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Historical documents have revealed that among the Timucua of Florida,

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Historical documents have revealed that among the Timucua of Florida,  [#permalink]

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Historical documents have revealed that among the Timucua of Florida, a Native American people, the best from the hunt or the harvest was given to families of high social status, even in times of economic stress. Archaeological research suggests a similar relationship between social status and diet in the Dallas communities of eastern Tennessee, prehistoric Native American groups with a social organization and economy similar to that of the Timucua. The first real clue came when archaeologists discovered that skeletons of higher-status individuals tended to be several centimeters taller than those of people of lower status.

In the largest Dallas communities, some individuals were buried in the earthen mounds that sewed as substructures for buildings important to civic and religious affairs. These burials included quantities of finely crafted items made of nonlocal material, denoting the high political standing of those interred. Burials of lower-status individuals contained primarily utilitarian items such as cooking vessels and chipped Stone tools and are located in more remote sections of the settlements. The burials actually formed a pattern, the tallest skeletons being found in the mounds, and the heights declining as burials became more distant from the mounds. While it is possible that taller people were simply more successful in achieving high social standing, it is more likely that a number of stresses, including those resulting from a relatively poor diet, which could affect stature, were common among the lower-status groups.

Excavations indicate that three food categories made up the bulk of the population's diet: agricultural crops cultivated in the fertile alluvial soils where the communities were located, game, and wild edible plants, primarily nuts. Information about dietary variation among community members is derived by analyzing trace elements in human bone. Higher than normal levels of manganese, strontium, and vanadium probably indicate a less nutritious diet heavily dependent on edible plants. Very low concentrations of vanadium, which is scarce in meats and somewhat lower in nuts than in other plant resources, are good evidence of meat consumption and thus a better balanced-diet. As expected, vanadium was found in considerably greater quantities in skeletons in the burials of lower-status groups.


1. According to the passage, which of the following statements regarding earthen mounds in the Dallas communities is accurate?

(A) They sewed primarily as burial grounds.
(B) They were constructed in key locations on the perimeter of the village.
(C) They were elements in important structures in the community.
(D) They were used as storehouses for keeping valuable possessions safe.
(E) They contained utilitarian items made of nonlocal materials.



2. In the highlighted text (it is possible that taller people were simply more successful in achieving high social standing), the author of the passage raises the possibility that taller people achieved greater success most probably in order to

(A) suggest that two explanations for a phenomenon are equally plausible
(B) introduce empirical data supporting a position
(C) anticipate an objection to an argument
(D) question the usefulness of relying solely on physical evidence
(E) point out a weakness in a traditional argument



3. The passage suggests that the "relationship" mentioned in the highlighted text was initially recognized when archaeologists

(A) attempted to trace the ancestry of the Timucua of Florida
(B) discovered a height differential among members of subgroups in the Dallas community
(C) realized that the Dallas communities endured periods of nutritional deprivation
(D) began to compare the social organization and economies of the Timucua with that of the Dallas communities
(E) became curious about differences in trace elements found in the bones of Dallas community members



4. The passage suggests which of the following about the diet of the Dallas communities?

(A) Wild edible plants were a relatively minor element in the diet.
(B) Game was less likely to be available to lower-status individuals than were edible plants.
(C) The diet was composed primarily of agricultural crops when game was scarce.
(D) The diet was obtained entirely from local food sources.
(E) The diet was well balanced, especially at harvest time.


Originally posted by felippemed on 17 Jan 2017, 04:23.
Last edited by SajjadAhmad on 25 Aug 2019, 01:20, edited 3 times in total.
Updated - Complete topic (277).
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Re: Historical documents have revealed that among the Timucua of Florida,  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Sep 2017, 14:39
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Anki05 wrote:
Can you please explain why answer option A is not correct for Q-4?

Quote:
4. The passage suggests which of the following about the diet of the Dallas communities?

(A) Wild edible plants were a relatively minor element in the diet.
(B) Game was less likely to be available to lower-status individuals than were edible plants.
(C) The diet was composed primarily of agricultural crops when game was scarce.
(D) The diet was obtained entirely from local food sources.
(E) The diet was well balanced, especially at harvest time.

