GMAT Question of the Day: Daily via email | Daily via Instagram New to GMAT Club? Watch this Video

It is currently 24 Jan 2020, 03:27

Close

GMAT Club Daily Prep

Thank you for using the timer - this advanced tool can estimate your performance and suggest more practice questions. We have subscribed you to Daily Prep Questions via email.

Customized
for You

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Track
Your Progress

every week, we’ll send you an estimated GMAT score based on your performance

Practice
Pays

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Not interested in getting valuable practice questions and articles delivered to your email? No problem, unsubscribe here.

Close

Request Expert Reply

Confirm Cancel

Historian: In the Drindian Empire, censuses were conducted annually to

  new topic post reply Question banks Downloads My Bookmarks Reviews Important topics  
Author Message
TAGS:

Hide Tags

Find Similar Topics 
Senior Manager
Senior Manager
avatar
Joined: 11 Jun 2007
Posts: 396
Historian: In the Drindian Empire, censuses were conducted annually to  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post Updated on: 17 Jul 2017, 22:38
3
26
00:00
A
B
C
D
E

Difficulty:

  55% (hard)

Question Stats:

68% (02:25) correct 32% (02:47) wrong based on 1379 sessions

HideShow timer Statistics

Historian: In the Drindian Empire, censuses were conducted annually to determine the population of each village. Village census records for the last half of the 1600’s are remarkably complete. This very completeness makes one point stand out; in five different years, villages overwhelmingly reported significant population declines. Tellingly, each of those five years immediately followed an increase in a certain Drindian tax. This tax, which was assessed on villages, was computed by the central government using the annual census figures. Obviously, whenever the tax went up, villages had an especially powerful economic incentive to minimize the number of people they recorded; and concealing the size of a village’s population from government census takers would have been easy. Therefore, it is reasonable to think that the reported declines did not happen.

In the historian’s argument, the two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?

(A) The first supplies a context for the historian’s argument; the second acknowledges a consideration that has been used to argue against the position the historian seeks to establish.

(B) The first presents evidence to support the position that the historian seeks to establish; the second acknowledges a consideration that has been used to argue against that position.

(C) The first provides a context for certain evidence that supports the position that the historian seeks to establish; the second is that position.

(D) The first is a position for which the historian argues; the second is an assumption that serves as the basis of that argument.

(E) The first is an assumption that the historian explicitly makes in arguing for a certain position; the second acknowledges a consideration that calls that assumption into question.

Similar Question : LINK

Originally posted by eyunni on 03 Jan 2008, 14:29.
Last edited by hazelnut on 17 Jul 2017, 22:38, edited 5 times in total.
Added OA
Intern
Intern
avatar
Joined: 18 Jun 2006
Posts: 4
Location: Malaysia
Re: Historian: In the Drindian Empire, censuses were conducted annually to  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 04 Jan 2008, 02:00
3
1st BF - Village census records are complete.
Premise - Villagers had reason to report declines.
Evidence - Increase in Tax
Position (historian seeks to establish) - There was no actual decline in population, because villagers had their reason to report decines evident in tax increments.
Main Conclusion - There was no actual decline in population.
2nd BF - Same as main conclusion

IMO C
_________________
Prachi Pareekh
http://gmat-grammar.blogspot.com
SVP
SVP
avatar
Joined: 29 Mar 2007
Posts: 1771
Re: Historian: In the Drindian Empire, censuses were conducted annually to  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 06 Jan 2008, 15:27
1
1
eyunni wrote:
Historian: In the Drindian Empire, censuses were conducted annually to determine the population of each village. Village census records for the last half of the 1600’s are remarkably complete. This very completeness makes one point stand out; in five different years, villages overwhelmingly reported significant population declines. Tellingly, each of those five years immediately followed an increase in a certain Drindian tax. This tax, which was assessed on villages, was computed by the central government using the annual census figures. Obviously, whenever the tax went up, villages had an especially powerful economic incentive to minimize the number of people they recorded; and concealing the size of a village’s population from government census takers would have been easy. Therefore, it is reasonable to think that the reported declines did not happen. In the historian’s argument, the two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?
A. The first supplies a context for the historian’s argument; the second acknowledges a consideration that has been used to argue against the position the historian seeks to establish.
B. The first presents evidence to support the position that the historian seeks to establish; the second acknowledges a consideration that has been used to argue against that position.
C. The first provides a context for certain evidence that supports the position that the historian seeks to establish; the second is that position.
D. The first is a position for which the historian argues; the second is an assumption that serves as the basis of that argument.
E. The first is an assumption that the historian explicitly makes in arguing for a certain position; the second acknowledges a consideration that calls that assumption into question.

