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Farmer: Worldwide, just three grain crops—rice, wheat, and corn—accoun

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Farmer: Worldwide, just three grain crops—rice, wheat, and corn—accoun  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Jun 2018, 04:25
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Farmer: Worldwide, just three grain crops—rice, wheat, and corn—account for most human caloric intake. To maintain this level of caloric intake and also keep pace with global population growth, yields per acre from each of these crops will have to increase at least 1.5 percent every year, given that the supply of cultivated land is diminishing. Therefore, the government should increase funding for research into new ways to improve yields.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the farmer's argument depends?


A. It is solely the government's responsibility to ensure that the amount of rice, wheat, and corn produced worldwide keeps pace with global population growth.

B. Increasing government funding for research into new ways to improve the yields per acre of rice, wheat, and corn crops would help to increase total worldwide annual production of food from these crops.

C. Increasing the yields per acre of rice, wheat, and corn is more important than increasing the yields per acre of other crops.

D. Current levels of funding for research into ways of improving grain crop yields per acre have enabled grain crop yields per acre to increase by more than 1.5 percent per year worldwide.

E. In coming decades, rice, wheat, and corn will become a minor part of human caloric intake, unless there is government-funded research to increase their yields per acre.


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Re: Farmer: Worldwide, just three grain crops—rice, wheat, and corn—accoun  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Jun 2018, 07:15
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Question Type: Assumption

Argument: Government should increase funding for research to improve yields.

A. It is solely the government's responsibility to ensure that the amount of rice, wheat, and corn produced worldwide keeps pace with global population growth. - Irrelevant. The argument isn't concerned about who shoulders the responsibility.

B. Increasing government funding for research into new ways to improve the yields per acre of rice, wheat, and corn crops would help to increase total worldwide annual production of food from these crops. - Correct. Negate and the conclusion also gets negated.

C. Increasing the yields per acre of rice, wheat, and corn is more important than increasing the yields per acre of other crops. - Out of context. Argument doesn't focus much on giving preference to rice, wheat and corn over the other crops.

D. Current levels of funding for research into ways of improving grain crop yields per acre have enabled grain crop yields per acre to increase by more than 1.5 percent per year worldwide. - If anything, this option opposes the conclusion. Since there is already an increase by more than 1.5%, should the government provide the funding?

E. In coming decades, rice, wheat, and corn will become a minor part of human caloric intake, unless there is government-funded research to increase their yields per acre. - Irrelevant. We are not worried about the future consequence, if no funding happens.

Answer: B
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Re: Farmer: Worldwide, just three grain crops—rice, wheat, and corn—accoun  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Jun 2018, 07:48
With (B), as without it the conclusion gets shattered.
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Re: Farmer: Worldwide, just three grain crops—rice, wheat, and corn—accoun  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Jun 2018, 00:08
Bunuel wrote:
Farmer: Worldwide, just three grain crops—rice, wheat, and corn—account for most human caloric intake. To maintain this level of caloric intake and also keep pace with global population growth, yields per acre from each of these crops will have to increase at least 1.5 percent every year, given that the supply of cultivated land is diminishing. Therefore, the government should increase funding for research into new ways to improve yields.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the farmer's argument depends?


A. It is solely the government's responsibility to ensure that the amount of rice, wheat, and corn produced worldwide keeps pace with global population growth.

B. Increasing government funding for research into new ways to improve the yields per acre of rice, wheat, and corn crops would help to increase total worldwide annual production of food from these crops.

C. Increasing the yields per acre of rice, wheat, and corn is more important than increasing the yields per acre of other crops.

D. Current levels of funding for research into ways of improving grain crop yields per acre have enabled grain crop yields per acre to increase by more than 1.5 percent per year worldwide.

E. In coming decades, rice, wheat, and corn will become a minor part of human caloric intake, unless there is government-funded research to increase their yields per acre.


NEW question from GMAT® Official Guide 2019


(CR07712)


Question Type: Assumption

Premise: Corn Rice & wheat account for most human caloric intake & sustain this intake for current & future population growth, the agricultural output of these crops has to increase by 1.5%

Conclusion: The government should increase funding for research into new ways to improve output.

Analysis: A clear assumption that will lead to the conclusion, should show that increased funding in research will improve agricultural output. It should show that improved funding will be the cause & its effect will be improved output.

Answer B.

Only B fills the gap between premise & conclusion, where we can say Since "B", therefore "conclusion".

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Re: Farmer: Worldwide, just three grain crops—rice, wheat, and corn—accoun  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Jun 2018, 16:09
Pre-thinking:
the government should increase funding for research into new ways to improve yields. But why gov. do so? the supply of cultivated land is diminishing else it will not pace with global population growth. All these point to one assumption. gov should increase funding for research into new ways to improve the yields per acre of rice, wheat, and corn crops to maintain this level of caloric intake and also keep pace with global population growth.

Quote:
B. Increasing government funding for research into new ways to improve the yields per acre of rice, wheat, and corn crops would help to increase total worldwide annual production of food from these crops. --- this choice is on same line.

