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# GMAT Prep RC: One proposal for preserving rain forests

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GMAT Prep RC: One proposal for preserving rain forests  [#permalink]

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01 Jun 2016, 11:49
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New GMAT Prep RC Project: 1 RC Every day. Don't forget to time yourself with the stopwatch below to earn kudos.

One proposal for preserving rain forests is to promote the adoption of new agricultural technologies, such as improved plant varieties and use of chemical herbicides, which would increase productivity and slow deforestation by reducing demand for new cropland. Studies have shown that farmers in developing countries who have achieved certain levels of education, wealth, and security of land tenure are more likely to adopt such technologies. But these studies have focused on villages with limited land that are tied to a market economy rather than on the relatively isolated, self-sufficient communities with ample land characteristic of rain-forest regions. A recent study of the Tawahka people of the Honduran rain forest found that farmers with some formal education were more likely to adopt improved plant varieties but less likely to use chemical herbicides and that those who spoke Spanish (the language of the market economy) were more likely to adopt both technologies. Non-land wealth was also associated with more adoption of both technologies, but availability of uncultivated land reduced the incentive to employ the productivity-enhancing technologies. Researchers also measured land-tenure security: in Tawahka society, kinship ties are a more important indicator of this than are legal property rights, so researchers measured it by a household’s duration of residence in its village. They found that longer residence correlated with more adoption of improved plant varieties but less adoption of chemical herbicides.

1) The primary purpose of the passage is to

A. evaluate the likelihood that a particular proposal, if implemented, would ultimately succeed in achieving its intended result

B. question the assumption that certain technological innovations are the most effective means of realizing a particular environmental objective

C. discuss the progress of efforts to encourage a particular traditional society to adopt certain modern agricultural methods

D. present the results of new research suggesting that previous findings concerning one set of conditions may not be generalizable to another set of conditions

E. weigh the relative importance of three factors in determining whether a particular strategy will be successful

2) According to the passage, the proposal mentioned in line 1 is aimed at preserving rain forests by encouraging farmers in rain-forest regions to do each of the following EXCEPT

B. grow improved plant varieties
C. decrease their use of chemical herbicides
D. increase their productivity
E. reduce their need to clear new land for cultivation

3) The passage suggests that in the study mentioned in the highlighted text the method for gathering information about security of land tenure reflects which of the following pairs of assumptions about Tawahka society?

A. The security of a household’s land tenure depends on the strength of that household’s kinship ties, and the duration of a household’s residence in its village is an indication of the strength of that household’s kinship ties.

B. The ample availability of land makes security of land tenure unimportant, and the lack of a need for secure land tenure has made the concept of legal property rights unnecessary.

C. The strength of a household’s kinship ties is a more reliable indicator of that household’s receptivity to new agricultural technologies than is its quantity of nonland wealth, and the duration of a household’s residence in its village is a more reliable indicator of that household’s security of land tenure than is the strength of its kinship ties.

D. Security of land tenure based on kinship ties tends to make farmers more receptive to the use of improved plant varieties, and security of land tenure based on long duration of residence in a village tends to make farmers more receptive to the use of chemical herbicides.

E. A household is more likely to be receptive to the concept of land tenure based on legal property rights if it has easy access to uncultivated land, and a household is more likely to uphold the tradition of land tenure based on kinship ties if it possesses a significant degree of non-land wealth.

4) The findings of the study mentioned in the highlighted text, if valid for rain-forest regions in general, suggest that which of the following is an obstacle most likely to be faced by those wishing to promote rain-forest preservation by implementing the proposal mentioned in line 1?

A. Lack of legal property rights tends to discourage local farmers from investing the time and resources required to successfully implement new agricultural technologies.

B. The ability to evaluate the wider economic ramifications of adopting new aricultural technologies depends on a relatively high level of formal education.

C. Isolation from the market economy tends to restrict local farmers’ access to new agricultural technologies that could help them to increase their productivity.