Explanations please. I know the OA.


This one is actually pretty easy. Its just a long passage.
A: first part ok, no the second is his or her position.
B: second is not true.
C: first is a context. second is the position. OK
D: first is not a position.
E: first is not an assumption.
CEO
CEO
User avatar
Joined: 17 May 2007
Posts: 2583
Re: Historian: In the Drindian Empire, censuses were conducted  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 22 Apr 2008, 23:10
Hey saravalli I really appreciate the effort that you put in typing in these questions. But perhaps you could take a little more time to space and format the text a little better ?

My answer here is C.

saravalli wrote:
Historian: In the Drindian Empire, censuses were conducted annually to determine the population of each village. Village census records for the last half of the 1600’s are remarkably complete. This very completeness makes one point stand out; in five different years, villages overwhelmingly reported significant population declines.

Tellingly, each of those five years immediately followed an increase in a certain Drindian tax. This tax, which was assessed on villages, was computed by the central government using the annual census figures. Obviously, whenever the tax went up, villages had an especially powerful economic incentive to minimize the number of people they recorded; and concealing the size of a village’s population from government census takers would have been easy. Therefore, it is reasonable to think that the reported declines did not happen.

In the historian’s argument, the two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?

A. The first supplies a context for the historian’s argument; the second acknowledges a consideration that has been used to argue against the position the historian seeks to establish.

B. The first presents evidence to support the position that the historian seeks to establish; the second acknowledges a consideration that has been used to argue against that position.

C. The first provides a context for certain evidence that supports the position that the historian seeks to establish; the second is that position.

D. The first is a position for which the historian argues; the second is an assumption that serves as the basis of that argument.

E. The first is an assumption that the historian explicitly makes in arguing for a certain position; the second acknowledges a consideration that calls that assumption into question.
------------------------------------------------
Senior Manager
Senior Manager
User avatar
Joined: 13 Aug 2012
Posts: 394
Concentration: Marketing, Finance
GPA: 3.23
GMAT ToolKit User
Re: Historian: In the Drindian Empire, censuses were conducted annually to  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 26 Jan 2013, 05:12
1
Historian: In the Drindian Empire, censuses were conducted annually to determine the population of each village. Village census records for the last half of the 1600’s are remarkably complete. This very completeness makes one point stand out; in five different years, villages overwhelmingly reported significant population declines. Tellingly, each of those five years immediately followed an increase in a certain Drindian tax. This tax, which was assessed on villages, was computed by the central government using the annual census figures. Obviously, whenever the tax went up, villages had an especially powerful economic incentive to minimize the number of people they recorded; and concealing the size of a village’s population from government census takers would have been easy. Therefore, it is reasonable to think that the reported declines did not happen. In the historian’s argument, the two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?

A. The first supplies a context for the historian’s argument; the second acknowledges a consideration that has been used to argue against the position the historian seeks to establish.
The second is a position that is in support to the author's main conclusion. OUT!

B. The first presents evidence to support the position that the historian seeks to establish; the second acknowledges a consideration that has been used to argue against that position.
2nd position: that tax hike gives people incentive to alter reports & 1st position: that the report is complete... The first is not used to support the second position. It merely introduces the context on how the decline seems to stick out and later concluded that the reports are not accurate... CONTEXT is NOT EVIDENCE...

