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# Heightened land erosion, caused by human activity, has many

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Heightened land erosion, caused by human activity, has many [#permalink]

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06 Nov 2012, 18:53
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Heightened land erosion, caused by human activity, has many negative effects including the following: algae blooms, coral reef destruction, imbalance of the fish population, and the introduction of harmful chemicals to the ocean's environment.

A) including the following: algae blooms, coral reef destruction, imbalance of the fish population, and the introduction of harmful chemicals to the ocean's environment.
B) including: algae blooms, coral reef destruction, imbalance of the fish population, and harmful chemicals entering the ocean's environment.
C) including: algae blooms, coral reef destruction, imbalance of the fish population, and the introduction of harmful chemicals to the ocean's environment.
D) including the following: algae blooms, coral reef destruction, imbalance of the fish population, and harmful chemicals entering the ocean’s environment.
E) including the following: algae blooms, coral reef destruction, certain fish populations rising, certain fish populations falling, and the introduction of harmful chemicals to the ocean’s environment.

[Reveal] Spoiler:
A) This sentence is correct as is because all of the items in the list are parallel form. Each of the items is a noun that names a harmful effect of land erosion. The construction of the list is also correct. The noun following, which immediately precedes the list, correctly renames the items in the series.

B) The construction of the list in this sentence is incorrect. In a list, the word immediately preceding the colon should rename the items found in the list. Including does not rename the items in the list. The items in the series are not in parallel form. All of the items in the series are nouns, with the exception of harmful chemicals entering the ocean's environment, which is an absolute phrase. In order for the structure to be parallel, the last item must be in the form of a noun as well.

C) The construction of the list in this sentence is incorrect. In a list, the word immediately preceding the colon should rename the items found in the list. Including does not rename the items in the list.

D) The items in the series are not in parallel form. All of the items in the series are nouns, with the exception of harmful chemicals entering the ocean's environment, which is an absolute phrase. In order for the structure to be parallel, the last item must be in the form of a noun as well.

E) The items in the series are not in a parallel form. With the exception of certain fish populations rising and certain fish populations falling, which are absolute phrases, all of the items in the series are nouns. The absolutes also make the sentence longer and wordier than necessary.
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Re: Heightened land erosion, caused by human activity, has many [#permalink]

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21 Jan 2013, 10:56
just from picking C and seeing it is incorrect I am assuming that "including the following" is correct because we are dealing with a list of items?
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Re: Heightened land erosion, caused by human activity, has many [#permalink]

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21 Jan 2013, 12:06
Everything parallel, no other mistakes possible -> A is correct
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Re: Heightened land erosion, caused by human activity, has many [#permalink]

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10 Sep 2013, 12:36
kingb wrote:
Heightened land erosion, caused by human activity, has many negative effects including the following: algae blooms, coral reef destruction, imbalance of the fish population, and the introduction of harmful chemicals to the ocean's environment.

A) including the following: algae blooms, coral reef destruction, imbalance of the fish population, and the introduction of harmful chemicals to the ocean's environment.
B) including: algae blooms, coral reef destruction, imbalance of the fish population, and harmful chemicals entering the ocean's environment.
C) including: algae blooms, coral reef destruction, imbalance of the fish population, and the introduction of harmful chemicals to the ocean's environment.
D) including the following: algae blooms, coral reef destruction, imbalance of the fish population, and harmful chemicals entering the ocean’s environment.
E) including the following: algae blooms, coral reef destruction, certain fish populations rising, certain fish populations falling, and the introduction of harmful chemicals to the ocean’s environment.

[Reveal] Spoiler:
A) This sentence is correct as is because all of the items in the list are parallel form. Each of the items is a noun that names a harmful effect of land erosion. The construction of the list is also correct. The noun following, which immediately precedes the list, correctly renames the items in the series.

B) The construction of the list in this sentence is incorrect. In a list, the word immediately preceding the colon should rename the items found in the list. Including does not rename the items in the list. The items in the series are not in parallel form. All of the items in the series are nouns, with the exception of harmful chemicals entering the ocean's environment, which is an absolute phrase. In order for the structure to be parallel, the last item must be in the form of a noun as well.

C) The construction of the list in this sentence is incorrect. In a list, the word immediately preceding the colon should rename the items found in the list. Including does not rename the items in the list.

D) The items in the series are not in parallel form. All of the items in the series are nouns, with the exception of harmful chemicals entering the ocean's environment, which is an absolute phrase. In order for the structure to be parallel, the last item must be in the form of a noun as well.

E) The items in the series are not in a parallel form. With the exception of certain fish populations rising and certain fish populations falling, which are absolute phrases, all of the items in the series are nouns. The absolutes also make the sentence longer and wordier than necessary.

Down to (a) and (c)..is "including the following" required instead of "including"? is it because we are mentioning a list? Experts please help..
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Re: Heightened land erosion, caused by human activity, has many [#permalink]

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10 Sep 2013, 18:10
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akankshasoneja wrote:
kingb wrote:
Heightened land erosion, caused by human activity, has many negative effects including the following: algae blooms, coral reef destruction, imbalance of the fish population, and the introduction of harmful chemicals to the ocean's environment.

A) including the following: algae blooms, coral reef destruction, imbalance of the fish population, and the introduction of harmful chemicals to the ocean's environment.
B) including: algae blooms, coral reef destruction, imbalance of the fish population, and harmful chemicals entering the ocean's environment.
C) including: algae blooms, coral reef destruction, imbalance of the fish population, and the introduction of harmful chemicals to the ocean's environment.
D) including the following: algae blooms, coral reef destruction, imbalance of the fish population, and harmful chemicals entering the ocean’s environment.
E) including the following: algae blooms, coral reef destruction, certain fish populations rising, certain fish populations falling, and the introduction of harmful chemicals to the ocean’s environment.

