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GMAT Prep RC: For many years, historians thought that

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GMAT Prep RC: For many years, historians thought that  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 03 Sep 2017, 18:15
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For many years, historians thought that the development of capitalism had not faced serious challenges in the United States. Writing in the early twentieth century, progressive historians sympathized with the battles waged by farmers and small producers against large capitalists in the late nineteenth century, but they did not question the widespread acceptance of laissez-faire (unregulated) capitalism throughout American history. Similarly, Louis Hartz, who sometimes disagreed with the Progressives, argued that Americans accepted laissez-faire capitalism without challenge because they lacked a feudal, precapitalist past. Recently, however, some scholars have argued that even though laissez-faire became the prevailing ethos in nineteen-century America, it was not accepted without struggle. Laissez-faire capitalism,they suggest, clashed with existing religious and communitarian norms that imposed moral constraints on acquisitiveness to protect the weak from the predatory, the strong from corruption, and the entire culture from materialist excess. Buttressed by mercantilist notions that government should be both regulator and promoter of economic activity, these norms persisted long after the American Revolution helped unleash the economic forces that produced capitalism. These scholars argue that even in the late nineteenth century, with the government’s role in the economy considerably diminished, laissez-faire had not triumphed completely. Hard times continued to revive popular demands for regulating business and softening the harsh edges of laissez-faire capitalism.

1) The primary purpose of the passage is to
A. reveal the underlying similarities of certain arguments regarding the development of capitalism in the United States
B. synthesize two competing arguments regarding the development of capitalism in the United States
C. defend an established argument regarding the development of capitalism in the United States
D. summarize a scholarly refutation of an argument regarding the development of capitalism in the United States
E. discuss a new methodology for the study of the development of capitalism in the United States



2) According to the passage, the Progressive historians and the scholars mentioned in the highlighted texts disagree with regard to which of the following?
A. Whether laissez-faire became the predominant ethos in the nineteenth-century United States
B. Whether moral restraints on acquisitiveness were necessary in the nineteenth century United States
C. The economic utility of mercantilist notions of government
D. The nature of the historical conditions necessary for the development of laissez-faire capitalism in the nineteen-century United States
E. The existence of significant opposition to the development of laissez-faire capitalism in the nineteen century United States



3) The passage suggests that the scholars mentioned in the highlighted text would agree with which of the following statements regarding the “norms” mentioned in the subsequent highlighted text?
A. They provided a primary source of opposition to the development of laissez-faire capitalism in the United States in the nineteenth century.
B. Their appeal was undermined by difficult economic times in the United States at the end of the nineteenth century.
C. They disappeared in the United States in the late nineteenth century because of the triumph of laissez faire capitalism.
D. They facilitated the successful implementation of mercantilist notions of government in the United States in the nineteenth-century.
E. They are now recognized by historians as having been an important part of the ideology of the American Revolution.



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Originally posted by souvik101990 on 17 Jun 2016, 09:21.
Last edited by Vyshak on 03 Sep 2017, 18:15, edited 1 time in total.
Corrected the highlighted portion for norms
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Re: GMAT Prep RC: For many years, historians thought that  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Jun 2016, 04:53
1) The primary purpose of the passage is to

Initially the passage states that the development of capitalism had not faced serious challenges. The passage then goes about refuting this view by explaining the difficulties encountered in the development of capitalism.

Answer: D

2) According to the passage, the Progressive historians and the scholars mentioned in the highlighted texts disagree with regard to which of the following?

Refer: "progressive historians sympathized with the battles waged by farmers and small producers against large capitalists in the late nineteenth century, but they did not question the widespread acceptance of laissez-faire (unregulated) capitalism throughout American history."
"some scholars have argued that even though laissez-faire became the prevailing ethos in nineteen-century America, it was not accepted without struggle"

Answer: E

3) The passage suggests that the scholars mentioned in the highlighted text would agree with which of the following statements regarding the “norms” mentioned in the subsequent highlighted text?

The word 'norms' can be replaced by the word 'struggles'. The struggles that persisted long after the American Revolution helped in the development of capitalism.

Answer: A
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Re: GMAT Prep RC: For many years, historians thought that  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Dec 2016, 23:56
1
Took 6 mins 30 seconds , including 2 mins 15 seconds to read
-The author talks about how certain views by historians were probably not entirely valid
- He then talks about the work of some workers who have refuted the views of the historians

1. Answer D

2. "Recently, however, some scholars have argued that even though laissez-faire became the prevailing ethos in nineteen-century America, it was not accepted without struggle"
Answer E

3."Laissez-faire capitalism, they suggest, clashed with existing religious and communitarian norms"
Answer A
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Re: GMAT Prep RC: For many years, historians thought that  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Dec 2016, 03:11
Why option B is wrong in 1st question (Primary purpose of passage) ?
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Re: GMAT Prep RC: For many years, historians thought that  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Dec 2016, 03:33
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askul2389 wrote:
Why option B is wrong in 1st question (Primary purpose of passage) ?


There are 3 arguments --> 1) Progressive historians 2) Louis Hartz 3) Some scholars

The scholars don't synthesize the arguments of Progressive historians and Louis Hartz.

Rather, the scholars oppose the arguments made by the Prog. historians and Louis Hartz regarding the development of Laize Faire Capitalism.

Hence the answer is D and not B.

Hope it helps.
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Re: GMAT Prep RC: For many years, historians thought that  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Dec 2016, 13:59
Time: 6.09mins; All correct :D
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Re: GMAT Prep RC: For many years, historians thought that  [#permalink]

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New post 11 May 2018, 20:10
Good Passage!. :-)

All correct in 5 mins 50 seconds
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Re: GMAT Prep RC: For many years, historians thought that  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Sep 2018, 06:34
Got 3/3 correct in 7:42 min including 3:45 min to read the passage!
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Re: GMAT Prep RC: For many years, historians thought that &nbs [#permalink] 09 Sep 2018, 06:34
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