D. Ready availability of uncultivated land tends to decrease local farmers’ incentive to adopt new agricultural technologies that would reduce their need to clear new land for cultivation.

E. Traditions of self-sufficiency and reliance on kinship ties tend to diminish local farmers’ receptivity to new agricultural technologies introduced by people from outside the local community.

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Re: GMAT Prep RC: One proposal for preserving rain forests  [#permalink]

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02 Jun 2016, 22:54
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Re: GMAT Prep RC: One proposal for preserving rain forests  [#permalink]

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23 Nov 2016, 05:46
2
-The author talks about a proposal for preserving rain forests
-The author then describes potential reasons why the proposal might not be accepted in certain regions
- He illustrates the above point with the example of the Tawahka people

1. The author clearly mentions that the proposal will not work under conditions where an ample amount of uncultivated land is available. Hence Option (D) is the best answer choice.

2. the adoption of new agricultural technologies, such as improved plant varieties and use of chemical herbicides, which would increase productivity and slow deforestation by reducing demand for new cropland

3. "in Tawahka society, kinship ties are a more important indicator of this than are legal property rights, so researchers measured it by a household’s duration of residence in its village."
The above excerpt indicates that kinship ties are related to the duration of the household's residence it its village. Hence option (A) is the right answer.

4."But these studies have focused on villages with limited land that are tied to a market economy rather than on the relatively isolated, self-sufficient communities with ample land characteristic of rain-forest regions."

The above suggests that an availability of land might prove to be a hindrance for the implementation of the suggested proposal. Hence option (D) is the right answer.
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Re: GMAT Prep RC: One proposal for preserving rain forests  [#permalink]

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23 Nov 2016, 11:14
3 correct except the question number 1. I found the question 1 to be really difficult. Did not understand why D should be the correct ans.
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Re: GMAT Prep RC: One proposal for preserving rain forests  [#permalink]

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09 Aug 2018, 20:00
HI GMATNinja, mikemcgarry, egmat, sayantanc2k, RonPurewal, DmitryFarber, MagooshExpert (Carolyn),

ccooley, GMATNinjaTwo, SarahPurewal

Quote:
1) The primary purpose of the passage is to

A. evaluate the likelihood that a particular proposal, if implemented, would ultimately succeed in achieving its intended result

B. question the assumption that certain technological innovations are the most effective means of realizing a particular environmental objective

C. discuss the progress of efforts to encourage a particular traditional society to adopt certain modern agricultural methods

D. present the results of new research suggesting that previous findings concerning one set of conditions may not be generalizable to another set of conditions

E. weigh the relative importance of three factors in determining whether a particular strategy will be successful

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Re: GMAT Prep RC: One proposal for preserving rain forests  [#permalink]

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10 Aug 2018, 12:52
2
1
NandishSS wrote:
HI GMATNinja, mikemcgarry, egmat, sayantanc2k, RonPurewal, DmitryFarber, MagooshExpert (Carolyn),

ccooley, GMATNinjaTwo, SarahPurewal

Quote:
1) The primary purpose of the passage is to

A. evaluate the likelihood that a particular proposal, if implemented, would ultimately succeed in achieving its intended result

B. question the assumption that certain technological innovations are the most effective means of realizing a particular environmental objective

C. discuss the progress of efforts to encourage a particular traditional society to adopt certain modern agricultural methods

D. present the results of new research suggesting that previous findings concerning one set of conditions may not be generalizable to another set of conditions

E. weigh the relative importance of three factors in determining whether a particular strategy will be successful

Hi NandishSS!

Happy to help

For primary purpose questions like this, I like to break the passage down into super simple parts, based on what the author is doing. Let's do that here:

Quote:
One proposal for preserving rain forests is to promote the adoption of new agricultural technologies, such as improved plant varieties and use of chemical herbicides, which would increase productivity and slow deforestation by reducing demand for new cropland.

-author is presenting a proposal, introducing the topic

Quote:
Studies have shown that farmers in developing countries who have achieved certain levels of education, wealth, and security of land tenure are more likely to adopt such technologies.