C. The first provides a context for certain evidence that supports the position that the historian seeks to establish; the second is that position.
This is the answer. The report as complete is totally accepted by the author and used to give context to his position. That its very completeness made it obvious that second position happened: altering of reports..

D. The first is a position for which the historian argues; the second is an assumption that serves as the basis of that argument.
The first is merely an introduction of context to introduce the author's argument... not the position itself..

E. The first is an assumption that the historian explicitly makes in arguing for a certain position; the second acknowledges a consideration that calls that assumption into question.
It is the completeness of the report that made the author assumes or argues that the report is not accurate... The report is complete is accepted and not argued against...

Answer: C
Intern
Intern
avatar
Joined: 02 Aug 2013
Posts: 11
Re: Historian: In the Drindian Empire, censuses were conducted annually to  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 10 Aug 2013, 00:50
mbaiseasy wrote:
Historian: In the Drindian Empire, censuses were conducted annually to determine the population of each village. Village census records for the last half of the 1600’s are remarkably complete. This very completeness makes one point stand out; in five different years, villages overwhelmingly reported significant population declines. Tellingly, each of those five years immediately followed an increase in a certain Drindian tax. This tax, which was assessed on villages, was computed by the central government using the annual census figures. Obviously, whenever the tax went up, villages had an especially powerful economic incentive to minimize the number of people they recorded; and concealing the size of a village’s population from government census takers would have been easy. Therefore, it is reasonable to think that the reported declines did not happen. In the historian’s argument, the two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?

A. The first supplies a context for the historian’s argument; the second acknowledges a consideration that has been used to argue against the position the historian seeks to establish.
The second is a position that is in support to the author's main conclusion. OUT!

B. The first presents evidence to support the position that the historian seeks to establish; the second acknowledges a consideration that has been used to argue against that position.
2nd position: that tax hike gives people incentive to alter reports & 1st position: that the report is complete... The first is not used to support the second position. It merely introduces the context on how the decline seems to stick out and later concluded that the reports are not accurate... CONTEXT is NOT EVIDENCE...

C. The first provides a context for certain evidence that supports the position that the historian seeks to establish; the second is that position.
This is the answer. The report as complete is totally accepted by the author and used to give context to his position. That its very completeness made it obvious that second position happened: altering of reports..

D. The first is a position for which the historian argues; the second is an assumption that serves as the basis of that argument.
The first is merely an introduction of context to introduce the author's argument... not the position itself..

E. The first is an assumption that the historian explicitly makes in arguing for a certain position; the second acknowledges a consideration that calls that assumption into question.
It is the completeness of the report that made the author assumes or argues that the report is not accurate... The report is complete is accepted and not argued against...

Answer: C



about choice E.

If the report is complete, then the census must record every single person in DE. If the census records every one in the DE, how can there be a decline? (cuz actually, people were justing concealing the size)
So i don't understand why the author can reach the conclusion that "the declines did not happen" on the premise of " the report is completed"?

Plus, i think the two BF parts are in negative relation, meaning that the first one weakens the second one.

One more question, i don't understand what "provide a context" mean. Can you plz explain it in detail? An example may be helpful :)

thx
Senior Manager
Senior Manager
avatar
Joined: 29 Oct 2008
Posts: 277
Location: United States
Concentration: Marketing, Technology
Re: Historian: In the Drindian Empire, censuses were conducted annually to  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 08 Jan 2014, 10:12
maggiegecby wrote:
mbaiseasy wrote:
Historian: In the Drindian Empire, censuses were conducted annually to determine the population of each village. Village census records for the last half of the 1600’s are remarkably complete. This very completeness makes one point stand out; in five different years, villages overwhelmingly reported significant population declines. Tellingly, each of those five years immediately followed an increase in a certain Drindian tax. This tax, which was assessed on villages, was computed by the central government using the annual census figures. Obviously, whenever the tax went up, villages had an especially powerful economic incentive to minimize the number of people they recorded; and concealing the size of a village’s population from government census takers would have been easy. Therefore, it is reasonable to think that the reported declines did not happen. In the historian’s argument, the two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?

