GMAT Question of the Day - Daily to your Mailbox; hard ones only

It is currently 14 Dec 2018, 18:22

Close

GMAT Club Daily Prep

Thank you for using the timer - this advanced tool can estimate your performance and suggest more practice questions. We have subscribed you to Daily Prep Questions via email.

Customized
for You

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Track
Your Progress

every week, we’ll send you an estimated GMAT score based on your performance

Practice
Pays

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Not interested in getting valuable practice questions and articles delivered to your email? No problem, unsubscribe here.

Close

Request Expert Reply

Confirm Cancel
Events & Promotions in December
PrevNext
SuMoTuWeThFrSa
2526272829301
2345678
9101112131415
16171819202122
23242526272829
303112345
Open Detailed Calendar
  • Typical Day of a UCLA MBA Student - Recording of Webinar with UCLA Adcom and Student

     December 14, 2018

     December 14, 2018

     10:00 PM PST

     11:00 PM PST

    Carolyn and Brett - nicely explained what is the typical day of a UCLA student. I am posting below recording of the webinar for those who could't attend this session.
  • Free GMAT Strategy Webinar

     December 15, 2018

     December 15, 2018

     07:00 AM PST

     09:00 AM PST

    Aiming to score 760+? Attend this FREE session to learn how to Define your GMAT Strategy, Create your Study Plan and Master the Core Skills to excel on the GMAT.

Georges LeClerc (1707-1788) proposed a mechanism for calculating the a

  new topic post reply Question banks Downloads My Bookmarks Reviews Important topics  
Author Message
TAGS:

Hide Tags

Manager
Manager
avatar
G
Joined: 30 Dec 2016
Posts: 230
GMAT 1: 650 Q42 V37
GPA: 4
WE: Business Development (Other)
Premium Member Reviews Badge
Georges LeClerc (1707-1788) proposed a mechanism for calculating the a  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 08 Feb 2018, 14:01
Question 1
00:00
A
B
C
D
E

based on 56 sessions

13% (03:01) correct 88% (03:07) wrong

HideShow timer Statistics

Question 2
00:00
A
B
C
D
E

based on 54 sessions

54% (00:41) correct 46% (00:53) wrong

HideShow timer Statistics

Question 3
00:00
A
B
C
D
E

based on 50 sessions

83% (01:21) correct 17% (01:13) wrong

HideShow timer Statistics

Question 4
00:00
A
B
C
D
E

based on 48 sessions

64% (00:44) correct 36% (00:45) wrong

HideShow timer Statistics

Georges LeClerc (1707-1788) proposed a mechanism for calculating the age of the Earth using molten spheres of iron and measuring cooling times, after which he proposed that the Earth was at least 75,000 years old and perhaps as old as three million years.

Some students may feel that we should not focus on the past, and that our thoughts should be trained on new knowledge and invention, rather than antiquated ideas. What these students do not understand is the importance of the old ideas in shaping our current understanding of the world around us, and that an outright dismissal of past theories simply because they have been rejected by new evidence may limit our understanding of current theories.

There is value of learning about hypotheses that were once espoused to explain an observed phenomenon, but that have now been long disproved and invalidated. Darwin‘s theory of natural selection as the mechanism for evolution is all too often taught in a vacuum in high school biology classrooms, as if this brilliant naturalist developed a groundbreaking theory on natural order which had never before been contemplated in any form. It is only by learning about the gradual development of evolutionary theory, and the role of some religious individuals in shaping this theory, that students may come to see the logic and power behind Darwin‘s relatively simple ideas.

Many of the contributions upon which Darwin built his ideas came from scientists who were staunch creationists themselves. These scientists believed that all organisms on Earth had been placed here through ―special creation,‖ by God, because there was little evidence at the time to support evolution. LeClerc also perceived that species were not fixed and could change over time; he even proposed that closely related species, such as the horse and donkey, had developed from a common ancestor and had been modified by different climactic conditions. Yet, LeClerc was a devout Christian creationist and devoted much of his writing to the debunking of evolutionary ideas. Despite their commitments to religion, LeClerc and Linnaeus both gave Darwin crucial raw material to work with—their ideas concerning the similarities between related species and possible connections with common ancestors cried out for a reasonable explanation.