-author is providing more detail, based on certain studies

Quote:
But these studies have focused on villages with limited land that are tied to a market economy rather than on the relatively isolated, self-sufficient communities with ample land characteristic of rain-forest regions.

-author is questioning the relevance of those original studies

Quote:
A recent study of the Tawahka people of the Honduran rain forest found that farmers with some formal education were more likely to adopt improved plant varieties but less likely to use chemical herbicides and that those who spoke Spanish (the language of the market economy) were more likely to adopt both technologies. Non-land wealth was also associated with more adoption of both technologies, but availability of uncultivated land reduced the incentive to employ the productivity-enhancing technologies. Researchers also measured land-tenure security: in Tawahka society, kinship ties are a more important indicator of this than are legal property rights, so researchers measured it by a household’s duration of residence in its village. They found that longer residence correlated with more adoption of improved plant varieties but less adoption of chemical herbicides.

-author is providing a lot of evidence that contradicts those original studies for specific situations

Now, let's look at it all together, visually -- what does the author spend the most time doing? Often, that's a really good indication of the "primary purpose". The majority of the passage is used to provide evidence about specific situations that question the relevance of the original studies to those specific situations. Let's now look back at the answer choices to see which one of those fits the best. The one that matches best is D: present the results of new research suggesting that previous findings concerning one set of conditions may not be generalizable to another set of conditions.

Does that make sense? If not, let me know
-Carolyn
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Re: GMAT Prep RC: One proposal for preserving rain forests  [#permalink]

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10 Aug 2018, 19:43
Thanks MagooshExpert (Carolyn) for such a detailed explanation
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GMAT Prep RC: One proposal for preserving rain forests  [#permalink]

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15 Aug 2018, 22:55

Is not this correct text of passage I should be relating to for answering Q4:

Quote:
but the availability of uncultivated land reduced the incentive to employ the productivity-enhancing technologies.

instead of one mentioned by Skywalker18

Quote:
Q4: The findings of the study mentioned in the highlighted text, if valid for rain-forest regions in general, suggest that which of the following is an obstacle most likely to be faced by those wishing to promote rain-forest preservation by implementing the proposal mentioned in line 1?

What is proposal mentioned in Line -1 : promote the adoption of new agricultural technologies

Findings of the study:

Non-land wealth was also associated with more adoption of both technologies, but availability of uncultivated land reduced the incentive to employ the productivity-enhancing technologies.

Quote:
A. Lack of legal property rights tends to discourage local farmers from investing the time and resources required to successfully implement new agricultural technologies.

Out because underlined portion is not mentioned in the argument.

Quote:
B. The ability to evaluate the wider economic ramifications of adopting new aricultural technologies depends on a relatively high level of formal education.

I feel in to this trap answer, but is it incorrect because of italics?

Quote:
C. Isolation from the market economy tends to restrict local farmers’ access to new agricultural technologies that could help them to increase their productivity.

Not mentioned in passage as result of study

Quote:
D. Ready availability of uncultivated land tends to decrease local farmers’ incentive to adopt new agricultural technologies that would reduce their need to clear new land for cultivation.

I could not link this to OA.

Quote:
E. Traditions of self-sufficiency and reliance on kinship ties tend to diminish local farmers’ receptivity to new agricultural technologies introduced by people from outside the local community.

Opposte of this is mentioned in passage, ie. Traditions of self-sufficiency and reliance on kinship ties tend to enhance local farmers’ receptivity to new agricultural technologies
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Re: GMAT Prep RC: One proposal for preserving rain forests  [#permalink]

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16 Aug 2018, 03:58
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souvik101990 wrote:
New GMAT Prep RC Project: 1 RC Every day. Don't forget to time yourself with the stopwatch below to earn kudos.

