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From studies of the bony house of the brain, which is the cranium, loc

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From studies of the bony house of the brain, which is the cranium, loc  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 30 Sep 2018, 23:34
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From studies of the bony house of the brain, which is the cranium, located in the back of the skull, come what scientists know about dinosaur brains.


A. From studies of the bony house of the brain, which is the cranium, located in the back of the skull, come what scientists know about dinosaur brains.

B. The knowledge of dinosaur brains that scientists have come from studies of the bony house of the brain, located in the back of the skull, that is, the cranium

C. The knowledge that scientists know about dinosaur brains comes from studies of the bony house of the brain, which is located in the back of the skull and is called the cranium

D. What scientists know about dinosaur brains comes from studies of the cranium, the bony house of the brain located in the back of the skull

E. Located in the back of the skull is the cranium, the bony house of the brain, and it is from studies of this that scientists know what they know about dinosaur brains

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Originally posted by sondenso on 20 May 2008, 19:23.
Last edited by Bunuel on 30 Sep 2018, 23:34, edited 1 time in total.
Renamed the topic and edited the question.
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Re: From studies of the bony house of the brain, which is the cranium, loc  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Aug 2010, 11:30
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Lots of modifier issues going on here to make up one awkward honker of a sentence.

"Which" is one of those "red flag" words for me on SC questions-- as soon as I see it, I check to make sure it's being used correctly...often it's not. Remember that ", which" should be immediately preceded by the thing that is being modified. In this case, "the cranium" clearly is intended to refer to the "bony house of the brain." You might make an argument for "of the brain" being a necessary modifier to the meaning of "bony house," but as currently written the pronoun could be referring to the brain itself--at best we're in muddy waters. This construction is doubly awkward because the phrase is followed by *another* modifier --"located in the back of the skull." Yuck.

Choices B and C, both of which begin with "The knowledge," have different verbs -- "come" versus "comes." "The knowledge" is singular, so lose B. "The knowledge that scientists KNOW" is redundant so C's out too.

Not only is E wordier than D, it also uses the relative pronoun "this" without something attached to to it. The GMAT doesn't like "this" or "that" floating around unattached (though we use both terms this way all the time in real life)--E is out. D is what's left standing: the phrases explaining what the cranium is and where it is located are merged into one nice clean modifier and placed immediately after the word "cranium."
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Re: From studies of the bony house of the brain, which is the cranium, loc  [#permalink]

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New post 02 Sep 2017, 04:27
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The original sentence is indeed inverted, with the main verb preceding the main subject.
A: From studies...come what scientists know.
Here, the subject of come (plural) is what scientists know (singular).
If we reorder the sentence, we get:
What scientists know come from studies.
Since the subject (what scientists know) is singular, while the verb (come) is plural, eliminate A.

Choice B – This choice has three errors as noted below.
Redundant – “knowledge that scientists know” is redundant expression
Punctuation error – “that is, the cranium” = The verb is unnecessarily separated from the object by comma
Modifier “that is, the cranium” distorts the intended meaning = Per the original sentence, cranium is the bony house of brain. However per this choice, cranium is the back of the skull. This is because “that” refers to ‘back of the skull’.

Choice C – This choice has SV number disagreement error. The SV pair – “knowledge-come” does not agree in number.
come (plural) does not agree with the knowledge that scientists have (singular).

Choice D – No Errors

Choice E – This choice has three errors as noted below.
Redundant – “know what they know” is redundant expression
Wordy & Awkward construction – “it is from studies of this that…”
Pronoun – This is used as a pronoun to refer to cranium. We cannot use “this” in this role without adding a noun after it for example, “this part” would have been correct in the context of this sentence.
Thus, choice D is the correct answer.
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Re: From studies of the bony house of the brain, which is the cranium, loc  [#permalink]

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New post 02 Sep 2017, 07:09
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96. From studies of the bony house of the brain, which is the cranium, located in the back of the skull, come what scientists know about dinosaur brains.

A. From studies of the bony house of the brain, which is the cranium, located in the back of the skull, come what scientists know about dinosaur brains. --- The topic is all about the cranium. It is not appropriate to put the cranium is a parenthesis.

B. The knowledge of dinosaur brains that scientists have come from studies of the bony house of the brain, located in the back of the skull, that is, the cranium -- Let's us be careful about parsing the sentence. It nearly looks as though the scientists have come from the dinosaur brains. Even so, the SV error is too glaring with the singular knowledge verbed by a plural 'come'. The all-important cranium is dumped at the end of the sentence

C. The knowledge that scientists know about dinosaur brains comes from studies of the bony house of the brain, which is located in the back of the skull and is called the cranium-- The obvious redundancy of 'the knowledge that scientists know'; the all important cranium is dumped at the end of the sentence


D. What scientists know about dinosaur brains comes from studies of the cranium, the bony house of the brain located in the back of the skull -- proper modification of the cranium.

E. Located in the back of the skull is the cranium, the bony house of the brain, and it is from studies of this that scientists know what they know about dinosaur brains ---that scientists know what they know- blatant redundancy

The first point is that the word cranium and its modifier 'the bony house should' be placed close enough. Only D does that religiously without indulging in any other error. One can pick D at first sight.
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Re: From studies of the bony house of the brain, which is the cranium, loc  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Feb 2019, 18:06
This might be a silly doubt.