For centuries before Darwin, data that challenged the biblical account of creation was surfacing in many fields of research. As explorers began to study the forces that shape the Earth, such as mountain building and volcanic eruptions, accounts from scripture and assertions that the Earth was very young began to be called into question. Uniformitarian geologists such as Charles Lyell felt that the only reason mountains and other features of the Earth‘s terrain had been built the way they had was because of long, gradual processes that shaped these structures. There was no way, he felt, that the Earth could be several thousand years old as asserted in the Bible. In addition, the discovery of new plants, animals, and fossils as explorers travelled to uncharted regions of the world aroused suspicion about the paucity of animal and plant ―kinds‖ in the Bible. Improvements in scientists‘ abilities to estimate the age of the Earth and the relative ages of fossils also pushed people to question old assumptions

1. Taking into account all that was argued by the author, the main idea of this passage is that:

A. religious scientists before Darwin greatly influenced his formation of the theory of natural selection.
B. similarities between species of plants and animals were too great to ignore as people attempted to explain relationships in nature.
C. Darwin relied on a great deal of information from those who lived before him as he formed his well-known conclusions about the mechanisms of evolution.
D. old ideas should not be dismissed simply because they are old and disproved.
E. There is no connection between old ideas and new ones




2. If the author were teaching a class on evolution in a university in the Unites States, the passage suggests that the class would spend a significant amount of time discussing:

A. the origins of Darwin‘s theory of natural selection.
B. details of Darwin‘s theory of natural selection.
C. the Biblical account of creation.
D. taxonomy and classification and their importance in Darwin‘s ideas.
E. the future of evolution



3. The author‘s discussion of Darwin‘s theory in paragraph 3 of the passage suggests that:

A. Darwin does not deserve the credit he is given for his ideas on evolutionary theory.
B. Darwin‘s theories should be presented in the context within which they were originally conceived.
C. Darwin‘s ideas would be properly devalued if people knew the religious background from which his ideas stemmed.
D. Darwin‘s ideas are simple enough that he didn‘t need much help in formulating them.
E. Darwin‘s ideas have no place in modern theories of evolution



4. According to the passage, the idea that mountains and other structures take a great deal of time to form was an idea championed by:

A. catastrophists.
B. Darwinists.
C. creationists.
D. uniformitarians.
E. modern scientists


_________________

Regards
SandySilva


____________
Please appreciate the efforts by pressing +1 KUDOS (:

MBA Section Director
User avatar
V
Affiliations: GMATClub
Joined: 22 May 2017
Posts: 1472
Concentration: Nonprofit
GPA: 4
WE: Engineering (Computer Software)
Re: Georges LeClerc (1707-1788) proposed a mechanism for calculating the a  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 02 Oct 2018, 18:06

+1 kudos to the posts containing answer explanations of all questions


_________________

New project wSTAT(which Schools To Apply To?)

GMATClub School Ambassador

B-School app with GRE

New - RC Butler - 2 RC's everyday

Senior Manager
Senior Manager
User avatar
G
Joined: 05 Feb 2018
Posts: 373
Location: India
Concentration: Finance
GPA: 2.77
WE: General Management (Other)
Re: Georges LeClerc (1707-1788) proposed a mechanism for calculating the a  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 25 Oct 2018, 11:20

Topic and Scope

- The importance of the historical precursors to Darwin‘s theory of
natural selection

Mapping the Passage


¶1 Discusses Linnaeus and LeClerc (Creationists), who helped pave the wave for evolutionary theory with some of their insights.
¶2 argues that understanding old ideas is important to understanding modern theories.
¶3 states that Darwin‘s theory of natural selection was developed in the context of older ideas.
¶4 notes that many of these older ideas came from scientists who were creationists and discusses LeClerc further.
¶5 describes pre-Darwinian data that challenged the Biblical account of creation.
_________________

Hit the the kudos button if you like the post



Thanks

Senior Manager
Senior Manager
User avatar
G
Joined: 05 Feb 2018
Posts: 373
Location: India
Concentration: Finance
GPA: 2.77
WE: General Management (Other)
Georges LeClerc (1707-1788) proposed a mechanism for calculating the a  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 25 Oct 2018, 11:23

Answers and Explanations OE



1)