One proposal for preserving rain forests is to promote the adoption of new agricultural technologies, such as improved plant varieties and use of chemical herbicides, which would increase productivity and slow deforestation by reducing demand for new cropland. Studies have shown that farmers in developing countries who have achieved certain levels of education, wealth, and security of land tenure are more likely to adopt such technologies. But these studies have focused on villages with limited land that are tied to a market economy rather than on the relatively isolated, self-sufficient communities with ample land characteristic of rain-forest regions. A recent study of the Tawahka people of the Honduran rain forest found that farmers with some formal education were more likely to adopt improved plant varieties but less likely to use chemical herbicides and that those who spoke Spanish (the language of the market economy) were more likely to adopt both technologies. Non-land wealth was also associated with more adoption of both technologies, but availability of uncultivated land reduced the incentive to employ the productivity-enhancing technologies. Researchers also measured land-tenure security: in Tawahka society, kinship ties are a more important indicator of this than are legal property rights, so researchers measured it by a household’s duration of residence in its village. They found that longer residence correlated with more adoption of improved plant varieties but less adoption of chemical herbicides.

1) The primary purpose of the passage is to

A. evaluate the likelihood that a particular proposal, if implemented, would ultimately succeed in achieving its intended result

B. question the assumption that certain technological innovations are the most effective means of realizing a particular environmental objective

C. discuss the progress of efforts to encourage a particular traditional society to adopt certain modern agricultural methods

D. present the results of new research suggesting that previous findings concerning one set of conditions may not be generalizable to another set of conditions

E. weigh the relative importance of three factors in determining whether a particular strategy will be successful

2) According to the passage, the proposal mentioned in line 1 is aimed at preserving rain forests by encouraging farmers in rain-forest regions to do each of the following EXCEPT

B. grow improved plant varieties
C. decrease their use of chemical herbicides
D. increase their productivity
E. reduce their need to clear new land for cultivation

3) The passage suggests that in the study mentioned in the highlighted text the method for gathering information about security of land tenure reflects which of the following pairs of assumptions about Tawahka society?

A. The security of a household’s land tenure depends on the strength of that household’s kinship ties, and the duration of a household’s residence in its village is an indication of the strength of that household’s kinship ties.

B. The ample availability of land makes security of land tenure unimportant, and the lack of a need for secure land tenure has made the concept of legal property rights unnecessary.

C. The strength of a household’s kinship ties is a more reliable indicator of that household’s receptivity to new agricultural technologies than is its quantity of nonland wealth, and the duration of a household’s residence in its village is a more reliable indicator of that household’s security of land tenure than is the strength of its kinship ties.

D. Security of land tenure based on kinship ties tends to make farmers more receptive to the use of improved plant varieties, and security of land tenure based on long duration of residence in a village tends to make farmers more receptive to the use of chemical herbicides.

E. A household is more likely to be receptive to the concept of land tenure based on legal property rights if it has easy access to uncultivated land, and a household is more likely to uphold the tradition of land tenure based on kinship ties if it possesses a significant degree of non-land wealth.

4) The findings of the study mentioned in the highlighted text, if valid for rain-forest regions in general, suggest that which of the following is an obstacle most likely to be faced by those wishing to promote rain-forest preservation by implementing the proposal mentioned in line 1?

A. Lack of legal property rights tends to discourage local farmers from investing the time and resources required to successfully implement new agricultural technologies.

B. The ability to evaluate the wider economic ramifications of adopting new aricultural technologies depends on a relatively high level of formal education.

C. Isolation from the market economy tends to restrict local farmers’ access to new agricultural technologies that could help them to increase their productivity.

D. Ready availability of uncultivated land tends to decrease local farmers’ incentive to adopt new agricultural technologies that would reduce their need to clear new land for cultivation.

E. Traditions of self-sufficiency and reliance on kinship ties tend to diminish local farmers’ receptivity to new agricultural technologies introduced by people from outside the local community.

4) The findings of the study mentioned in the highlighted text, if valid for rain-forest regions in general, suggest that which of the following is an obstacle most likely to be faced by those wishing to promote rain-forest preservation by implementing the proposal mentioned in line 1?

A. Lack of legal property rights tends to discourage local farmers from investing the time and resources required to successfully implement new agricultural technologies.

