctly used).

Regards,
Dom.


GMAT supports 2 grammatically correct structure,
1. Adj + Adj + Noun - Both adjectives modifies Noun
2. Adv + Adj + Noun - Adv Modifies Adjective , Adjective modifies Noun.

So dominicraj, adverb can modify adjective in type 2 and adverb can modify verb in normal case. Adv cannot modify noun.

I chose Option B, since overall tense of non underlined part appears to be past tense.

However, the logic on which i selected answer can be debated since,
Present tense in indirect speech will be re-presented by past tense. So overall non underline part is present tense and hence Option B can be correct

I think, Option Choice are not correct and both option A and B can be debated.

We need expert Help.

mikemcgarry can you please help us here We seriously need your inputs.
Manhattan Prep Instructor
User avatar
S
Joined: 22 Mar 2011
Posts: 1289
Re: Explaining that one of its many difficulties had been the  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 24 Jun 2015, 17:42
1
This is a flawed rewrite of an official SC problem. In the original, it made sense to have the word "recent" modify the whole phrase "extended sales slump." However, the same logic doesn't really apply to "growing injury list." It doesn't make sense that we have a "growing injury list" that is recent. It would make a bit more sense to use "recently." The adverb "recently" would just modify "growing." When was the list growing? Recently.

I would recommend focusing on the original problem (cited earlier in the thread) rather than this one.
_________________


Dmitry Farber | Manhattan GMAT Instructor | New York


Manhattan GMAT Discount | Manhattan GMAT Course Reviews | View Instructor Profile |
Manhattan GMAT Reviews

Manhattan Prep Instructor
User avatar
S
Joined: 22 Mar 2011
Posts: 1289
Re: Explaining that one of its many difficulties had been the  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 24 Jun 2015, 17:49
ParmarKP, the problem with C is that "is" puts it in the present tense, which contrasts with the later use of "said." We might get away with present tense ("has been"), since that indicates something that started in the past and continues, but the simple present doesn't make sense in this context.
_________________


Dmitry Farber | Manhattan GMAT Instructor | New York


Manhattan GMAT Discount | Manhattan GMAT Course Reviews | View Instructor Profile |
Manhattan GMAT Reviews

Senior Manager
Senior Manager
avatar
Joined: 27 Jul 2014
Posts: 300
Schools: ISB '15
GMAT 1: 660 Q49 V30
GPA: 3.76
GMAT ToolKit User Reviews Badge
Re: Explaining that one of its many difficulties had been the  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 12 Sep 2015, 04:26
daagh wrote:
The term team is singular and therefore you require its; the adverb recently can not modify the adjective growing. Therefore, you need an adjective – recent -. The word recent implies a finished event and the past perfect had been appropriately fits in. A is the one that fulfills all the criteria



Hi Daagh,

Can shed some light of why recently cannot modify growing

I mean as far as I remember adverbs can modify adjectives .

What exactly is missing here.
Re: Explaining that one of its many difficulties had been the &nbs [#permalink] 12 Sep 2015, 04:26

Go to page    1   2    Next  [ 27 posts ] 

Display posts from previous: Sort by

Explaining that one of its many difficulties had been the

  new topic post reply Question banks Downloads My Bookmarks Reviews Important topics  

Events & Promotions

PREV
NEXT


GMAT Club MBA Forum Home| About| Terms and Conditions and Privacy Policy| GMAT Club Rules| Contact| Sitemap

Powered by phpBB © phpBB Group | Emoji artwork provided by EmojiOne

Kindly note that the GMAT® test is a registered trademark of the Graduate Management Admission Council®, and this site has neither been reviewed nor endorsed by GMAC®.