A main idea question. Predict using topic, scope, and purpose. The author argues that Darwin‘s theory of natural selection didn‘t exist ―in a vacuum,‖ (as unfortunately it is taught in many schools, ¶3) but that the theory experienced ―gradual development‖ that had started before Darwin was born. (C) paraphrases this.
(A): Faulty Use of Detail. Though religious scientists did influence Darwin‘s theory, the author‘s main focus is on the fact that there were earlier (and perhaps false) ideas in general that influenced Darwin‘s theory.
(B): Faulty Use of Detail. This paraphrases the claim in the passage, but it‘s not the main idea of the passage, which again focuses on the idea that evolution wasn‘t a completely new idea when Darwin proposed it.
(C): The correct answer
(D): Faulty Use of Detail. The author makes this claim in ¶2, but it‘s used as a way of introducing a discussion of the ideas that preceded Darwin‘s theory. Since the bulk of the passage is devoted to explaining these theories rather than the argument that new ideas shouldn‘t be dismissed, it‘s safe to assume that the author is more concerned with the specifics of natural selection‘s precursors than with the general idea that old ideas shouldn‘t be dismissed.
(E): Opposite. The author actually lays emphasis on the role of older ideas in explaining newer ones

2)

What does the author focus on specifically in regard to evolution? Predict: the theory‘s scientific precursors. Further, the author specifically complains in ¶3 about high school biology classes that teach Darwin‘s theory in a vacuum. It‘s reasonable to infer, then, that the author would spend a lot of time teaching the background to Darwin‘s theory. (A) paraphrases this.(A): The correct answer
(B): Out of Scope. The author is mainly concerned with the background of the theory. Details are presumably important, but there‘s no evidence from the passage that the author would focus on the details especially.
(C): Distortion. While the author might focus on this as a way of discussing precursor theories, the focus would be on the theories themselves, and not on Biblical creation.
(D): Distortion. Taxonomy is associated regarding Linnaeus (¶1), and so the author would presumably discuss it, but only in the context of how it led up to Darwin‘s theory. (A) states this more comprehensively.
(E): The future doesn‘t really follow from the information in the passage

3)

What is the main idea of ¶3? Predict: The author believes that those studying Darwin‘s theories should study the ideas preceding those theories. (B) paraphrases
this and is essentially a summary of ¶3.
(A): Distortion. Though the author believes that Darwin‘s ideas have to be understood in context, there‘s no suggestion that Darwin doesn‘t deserve credit for his theory.
(B): The correct answer
(C): Out of Scope. The author speaks very positively of Darwin and never suggests that his ideas should be devalued at all. The author discusses religion in order to show that ideas essential to evolution coexisted with creationism, not to show that the theory of evolution is false.
(D): Distortion. Though the author does described Darwin‘s ideas as ―relatively simple,‖ there‘s no suggestion that Darwin required no help in formulating them. If anything, he was helped by the theories that had come before.
(E): Extreme, plus the author never says this
Strategy Point: Correct answers to inference questions are sometimes nothing more than summaries of the given paragraph or lines. A strong map will help you to get these points quickly.

4)

A detail question. Who specifically argued that mountains take a long time to develop? The author states explicitly in the passage that Lyell did, as well as ―uniformitarian geologists‖ like him. (D) fits the bill.
(A): Out of Scope. Catastrophists aren‘t mentioned in the passage and so can be eliminated, but you can guess that they believed the opposite of the uniformitarians: that mountains and other large structures formed due to catastrophic events.(B): Out of Scope. While Darwinists presumably believe this too, the author only mentions uniformitarians as specifically championing this view.
(C): Opposite. Creationists, unless they were in the vein of LeClerc, would likely argue that mountain ranges would have been created rather than developing over a long period of time. The author specifically states that the new geological evidence challenged ―accounts from scripture.‖
(D): The correct answer
(E): Modern scientists outside the scope of the passage
_________________

Hit the the kudos button if you like the post



Thanks

GMAT Club Bot
Georges LeClerc (1707-1788) proposed a mechanism for calculating the a &nbs [#permalink] 25 Oct 2018, 11:23
Display posts from previous: Sort by

Georges LeClerc (1707-1788) proposed a mechanism for calculating the a

  new topic post reply Question banks Downloads My Bookmarks Reviews Important topics  


Copyright

GMAT Club MBA Forum Home| About| Terms and Conditions and Privacy Policy| GMAT Club Rules| Contact| Sitemap

Powered by phpBB © phpBB Group | Emoji artwork provided by EmojiOne

Kindly note that the GMAT® test is a registered trademark of the Graduate Management Admission Council®, and this site has neither been reviewed nor endorsed by GMAC®.