[Reveal] Spoiler:
A) This sentence is correct as is because all of the items in the list are parallel form. Each of the items is a noun that names a harmful effect of land erosion. The construction of the list is also correct. The noun following, which immediately precedes the list, correctly renames the items in the series.

B) The construction of the list in this sentence is incorrect. In a list, the word immediately preceding the colon should rename the items found in the list. Including does not rename the items in the list. The items in the series are not in parallel form. All of the items in the series are nouns, with the exception of harmful chemicals entering the ocean's environment, which is an absolute phrase. In order for the structure to be parallel, the last item must be in the form of a noun as well.

C) The construction of the list in this sentence is incorrect. In a list, the word immediately preceding the colon should rename the items found in the list. Including does not rename the items in the list.

D) The items in the series are not in parallel form. All of the items in the series are nouns, with the exception of harmful chemicals entering the ocean's environment, which is an absolute phrase. In order for the structure to be parallel, the last item must be in the form of a noun as well.

E) The items in the series are not in a parallel form. With the exception of certain fish populations rising and certain fish populations falling, which are absolute phrases, all of the items in the series are nouns. The absolutes also make the sentence longer and wordier than necessary.

Down to (a) and (c)..is "including the following" required instead of "including"? is it because we are mentioning a list? Experts please help..

Down to the basic grammatical rule for colons. The sentence before the colon should be a complete clause. That is the reason C gets knocked off.
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Re: Heightened land erosion, caused by human activity, has many [#permalink]

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22 Jan 2014, 12:27
this is a pure case of complex gerunds and actions nouns.
introduction is wrongly used in sentences A,C, and E. Generally, introduction is used to introduce a person to another person.
Secondly, "including" shall be followed by "the following" to complete the sentence before colon.

Option D should be the right answer. "entering the ocean’s environment." should not be a problem as its noun modifier (Adj) and adjectives do not affect the parallelism.

thanks
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Re: Heightened land erosion, caused by human activity, has many [#permalink]

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24 Apr 2014, 07:21
Could someone please elaborate on A vs C? I didn't really think that 'the following' was strictly needed, so I went with C for concision

Also, according to MGMAT what comes before the colon must be able to stand alone as a sentence. What comes after the colon DOES NOT necessarily have to be able to stand alone as a sentence. The way I see it, neither A nor C have independent clauses before the colon that are able to stand alone as a sentence...

Thanks!
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Re: Heightened land erosion, caused by human activity, has many [#permalink]

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26 Apr 2014, 14:09
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Common colon mistakes
Using a colon between a verb and its object or complement

Example (incorrect): The very best peaches are: those that are grown in the great state of Georgia.
To correct this, simply remove the colon.

Using a colon between a preposition and its object

Example (incorrect): My favorite cake is made of: carrots, flour, butter, eggs, and cream cheese icing.
To correct this, simply remove the colon.

Using a colon after “such as,” “including,” “especially,” and similar phrases. This violates the rule that the material preceding the colon must be a complete thought. Look, for example, at the following sentence:

Example (incorrect): There are many different types of paper, including: college ruled, wide ruled, and plain copy paper.
You can see that “There are many different types of paper, including” is not a complete sentence. The colon should simply be removed.

Source : http://writingcenter.unc.edu/handouts/s ... nd-dashes/
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Re: Heightened land erosion, caused by human activity, has many [#permalink]

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26 Apr 2014, 14:46
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Ron claimed that all options are wrong.
http://www.beatthegmat.com/including-vs ... 53670.html

including the following = following and both ways preceding clause needs something extra to satisfy a listener, therefore preceding clause is not complete.
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Re: Heightened land erosion, caused by human activity, has many [#permalink]

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30 Apr 2014, 06:48
I threw out A, D and E right away by thinking including the following being redundant
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Re: Heightened land erosion, caused by human activity, has many [#permalink]

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Re: Heightened land erosion, caused by human activity, has many [#permalink]

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27 Apr 2017, 00:07
Why would you choose A over C in this question?
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Re: Heightened land erosion, caused by human activity, has many [#permalink]

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30 Apr 2017, 03:28
Prachi1002 wrote:
Why would you choose A over C in this question?

C is incomplete - there is no object for "including". If the colon were not there, then C would be correct as well.
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Re: Heightened land erosion, caused by human activity, has many [#permalink]

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30 Apr 2017, 06:34
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Heightened land erosion, caused by human activity, has many negative effects including the following: algae blooms, coral reef destruction, imbalance of the fish population, and the introduction of harmful chemicals to the ocean's environment.

A) including the following: algae blooms, coral reef destruction, imbalance of the fish population, and the introduction of harmful chemicals to the ocean's environment.
B) including: algae blooms, coral reef destruction, imbalance of the fish population, and harmful chemicals entering the ocean's environment.
C) including: algae blooms, coral reef destruction, imbalance of the fish population, and the introduction of harmful chemicals to the ocean's environment.
D) including the following: algae blooms, coral reef destruction, imbalance of the fish population, and harmful chemicals entering the ocean’s environment.
E) including the following: algae blooms, coral reef destruction, certain fish populations rising, certain fish populations falling, and the introduction of harmful chemicals to the ocean’s environment.

Re: Heightened land erosion, caused by human activity, has many   [#permalink] 30 Apr 2017, 06:34
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