Refer to the first sentence of the third paragraph: "Excavations indicate that three food categories made up the bulk of the population's diet: agricultural crops cultivated in the fertile alluvial soils where the communities were located, game, and wild edible plants, primarily nuts." We do not know the PROPORTION of each food category, so we have no idea whether wild edible plants were a relatively minor element in the diet. For all we know, wild edible plants may have been the primary element in the diet. Choice (A) might be true, but there isn't enough information in the passage to confirm it.

Choice (B), on the other hand, is strongly supported. Refer to the last few sentences in the passage:

Quote:
Higher than normal levels of manganese, strontium, and vanadium probably indicate a less nutritious diet heavily dependent on edible plants. Very low concentrations of vanadium, which is scarce in meats and somewhat lower in nuts than in other plant resources, are good evidence of meat consumption and thus a better balanced-diet. As expected, vanadium was found in considerably greater quantities in skeletons in the burials of lower-status groups.

Higher levels of vanadium "probably indicate a less nutritious diet heavily dependent on edible plants", while "very low concentrations of vanadium... are good evidence of meat consumption." Since lower-status groups had greater quantities of vanadium in their skeletons, we can infer that they ate less game than the higher-status groups.

hazelnut wrote:
Hi GMATNinja, Could you help with Question 2?

In the highlighted text (it is possible that taller people were simply more successful in achieving high social standing), the author of the passage raises the possibility that taller people achieved greater success most probably in order to

(A) suggest that two explanations for a phenomenon are equally plausible
(B) introduce empirical data supporting a position
(C) anticipate an objection to an argument
(D) question the usefulness of relying solely on physical evidence
(E) point out a weakness in a traditional argument

The evidence suggests that taller people, in general, had higher status. The author wants to argue that height was a function of status (the higher your status, the taller you would be, on average). Why? Because "a number of stresses, including those resulting from a relatively poor diet, which could affect stature, were common among the lower-status groups."

Someone might challenge that theory by saying, "Well, maybe status is a function of height!" Maybe being tall improves your odds of reaching a higher status (reversing the cause and effect presented by the author). The author anticipates this objection, saying that this reversed explanation might be true but that his/her argument "is more likely." Choice (C) is the best answer.
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Re: Historical documents have revealed that among the Timucua of Florida,  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Jan 2017, 03:09
kkrrsshh feel sorry to hear that. Sometimes GMAT has the capability to throw us a passage that take off the ground.

But if it comforts you, I got only two right and it appeared in the middle of my Exam (awfully scary).

It is an official question, so there is no OE.

What you can do is to request an expert reply. I am sure they will give some good answers to the questions.
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Re: Historical documents have revealed that among the Timucua of Florida,  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Sep 2017, 00:03
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Can you please explain why answer option A is not correct for Q-4?
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Re: Historical documents have revealed that among the Timucua of Florida,  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Sep 2017, 05:28
Hi GMATNinja, Could you help with Question 2?

In the highlighted text (it is possible that taller people were simply more successful in achieving high social standing), the author of the passage raises the possibility that taller people achieved greater success most probably in order to

(A) suggest that two explanations for a phenomenon are equally plausible
(B) introduce empirical data supporting a position
(C) anticipate an objection to an argument
(D) question the usefulness of relying solely on physical evidence
(E) point out a weakness in a traditional argument
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Re: Historical documents have revealed that among the Timucua of Florida,  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Oct 2017, 05:25
3
GMATNinja wrote:
Anki05 wrote:
Can you please explain why answer option A is not correct for Q-4?

Quote:
4. The passage suggests which of the following about the diet of the Dallas communities?

(A) Wild edible plants were a relatively minor element in the diet.
(B) Game was less likely to be available to lower-status individuals than were edible plants.
(C) The diet was composed primarily of agricultural crops when game was scarce.
(D) The diet was obtained entirely from local food sources.
(E) The diet was well balanced, especially at harvest time.