A. The first supplies a context for the historian’s argument; the second acknowledges a consideration that has been used to argue against the position the historian seeks to establish.
The second is a position that is in support to the author's main conclusion. OUT!

B. The first presents evidence to support the position that the historian seeks to establish; the second acknowledges a consideration that has been used to argue against that position.
2nd position: that tax hike gives people incentive to alter reports & 1st position: that the report is complete... The first is not used to support the second position. It merely introduces the context on how the decline seems to stick out and later concluded that the reports are not accurate... CONTEXT is NOT EVIDENCE...

C. The first provides a context for certain evidence that supports the position that the historian seeks to establish; the second is that position.
This is the answer. The report as complete is totally accepted by the author and used to give context to his position. That its very completeness made it obvious that second position happened: altering of reports..

D. The first is a position for which the historian argues; the second is an assumption that serves as the basis of that argument.
The first is merely an introduction of context to introduce the author's argument... not the position itself..

E. The first is an assumption that the historian explicitly makes in arguing for a certain position; the second acknowledges a consideration that calls that assumption into question.
It is the completeness of the report that made the author assumes or argues that the report is not accurate... The report is complete is accepted and not argued against...

Answer: C
about choice E.

If the report is complete, then the census must record every single person in DE. If the census records every one in the DE, how can there be a decline? (cuz actually, people were justing concealing the size)
So i don't understand why the author can reach the conclusion that "the declines did not happen" on the premise of " the report is completed"?

Plus, i think the two BF parts are in negative relation, meaning that the first one weakens the second one.

One more question, i don't understand what "provide a context" mean. Can you plz explain it in detail? An example may be helpful :)
thx
Let me alleviate this confusion:

Here is a parallel example: Annual Report Cards of students submitted by teachers are absolutely correct from perspective of record maintenance. Teachers have incentives for receiving gifts at the end of term with outstanding results. Since, none of teachers like to be left out of receiving a gift and students were amazingly poor this year from academic standards. So, teachers must have reported wrong figures while calculating internal numbers/marks(per subject) within Annual Report Cards.

Documentation is a necessary evil(First Boldface) which has to be available to support your final conclusion(Second Boldface). If first boldface is not present, you can say that conclusion is wrong because teachers might not have goofed up or errored out in preparing Annual Report Cards themselves, but they didn't provide the complete documentation (Annual Report Cards for all the students. They may just submit the report cards of the students who passed with flying numbers). So first part is a supporter than a weakener or opposing contender to the conclusion.

For your second question around meaning of "provide a context", above should help.
Basically, Complete Documentation is primary basis which has to be established to reach the conclusion that teachers must have purposely reported/calculated wrong Internal Numbers/Marks in those report cards. It is like Sufficient Condition, Necessary condition relationship where 2nd Boldface is suffcient condition and 1st Boldface is necessary condition.

HTH
Intern
Intern
avatar
Joined: 06 Dec 2013
Posts: 10
Location: United States
GPA: 3.5
WE: Brand Management (Consulting)
Re: Historian: In the Drindian Empire, censuses were conducted annually to  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 11 Jan 2014, 23:35
I have a question can someone help?

As assumptions are unstated premises,so in the bold face questions,is it possible to have an argument that will have an assumption specifically mentioned there?
Senior Manager
Senior Manager
avatar
Joined: 29 Oct 2008
Posts: 277
Location: United States
Concentration: Marketing, Technology
Re: Historian: In the Drindian Empire, censuses were conducted annually to  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 12 Jan 2014, 05:19
karanwalia wrote:
I have a question can someone help?

As assumptions are unstated premises,so in the bold face questions,is it possible to have an argument that will have an assumption specifically mentioned there?
Very Valid Question. I also had similar doubt. I have roughly seen 6-8 GMAC Boldface questions with assumption reference in choices and never found the choice with reference to assumption to be true. So now, as a rule, I consider the choice wrong for faster processing.