What scientists know about dinosaur brains comes from studies of the cranium, the bony house of the brain located in the back of the skull

Here, "located" is modifier.
Now I am confused whether located is modifying brain or the bony house which itself is modifier and is modifying the cranium.
According to my understanding located is attached to "brain"; thus, located is modifying "the brain".

Similar type of construction can appear in following phrase
....Ram, Captain of Kabaddi team playing in final tournament....

Please help clear my doubt.
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Re: From studies of the bony house of the brain, which is the cranium, loc  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Feb 2019, 00:05
gvij2017 wrote:
This might be a silly doubt.

What scientists know about dinosaur brains comes from studies of the cranium, the bony house of the brain located in the back of the skull

Here, "located" is modifier.
Now I am confused whether located is modifying brain or the bony house which itself is modifier and is modifying the cranium.
According to my understanding located is attached to "brain"; thus, located is modifying "the brain".

Similar type of construction can appear in following phrase
....Ram, Captain of Kabaddi team playing in final tournament....

Please help clear my doubt.

Hi gvij2017, the past participle (modifier) located is modifying bony house (simply because the intent of the sentence is to depict that the bony house is located in the back of the skull).

Past participles don't necessarily follow the touch rule. Another officially correct sentence:

For protection from the summer sun, the Mojave lived in open-sided, flat-topped dwellings known as shades, each a roof of poles and arrowweed supported by posts set in a rectangle.

Here, the Past participle supported is modifying roof.

p.s. Our book EducationAisle Sentence Correction Nirvana discusses Past participles, their application and examples in significant detail. If you or someone is interested, PM me your email-id; I can mail the corresponding section.
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Re: From studies of the bony house of the brain, which is the cranium, loc  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Feb 2019, 07:07
sondenso wrote:
From studies of the bony house of the brain, which is the cranium, located in the back of the skull, come what scientists know about dinosaur brains.


A. From studies of the bony house of the brain, which is the cranium, located in the back of the skull, come what scientists know about dinosaur brains.

B. The knowledge of dinosaur brains that scientists have come from studies of the bony house of the brain, located in the back of the skull, that is, the cranium

C. The knowledge that scientists know about dinosaur brains comes from studies of the bony house of the brain, which is located in the back of the skull and is called the cranium

D. What scientists know about dinosaur brains comes from studies of the cranium, the bony house of the brain located in the back of the skull

E. Located in the back of the skull is the cranium, the bony house of the brain, and it is from studies of this that scientists know what they know about dinosaur brains


why choice c is wrong? it is hard
the cranium and bony house of brain is the same thing. they should be is appositive position as in choice D. we should not make parallel " is located" and "is called cranium" because logically they are not parallel. one thing is the name of organ, while other talk about its position. they are not parallel logically

this is the main reason for which choice C is wrong. logic parallelism is hard this way. when you see a grammatically parallel phrase, ask our self do it parallel logically

the grammatically parallel phrase in choice C is hard because we can not realize that the 2 elements are not parallel logically.

I talk with her and I eat brackfast

this sentence is normally considered unparallel. but the context can make the sentence paralel.

after working, I talk with her and eat breakfast at the same time.

he get injured two time, one at vietnam , the other at his arm.

they are not paralel logically because the geological place and part of body can not be parallel.

the book is on the table and is interesting.

this sentence is normally not parallel logically because "on the table" can not be paralel with "interesting".

my god. hard one
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Re: From studies of the bony house of the brain, which is the cranium, loc  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Feb 2019, 07:14
the book is on the table and interesting

in some context, the above sentence can be parallel logically

all the books here is boring. I want some interesting book. my friend replies " I have a different book for you. the book in on the table and interesting. ". in this context our sentence is parallel logically.

this point is hard.
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Re: From studies of the bony house of the brain, which is the cranium, loc  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Feb 2019, 07:28
sondenso wrote:
From studies of the bony house of the brain, which is the cranium, located in the back of the skull, come what scientists know about dinosaur brains.


If we look at this sentence, one can realize that we are discussing a particular trait of a specific organ.

With this intent, lets attack

A. From studies of the bony house of the brain, which is the cranium, located in the back of the skull, come what scientists know about dinosaur brains.
brain is not cranium -> out

B. The knowledge of dinosaur brains that scientists have come from studies of the bony house of the brain, located in the back of the skull, that is, the cranium
brain is located in the back of the skull, not aware of this :dazed

C. The knowledge that scientists know about dinosaur brains comes from studies of the bony house of the brain, which is located in the back of the skull and is called the cranium
which is referring to brain, but as per the intent it should refer bony house.

D. What scientists know about dinosaur brains comes from studies of the cranium, the bony house of the brain located in the back of the skull
correctly referring cranium

E. Located in the back of the skull is the cranium, the bony house of the brain, and it is from studies of this that scientists know what they know about dinosaur brains
and conjunction, is not required.
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Re: From studies of the bony house of the brain, which is the cranium, loc   [#permalink] 17 Feb 2019, 07:28
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