B. The ability to evaluate the wider economic ramifications of adopting new aricultural technologies depends on a relatively high level of formal education.

C. Isolation from the market economy tends to restrict local farmers’ access to new agricultural technologies that could help them to increase their productivity.

D. Ready availability of uncultivated land tends to decrease local farmers’ incentive to adopt new agricultural technologies that would reduce their need to clear new land for cultivation.

E. Traditions of self-sufficiency and reliance on kinship ties tend to diminish local farmers’ receptivity to new agricultural technologies introduced by people from outside the local community.

This is what the first line says "One proposal for preserving rain forests is to promote the adoption of new agricultural technologies"
The proposal is to adopt new agricultural technologies.

This sentence "but availability of uncultivated land reduced the incentive to employ the productivity-enhancing technologies" connects to (D) perfectly. What confused you was perhaps this - "that would reduce their need to clear new land for cultivation"
This is just some info on new technologies which links to the first part of (D) - ready availability of land. Since land is readily available, new technologies (which help to reduce the need to clear new land) are not needed. When land is limited, these technologies would help since they would reduce the need for new land (if you can increase the productivity of current land using tech, you wouldn't need new land much). When land is available, these technologies would not be required.

A. Lack of legal property rights tends to discourage local farmers from investing the time and resources required to successfully implement new agricultural technologies.

"Household’s duration of residence in its village" was considered, not "legal property rights".

B. The ability to evaluate the wider economic ramifications of adopting new aricultural technologies depends on a relatively high level of formal education.

Rain-forest regions are relatively isolated, self-sufficient communities with ample land - not tied to a market economy. So economic ramifications are irrelevant.

C. Isolation from the market economy tends to restrict local farmers’ access to new agricultural technologies that could help them to increase their productivity.

Rain forest regions are usually economically isolated so this is not a factor that influences whether the farmers use new technologies.

E. Traditions of self-sufficiency and reliance on kinship ties tend to diminish local farmers’ receptivity to new agricultural technologies introduced by people from outside the local community.

Incorrect. Given that "longer residence (reliance on kinship) correlated with more adoption of improved plant varieties but less adoption of chemical herbicides."
So they are more receptive to some new tech and less receptive to other new tech.
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Re: GMAT Prep RC: One proposal for preserving rain forests  [#permalink]

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19 Aug 2018, 21:53
1. Primary purpose: present the results of new research suggesting that previous findings concerning one set of conditions may not be generalizable to another set of conditions
The passage begins with one of the proposal to preserve the rainforest based on a research. And then shows the gap in the research ( But these studies have focused on villages with limited land that are tied to a market economy rather than on the relatively isolated, self-sufficient communities with ample land characteristic of rain-forest regions). And then proceeds to provide a new research data presenting various reasons and facts on why old research conclusion is not applicable universally. Hence the option D is the clear winner.
2. Straightforward question: the only thing to look out is EXCEPT. clearly, the answer is C, because the passage speaks about the beneficiary usage of chemical herbicides and not against it.
3. The highlighted text "the study" states Tawahka people of the Honduran rain forest found that farmers with some formal education were more likely to adopt improved plant varieties. Hence the Assumption or missing link as per the passage states : in Tawahka society, kinship ties are a more important indicator ...., so researchers measured it by a household’s duration of residence in its village. They found that longer residence correlated with more adoption of improved plant varieties
Hence A
4. one of the reasons the old research could not be generalized is stated in the passage " But these studies have focused on villages with limited land that are tied to a market economy rather than on the relatively isolated, self-sufficient communities with ample land characteristic of rain-forest regions."
It gives us a clear understanding of a major obstacle in the implementation of the proposal. Hence D
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Re: GMAT Prep RC: One proposal for preserving rain forests  [#permalink]

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20 Aug 2018, 05:03
8:47 min
3 correct out of 4
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Re: GMAT Prep RC: One proposal for preserving rain forests   [#permalink] 20 Aug 2018, 05:03
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