If there is a question that goes against this rationale, I would like someone to post the question. Otherwise I would suggest one should discard any choice with assumption in Boldface Answer options.
HTH
Manager
Manager
User avatar
Joined: 04 Oct 2013
Posts: 157
Concentration: Finance, Leadership
GMAT 1: 590 Q40 V30
GMAT 2: 730 Q49 V40
WE: Project Management (Entertainment and Sports)
Re: Historian: In the Drindian Empire, censuses were conducted  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 14 Jan 2014, 08:04
Historian: In the Drindian Empire, censuses were conducted annually to determine the
population of each village. Village census records for the last half of the 1600’s are
remarkably complete.
This very completeness makes one point stand out; in five
different years, villages overwhelmingly reported significant population declines.
Tellingly, each of those five years immediately followed an increase in a certain Drindian
tax. This tax, which was assessed on villages, was computed by the central government
using the annual census figures. Obviously, whenever the tax went up, villages had an
especially powerful economic incentive to minimize the number of people they recorded;
and concealing the size of a village’s population from government census takers would
have been easy. Therefore, it is reasonable to think that the reported declines did not
happen.



- Background
B1 - Census records were neat and complete
- Points out an odd situation
B2 - offers an explanation to the odd situation
- conclusion

Additional info: B2 supports the conclusion, B1 and B2 follow the same direction.



In the historian’s argument, the two portions in boldface play which of the following
roles?

A. The first supplies a context for the historian’s argument; the second acknowledges
a consideration that has been used to argue against the position the historian seeks
to establish.
we have an issue with the second boldf, the two portions agree, this answer is inconsistent.
B. The first presents evidence to support the position that the historian seeks to
establish; the second acknowledges a consideration that has been used to argue
against that position.
Looks good hold
C. The first provides a context for certain evidence that supports the position that the
historian seeks to establish; the second is that position.
The second clarifies the odds and supports the conclusion it is not the conclusion itself
D. The first is a position for which the historian argues; the second is an assumption
that serves as the basis of that argument.
Completely off, the author accepts the first boldf statement
E. The first is an assumption that the historian explicitly makes in arguing for a
certain position; the second acknowledges a consideration that calls that
assumption into question.
The first is not an assumption, moreover the statements go in the same direction
_________________
learn the rules of the game, then play better than anyone else.
Senior Manager
Senior Manager
User avatar
Joined: 21 Oct 2013
Posts: 408
Re: Historian: In the Drindian Empire, censuses were conducted annually to  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 27 Mar 2014, 09:19
Historian: In the Drindian Empire, censuses were conducted annually to determine the population of each village. Village census records for the last half of the 1600’s are remarkably complete. This very completeness makes one point stand out; in five different years, villages overwhelmingly reported significant population declines. Tellingly, each of those five years immediately followed an increase in a certain Drindian tax. This tax, which was assessed on villages, was computed by the central government using the annual census figures. Obviously, whenever the tax went up, villages had an especially powerful economic incentive to minimize the number of people they recorded; and concealing the size of a village’s population from government census takers would have been easy. Therefore, it is reasonable to think that the reported declines did not happen.

In the historian’s argument, the two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?

A) The first presents a finding to support the position the historian seeks to establish; the second is a consideration that has been used to argue against that position.
B) The first provides a context for certain evidence that supports the position that the historian seeks to establish; the second is a judgment advanced to support that position.
C) The first is a position that the historian seeks to establish; the second is evidence that has been used to argue against that position.
D) The first is an assumption that the historian explicitly makes in support of a certain position; the second is that position.
E) The first is a claim that the historian rejects; the second is a conclusion drawn to justify that rejection.

NOTE: This Question has same Q stem, but has different 2nd BF line.