Refer to the first sentence of the third paragraph: "Excavations indicate that three food categories made up the bulk of the population's diet: agricultural crops cultivated in the fertile alluvial soils where the communities were located, game, and wild edible plants, primarily nuts." We do not know the PROPORTION of each food category, so we have no idea whether wild edible plants were a relatively minor element in the diet. For all we know, wild edible plants may have been the primary element in the diet. Choice (A) might be true, but there isn't enough information in the passage to confirm it.

Choice (B), on the other hand, is strongly supported. Refer to the last few sentences in the passage:

Quote:
Higher than normal levels of manganese, strontium, and vanadium probably indicate a less nutritious diet heavily dependent on edible plants. Very low concentrations of vanadium, which is scarce in meats and somewhat lower in nuts than in other plant resources, are good evidence of meat consumption and thus a better balanced-diet. As expected, vanadium was found in considerably greater quantities in skeletons in the burials of lower-status groups.

Higher levels of vanadium "probably indicate a less nutritious diet heavily dependent on edible plants", while "very low concentrations of vanadium... are good evidence of meat consumption." Since lower-status groups had greater quantities of vanadium in their skeletons, we can infer that they ate less game than the higher-status groups.



If someone doesn't know the meaning of 'game', then is there any clue in the passage to suggest that it is referring to meat ?
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Re: Historical documents have revealed that among the Timucua of Florida,  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Oct 2017, 00:12
1
GMATNinja wrote:
Anki05 wrote:
Can you please explain why answer option A is not correct for Q-4?

Quote:
4. The passage suggests which of the following about the diet of the Dallas communities?

(A) Wild edible plants were a relatively minor element in the diet.
(B) Game was less likely to be available to lower-status individuals than were edible plants.
(C) The diet was composed primarily of agricultural crops when game was scarce.
(D) The diet was obtained entirely from local food sources.
(E) The diet was well balanced, especially at harvest time.

Refer to the first sentence of the third paragraph: "Excavations indicate that three food categories made up the bulk of the population's diet: agricultural crops cultivated in the fertile alluvial soils where the communities were located, game, and wild edible plants, primarily nuts." We do not know the PROPORTION of each food category, so we have no idea whether wild edible plants were a relatively minor element in the diet. For all we know, wild edible plants may have been the primary element in the diet. Choice (A) might be true, but there isn't enough information in the passage to confirm it.

Choice (B), on the other hand, is strongly supported. Refer to the last few sentences in the passage:

Quote:
Higher than normal levels of manganese, strontium, and vanadium probably indicate a less nutritious diet heavily dependent on edible plants. Very low concentrations of vanadium, which is scarce in meats and somewhat lower in nuts than in other plant resources, are good evidence of meat consumption and thus a better balanced-diet. As expected, vanadium was found in considerably greater quantities in skeletons in the burials of lower-status groups.

Higher levels of vanadium "probably indicate a less nutritious diet heavily dependent on edible plants", while "very low concentrations of vanadium... are good evidence of meat consumption." Since lower-status groups had greater quantities of vanadium in their skeletons, we can infer that they ate less game than the higher-status groups.

hazelnut wrote:
Hi GMATNinja, Could you help with Question 2?

In the highlighted text (it is possible that taller people were simply more successful in achieving high social standing), the author of the passage raises the possibility that taller people achieved greater success most probably in order to

(A) suggest that two explanations for a phenomenon are equally plausible
(B) introduce empirical data supporting a position
(C) anticipate an objection to an argument
(D) question the usefulness of relying solely on physical evidence
(E) point out a weakness in a traditional argument

The evidence suggests that taller people, in general, had higher status. The author wants to argue that height was a function of status (the higher your status, the taller you would be, on average). Why? Because "a number of stresses, including those resulting from a relatively poor diet, which could affect stature, were common among the lower-status groups."

Someone might challenge that theory by saying, "Well, maybe status is a function of height!" Maybe being tall improves your odds of reaching a higher status (reversing the cause and effect presented by the author). The author anticipates this objection, saying that this reversed explanation might be true but that his/her argument "is more likely." Choice (C) is the best answer.