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Re: Farmer: Worldwide, just three grain crops—rice, wheat, and corn—accoun  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Jun 2018, 23:20
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Bunuel wrote:
Farmer: Worldwide, just three grain crops—rice, wheat, and corn—account for most human caloric intake. To maintain this level of caloric intake and also keep pace with global population growth, yields per acre from each of these crops will have to increase at least 1.5 percent every year, given that the supply of cultivated land is diminishing. Therefore, the government should increase funding for research into new ways to improve yields.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the farmer's argument depends?


A. It is solely the government's responsibility to ensure that the amount of rice, wheat, and corn produced worldwide keeps pace with global population growth.

B. Increasing government funding for research into new ways to improve the yields per acre of rice, wheat, and corn crops would help to increase total worldwide annual production of food from these crops.

C. Increasing the yields per acre of rice, wheat, and corn is more important than increasing the yields per acre of other crops.

D. Current levels of funding for research into ways of improving grain crop yields per acre have enabled grain crop yields per acre to increase by more than 1.5 percent per year worldwide.

E. In coming decades, rice, wheat, and corn will become a minor part of human caloric intake, unless there is government-funded research to increase their yields per acre.


NEW question from GMAT® Official Guide 2019


(CR07712)



Farmer's Argument: Yields from rice, wheat, and corn will have to increase to keep up with the population growth and human calorie intake. Therefore, the government should invest in research to improve yields.

A. It is solely the government's responsibility to ensure that the amount of rice, wheat, and corn produced worldwide keeps pace with global population growth.This one is quite close. If I negate this choice: 'It is solely NOT the govt's responsibility..' , then the conclusion could still hold true as the govt could be partly responsible. (If the choice said 'It is the government's responsibility to ensure...' then it would have been an assumption)

B. Increasing government funding for research into new ways to improve the yields per acre of rice, wheat, and corn crops would help to increase total worldwide annual production of food from these crops.The argument talks about human calorie intake whereas farmer talks about increasing yields of this crops. This choice fills the gap that the investment will actually help increase the food production(and not just the yield of these crops)

C. Increasing the yields per acre of rice, wheat, and corn is more important than increasing the yields per acre of other crops.Comparison with other crops is Irrelevant

D. Current levels of funding for research into ways of improving grain crop yields per acre have enabled grain crop yields per acre to increase by more than 1.5 percent per year worldwide.We don't NEED thiis to be true.

E. In coming decades, rice, wheat, and corn will become a minor part of human caloric intake, unless there is government-funded research to increase their yields per acre.Again, we don't need this for the conclusion to be true.
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Re: Farmer: Worldwide, just three grain crops—rice, wheat, and corn—accoun  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Jul 2018, 19:07
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Farmer: Worldwide, just three grain crops—rice, wheat, and corn—account for most human caloric intake. To maintain this level of caloric intake and also keep pace with global population growth, yields per acre from each of these crops will have to increase at least 1.5 percent every year, given that the supply of cultivated land is diminishing. Therefore, the government should increase funding for research into new ways to improve yields.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the farmer's argument depends?

QUESTION TYPE : ASSUMPTION. NEGATION can be used to confirm the answer.

A. It is solely the government's responsibility to ensure that the amount of rice, wheat, and corn produced worldwide keeps pace with global population growth.
Responsibility - Are we concerned about whose responsibility it is to ensure that the amount of rice, wheat, and corn produced keeps pace with global population growth.
Not at all. So Eliminate it.


B. Increasing government funding for research into new ways to improve the yields per acre of rice, wheat, and corn crops would help to increase total worldwide annual production of food from these crops.
This choice indicates that Increasing government funding for research would help to increase total worldwide annual production. This helps us to believe in the Conclusion more strongly. HOLD on to this one.

C. Increasing the yields per acre of rice, wheat, and corn is more important than increasing the yields per acre of other crops.
This is clearly Out of Scope. We are not concerned about Other Corps.

D. Current levels of funding for research into ways of improving grain crop yields per acre have enabled grain crop yields per acre to increase by more than 1.5 percent per year worldwide.
Whether we Should be concerned about current level of funding?
I think No. Even if current level of funding is not yielding desired result, we may need to increase the funding and observe the result.
And even if the current level of funding is yielding desired result, it is possible that increasing the funding may not help us to get the desired result.


E. In coming decades, rice, wheat, and corn will become a minor part of human caloric intake, unless there is government-funded research to increase their yields per acre.
This is something we can't be sure even if the government funding towards research is increased.

Negating Choice B breaks the conclusion. Let's try it.
Increasing government funding for research into new ways to improve the yields per acre of rice, wheat, and corn crops would not help to increase total worldwide annual production of food from these crops.
As you can see it clearly breaks the conclusion. Hence Choice B is correct.