OE:

What roles do the ~boldfaced statements play in the passage?
1st BF: Provides background information about the census records. Passage says that the situation described by 1st BF makes a certain observation stand out. To explain that observation, the passage argues that the records were probably falsified
2nd BF: Presents a hypothesis about economic incentives that supports that argument's conclusion. - Premise in the argument

A The historian seeks to establish the position that the records were falsified, and the hypothesis about economic incentives explains why they would have been falsified.
B Correct. The completeness of the records provides a context for the evidence supporting the conclusion that the records were falsified; the hypothesis about economic incentives supports the same conclusion by explaining why the records would have been falsified.
C The passage does not argue that the records are complete, but simply states that they were; the hypothesis about economic incentives is not used to argue that the records are incomplete, but rather that they are inaccurate.
D The completeness of the records does not support the hypothesis that the villagers had an economic incentive to record fewer people when the tax went up.
E The historian does not deny that the records are complete, but rather that they are accurate.


Hi, can anyone confirm; the conclusion of this stem -> (Therefore) the reported decline probably did not happen?
Intern
Intern
avatar
B
Joined: 12 Feb 2013
Posts: 16
Location: India
Concentration: Strategy, Entrepreneurship
GMAT 1: 780 Q51 V44
GPA: 3.85
GMAT ToolKit User
Re: Historian: In the Drindian Empire, censuses were conducted annually to  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 15 Jan 2016, 02:35
2
To analyze the argument, consider each of the statements one by one:

Boldface 1: Village census records for the last half of the 1600’s are remarkably complete. This is a FACT.

Boldface 2: (Therefore, it is reasonable to think that) the reported declines did not happen. This is the CONCLUSION.

Now as per the terms above, we know that “consideration” / “to acknowledge” are terms for fact. We also know that “position” is a term for the conclusion.

Check the options for this question now:

A. The first supplies a context for the historian’s argument; the second acknowledges a consideration that has been used to argue against the position the historian seeks to establish.
B. The first presents evidence to support the position that the historian seeks to establish; the second acknowledges a consideration that has been used to argue against that position.
C. The first provides a context for certain evidence that supports the position that the historian seeks to establish; the second is that position.
D. The first is a position for which the historian argues; the second is an assumption that serves as the basis of that argument.
E. The first is an assumption that the historian explicitly makes in arguing for a certain position; the second acknowledges a consideration that calls that assumption into question.

Options A, B, E say that ‘second (boldface)’ acknowledges a consideration (fact) … WRONG as per the above analysis. The second is a ‘conclusion’.

Option D says that ‘first (boldface)’ is a position (conclusion) … WRONG as per the above analysis. The first is a ‘fact’.

Option C is correct.
Intern
Intern
avatar
B
Joined: 05 Jun 2016
Posts: 18
Re: Historian: In the Drindian Empire, censuses were conducted annually to  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 19 Oct 2016, 10:43
This question can be answered in less than a minute. The second bolded statement is clearly a conclusion. Only choice (C) mentions "the second is that position". No other choice mentions that the second bolded statement is a conclusion. On these grounds, you can pick C without even reading the first part of the answer choice, or even any answer choice.
Non-Human User
User avatar
Joined: 01 Oct 2013
Posts: 8117
Re: Historian: In the Drindian Empire, censuses were conducted  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 16 Jan 2020, 23:18
Hello from the GMAT Club VerbalBot!

Thanks to another GMAT Club member, I have just discovered this valuable topic, yet it had no discussion for over a year. I am now bumping it up - doing my job. I think you may find it valuable (esp those replies with Kudos).

Want to see all other topics I dig out? Follow me (click follow button on profile). You will receive a summary of all topics I bump in your profile area as well as via email.
GMAT Club Bot
Re: Historian: In the Drindian Empire, censuses were conducted   [#permalink] 16 Jan 2020, 23:18
Display posts from previous: Sort by

Historian: In the Drindian Empire, censuses were conducted annually to

  new topic post reply Question banks Downloads My Bookmarks Reviews Important topics  





Powered by phpBB © phpBB Group | Emoji artwork provided by EmojiOne