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For every 50 dogs that contract a certain disease, one will die from i

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For every 50 dogs that contract a certain disease, one will die from i  [#permalink]

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27 Mar 2019, 04:54
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For every 50 dogs that contract a certain disease, one will die from it. A vaccine exists that is virtually 100 percent effective in preventing this disease. Since the risk of death from complications of vaccination is one death per 5,000 vaccinations, it is therefore safer for a dog to receive the vaccine than not to receive it.

Which one of the following would it be most helpful to know in order to evaluate the argument?

(A) the total number of dogs that die each year from all causes taken together

(B) whether the vaccine is effective against the disease in household pets other than dogs

(C) the number of dogs that die each year from diseases other than the disease in question

(D) the likelihood that a dog will contract another disease such as rabies

(E) the likelihood that an unvaccinated dog will contract the disease in question

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Re: For every 50 dogs that contract a certain disease, one will die from i  [#permalink]

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27 Mar 2019, 06:06
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For every 50 dogs that contract a certain disease, one will die from it. A vaccine exists that is virtually 100 percent effective in preventing this disease. Since the risk of death from complications of vaccination is one death per 5,000 vaccinations, it is therefore safer for a dog to receive the vaccine than not to receive it.

The para states 1 out of 50 dogs that contract a certain disease will die. If the dogs are vaccinated, these1 life can be saved, but the process of vaccination can lead to 1 death in 5000 vaccination.So we are talking of TWO different groups, one talkso f all dogs and other talks of just the dogs with the disease.
There has to be something connecting these two groups.

Which one of the following would it be most helpful to know in order to evaluate the argument?

(A) the total number of dogs that die each year from all causes taken together
(B) whether the vaccine is effective against the disease in household pets other than dogs
(C) the number of dogs that die each year from diseases other than the disease in question
(D) the likelihood that a dog will contract another disease such as rabies
All the above choices talk of some other disease or different groups, so shifts the scope of th equestion, and, therefore, are not likely to help in evaluating the argument.

(E) the likelihood that an unvaccinated dog will contract the disease in question
Now, this choice talks of bridging the gap. Say chances of dogs contracting the disease is 1 in 1000 dogs, so there will be 1 death in 50*1000 or 50,000 dogs, while there is a chance of 1 in 5000 during vaccinations. So, it is better without vaccinations.
But say 1 out of every 10 dog is likely to contract disease, so there will be 1 death in 50*10 or 500 dogs, while there is a chance of 1 in 5000 during vaccinations. So, it is better with vaccinations.

E
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For every 50 dogs that contract a certain disease, one will die from i  [#permalink]

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27 Mar 2019, 06:38
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For every 50 dogs that contract a certain disease, one will die from it. A vaccine exists that is virtually 100 percent effective in preventing this disease. Since the risk of death from complications of vaccination is one death per 5,000 vaccinations, it is therefore safer for a dog to receive the vaccine than not to receive it.

Which one of the following would it be most helpful to know in order to evaluate the argument?

Quote:
(A) the total number of dogs that die each year from all causes taken together
--- Out of Scope

Quote:
(B) whether the vaccine is effective against the disease in household pets other than dogs
-- Out of scope

Quote:
(C) the number of dogs that die each year from diseases other than the disease in question
-- out of scope

Quote:
(D) the likelihood that a dog will contract another disease such as rabies
-- out of scope

Quote:
(E) the likelihood that an unvaccinated dog will contract the disease in question
-- Correct, Just try to negate it, if say out of 100 unvaccinated dogs all of them will contract the disease then one of them will die, thus it strengthens the conclusion that we need to Vaccinate them, Now in other case if say out of 100 unvaccinated dogs 0 dog contract the disease then there is no need of Vaccination thus this weakens the conclusion

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Re: For every 50 dogs that contract a certain disease, one will die from i  [#permalink]

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30 Apr 2019, 06:57
What is the problem with option D? The passage concludes that vaccination is safer but doesn't conclude anything about the reduction of death toll. So if the rabbies is the side effect then vaccination is not safer. So it is an important information required for the argument.
Please let me know what I missed to understand?

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Re: For every 50 dogs that contract a certain disease, one will die from i  [#permalink]

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30 Apr 2019, 08:07
rashwiniyer wrote:
What is the problem with option D? The passage concludes that vaccination is safer but doesn't conclude anything about the reduction of death toll. So if the rabbies is the side effect then vaccination is not safer. So it is an important information required for the argument.
Please let me know what I missed to understand?

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You are assuming that the side effects will be > the benefits ...

However take into consideration the last sentence " it is therefore safer for a dog to receive the vaccine than not to receive it. " The speaker talks about vaccination as a form of preventive measure....
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Re: For every 50 dogs that contract a certain disease, one will die from i  [#permalink]

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30 Apr 2019, 22:33
Thanks Abhisek. I understand why option E is right. But I don't get why D is wrong. If Rabbies is the side effect of the vaccination, then it is an important information for the argument right?

Is it that option E is better than D and hence we chose E?

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Re: For every 50 dogs that contract a certain disease, one will die from i  [#permalink]

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03 Aug 2019, 14:15
rashwiniyer wrote:
Thanks Abhisek. I understand why option E is right. But I don't get why D is wrong. If Rabbies is the side effect of the vaccination, then it is an important information for the argument right?

Is it that option E is better than D and hence we chose E?

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rashwiniyer, It's great that you know why Option E is correct.
Let's have a 2nd look at OptionD:

(D) the likelihood that a dog will contract another disease such as rabies
Even if the dog catches another disease such as rabies, do we know, for sure, from the argument that Rabbies is the side effect of the vaccination?

You have causated two completely different correlated events:
Vaccination and Catching Rabies.

Moreover, we have absolutely NO idea what's the death rate of dogs affected with rabies.
Maybe, the death rate of dogs affected with rabies is insignificant enough to EVEN make a mark: let's say less than 1 in 10000.

To even consider OptionD, a batch of further assumptions needs to in the picture.
Thus, OptionD is not irrelevant but highly dicey at best.
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Re: For every 50 dogs that contract a certain disease, one will die from i   [#permalink] 03 Aug 2019, 14:15
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