B is the answer.
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Farmer: Worldwide, just three grain crops—rice, wheat, and corn—accoun  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Jul 2018, 10:57
The premise is "To maintain this level of caloric intake and also keep pace with global population growth, yields per acre from each of these crops will have to increase at least 1.5 percent every year, given that the supply of cultivated land is diminishing."

in the premise above, the argument states that yields will have to increase to keep pace with population growth and main calorie intake. since that's a given, does it matter what the food production levels are?
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Farmer: Worldwide, just three grain crops—rice, wheat, and corn—accoun  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Jul 2018, 11:35
Farmer: Worldwide, just three grain crops—rice, wheat, and corn—account for most human caloric intake. To maintain this level of caloric intake and also keep pace with global population growth, yields per acre from each of these crops will have to increase at least 1.5 percent every year, given that the supply of cultivated land is diminishing. Therefore, the government should increase funding for research into new ways to improve yields.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the farmer's argument depends?

A. It is solely the government's responsibility to ensure that the amount of rice, wheat, and corn produced worldwide keeps pace with global population growth.

B. Increasing government funding for research into new ways to improve the yields per acre of rice, wheat, and corn crops would help to increase total worldwide annual production of food from these crops.

C. Increasing the yields per acre of rice, wheat, and corn is more important than increasing the yields per acre of other crops.

D. Current levels of funding for research into ways of improving grain crop yields per acre have enabled grain crop yields per acre to increase by more than 1.5 percent per year worldwide.

E. In coming decades, rice, wheat, and corn will become a minor part of human caloric intake, unless there is government-funded research to increase their yields per acre.

BID: Need boost yield/acre -> Gov should fund research to boost yields
Conclusion: The government should increase funding into improved yields.
Evidence: Yields per acre will need to increase and the supply of land is diminishing.

The Big 3 GMAT Assumptions:
    1. Success - The government funded research can be successful in boosting yields.
    2. Relevance - N/A
    3. No Other Factors - N/A

The Goal: We are asked for an assumption, so we need to find the option that is essential for the argument to work.

Choice B is correct. This states that the increased funding will actually work to improve yields per acre. The arguer’s reasoning depends on the notion that the government research is even capable of generating any sort of improvement. What if it’s not? Then the whole proposal collapses. It wouldn’t work.

Choice A does not need to be assumed. The argument doesn’t hinge on the government being the ONLY party responsibility. The argument just hinges on the notion that the government is capable of actually doing something to help. The author might think that others are responsible, not just the government.

Choice C is an irrelevant comparison that is not required for the argument to hold. Remember, in an Assumption question, the argument would NEED that option to be true for the argument to stand. Whether corn, wheat, or rice is more important has no impact on the argument.

Choice D does not need to be assumed. For the argument to hold that the government should invest in research to boost yields to 1.5%/year we don’t need that to be the current rate, because the argument only deals with what the government is capable of doing in the future. What if anything it’s doing RIGHT NOW is completely unnecessary for the logic of this argument to hold.

Choice E does not need to be assumed. We know that assumption questions ask us to find the option the would have to be true for the argument to hold. In that light, this is the most absurd option of them all. The argument absolutely does not require the notion that rice, wheat, and corn will become a minor part of caloric intake unless the government research is funded. That piece of information is absolutely not required for the logic of the proposal to hold. It might be that these crops will remain as important as they now are even without government funding. This choice presents a possible OUTCOME, but not an assumption.


B
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Re: Farmer: Worldwide, just three grain crops—rice, wheat, and corn—accoun  [#permalink]

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New post 02 Sep 2018, 21:46
Bunuel wrote:
Farmer: Worldwide, just three grain crops—rice, wheat, and corn—account for most human caloric intake. To maintain this level of caloric intake and also keep pace with global population growth, yields per acre from each of these crops will have to increase at least 1.5 percent every year, given that the supply of cultivated land is diminishing. Therefore, the government should increase funding for research into new ways to improve yields.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the farmer's argument depends?


A. It is solely the government's responsibility to ensure that the amount of rice, wheat, and corn produced worldwide keeps pace with global population growth. - INCORRECT as who is responsible for ensuring is not the subject matter in question.

B. Increasing government funding for research into new ways to improve the yields per acre of rice, wheat, and corn crops would help to increase total worldwide annual production of food from these crops. - CORRECT, in line with our pre thinking. If we negate this answer choice i.e. If increasing govt funding for research shall not improve the overall annual production of food from these groups then our conclusion shall fall apart.

C. Increasing the yields per acre of rice, wheat, and corn is more important than increasing the yields per acre of other crops. - OUT OF SCOPE, other crops comparison is totally irrelevant

D. Current levels of funding for research into ways of improving grain crop yields per acre have enabled grain crop yields per acre to increase by more than 1.5 percent per year worldwide.- INCORRECT as we are no concerned with current level of funding whether sufficient or not. We are focused on future i.e. to increase future level of funding. Even if Current level of funding is sufficient, still we may need to increase future funding for increasing yield per acre by more than 1.50% and subsequently overall world production of these crops

E. In coming decades, rice, wheat, and corn will become a minor part of human caloric intake, unless there is government-funded research to increase their yields per acre.- OUT OF SCOPE, whether the crops will become minor part or major part of human caloric intake does not matters.


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Re: Farmer: Worldwide, just three grain crops—rice, wheat, and corn—accoun &nbs [#permalink] 02 Sep 2018, 21:46
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