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Hardin argued that grazing land held in common (that is, open to any

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Hardin argued that grazing land held in common (that is, open to any  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Oct 2018, 02:49
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Hardin argued that grazing land held in common (that is, open to any user) would always be used less carefully than private grazing land. Each rancher would be tempted to overuse common land because the benefits would accrue to the individuals, while the costs of reduced land quality that results from overuse would be spread among all users. But a study comparing 217 million acres of common grazing land with 433 million acres of private grazing land showed that the common land was in better condition.

The answer to which of the following questions would be most useful in evaluating the significance, in relation to Hardin's claim, of the study described above?


(A) Did any of the ranchers whose land was studied use both common and private land?

(B) Did the ranchers whose land was studied tend to prefer using common land over using private land for grazing?

(C) Was the private land that was studied of comparable quality to the common land before either was used for grazing?

(D) Were the users of the common land that was studied at least as prosperous as the users of the private land?

(E) Were there any owners of herds who used only common land, and no private land, for grazing?

"Hardin" Resolve Paradox Question

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Re: Hardin argued that grazing land held in common (that is, open to any  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Oct 2018, 06:00
I marked C because i felt that quality should be considered.

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Re: Hardin argued that grazing land held in common (that is, open to any  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Oct 2018, 09:37
Bunuel wrote:
Hardin argued that grazing land held in common (that is, open to any user) would always be used less carefully than private grazing land. Each rancher would be tempted to overuse common land because the benefits would accrue to the individuals, while the costs of reduced land quality that results from overuse would be spread among all users. But a study comparing 217 million acres of common grazing land with 433 million acres of private grazing land showed that the common land was in better condition.

The answer to which of the following questions would be most useful in evaluating the significance, in relation to Hardin's claim, of the study described above?


(A) Did any of the ranchers whose land was studied use both common and private land?

(B) Did the ranchers whose land was studied tend to prefer using common land over using private land for grazing?

(C) Was the private land that was studied of comparable quality to the common land before either was used for grazing?

(D) Were the users of the common land that was studied at least as prosperous as the users of the private land?

(E) Were there any owners of herds who used only common land, and no private land, for grazing?

"Hardin" Resolve Paradox Question


IMO C.

Hardin's claim: Common land condition tends to be worse than the private land condition because of over usage of common lands.
Paradox: A study shows that common land was in better condition than private land.

Option C resolves this paradox by asking the right question that whether the condition of common and private land was comparable enough before the start of the study. It is possible that private lands studied were in lot worse condition than the common lands to start with and hence the study's result will bear no implication on the Hardin's claim. Hence option C is the correct choice.
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Re: Hardin argued that grazing land held in common (that is, open to any  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Oct 2018, 10:21
Bunuel wrote:
Hardin argued that grazing land held in common (that is, open to any user) would always be used less carefully than private grazing land. Each rancher would be tempted to overuse common land because the benefits would accrue to the individuals, while the costs of reduced land quality that results from overuse would be spread among all users. But a study comparing 217 million acres of common grazing land with 433 million acres of private grazing land showed that the common land was in better condition.

The answer to which of the following questions would be most useful in evaluating the significance, in relation to Hardin's claim, of the study described above?


(A) Did any of the ranchers whose land was studied use both common and private land?

(B) Did the ranchers whose land was studied tend to prefer using common land over using private land for grazing?

(C) Was the private land that was studied of comparable quality to the common land before either was used for grazing?

(D) Were the users of the common land that was studied at least as prosperous as the users of the private land?

(E) Were there any owners of herds who used only common land, and no private land, for grazing?

"Hardin" Resolve Paradox Question


Certainly (C), we are presented with a fact about Survey without stating the Condition of the land before and after its use....

The best way to tackle survey questions might be questioning the method of the survey / sample etc.....
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Re: Hardin argued that grazing land held in common (that is, open to any   [#permalink] 10 Oct 2018, 10:21
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