I'm still not clear with Q2. The word "anticipate" means to expect or foresee, but After the quoted lines for this question, there is no argument presented. Only in these lines is it purported that it is quite possible that the relation between status and height may be reversed. In the very next line, the author resumes talking about the argument that the reverse relation is not likely. I don't quite understand what is being "anticipated" here? This made me choose E - "point out a weakness in a traditional argument"
Considering the words written literally, I do agree that the "weakness" is not established, as it is only a conjecture. But I don't think anybody would argue that "status causes height" is not a traditional argument, as this is what is talked about everywhere in the passage. I would really appreciate any help. Sorry for getting too much into details, but that's what works for me :). Thanks in advance for your help
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Re: Historical documents have revealed that among the Timucua of Florida,  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Nov 2017, 18:46
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ShashankDave wrote:
I'm still not clear with Q2. The word "anticipate" means to expect or foresee, but After the quoted lines for this question, there is no argument presented. Only in these lines is it purported that it is quite possible that the relation between status and height may be reversed. In the very next line, the author resumes talking about the argument that the reverse relation is not likely. I don't quite understand what is being "anticipated" here? This made me choose E - "point out a weakness in a traditional argument"
Considering the words written literally, I do agree that the "weakness" is not established, as it is only a conjecture. But I don't think anybody would argue that "status causes height" is not a traditional argument, as this is what is talked about everywhere in the passage. I would really appreciate any help. Sorry for getting too much into details, but that's what works for me :). Thanks in advance for your help

I might argue that LeBron James is the greatest basketball player of all time. I might ANTICIPATE that someone would respond by saying that Michael Jordan is the greatest basketball player of all time. Knowing that people might make that objection, I would come up with several pieces of statistical evidence to show that LeBron is better. In other words, I'm responding to the objection before someone has a chance to make that objection.

If most rich people are healthy, I could argue that wealth leads to health or that health leads to wealth. Similarly, if the data shows that most tall people have better status, you could argue that height led to status OR that status led to height. The author is trying to argue that height is a function of status and anticipates that someone might object to that argument by saying, "Well, maybe status is a function of height!" By saying, "While it is possible that taller people were simply more successful in achieving high social standing, it is more likely...", the author admits that this is a reasonable objection. However, the author then explains why his/her explanation is "more likely".

I hope that helps!
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Re: Historical documents have revealed that among the Timucua of Florida,  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Aug 2018, 21:07
HI GMATNinja , mikemcgarry , egmat , sayantanc2k, RonPurewal , DmitryFarber , MagooshExpert (Carolyn), ccooley , EMPOWERgmatVerbal

Can you please help me with below questions?

1. According to the passage, which of the following statements regarding earthen mounds in the Dallas communities is accurate?

(A) They sewed primarily as burial grounds.
(B) They were constructed in key locations on the perimeter of the village.
(C) They were elements in important structures in the community.
(D) They were used as storehouses for keeping valuable possessions safe.
(E) They contained utilitarian items made of nonlocal materials.

The relevant part is quoted below, Why not E?

Quote:
In the largest Dallas communities, some individuals were buried in the earthen mounds that sewed as substructures for buildings important to civic and religious affairs. These burials included quantities of finely crafted items made of nonlocal material, denoting the high political standing of those interred.


3. The passage suggests that the "relationship" mentioned in the highlighted text was initially recognized when archaeologists

(A) attempted to trace the ancestry of the Timucua of Florida
(B) discovered a height differential among members of subgroups in the Dallas community
(C) realized that the Dallas communities endured periods of nutritional deprivation
(D) began to compare the social organization and economies of the Timucua with that of the Dallas communities
(E) became curious about differences in trace elements found in the bones of Dallas community members
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Re: Historical documents have revealed that among the Timucua of Florida,  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Aug 2018, 11:33
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NandishSS wrote:
HI GMATNinja , mikemcgarry , egmat , sayantanc2k, RonPurewal , DmitryFarber , MagooshExpert (Carolyn), ccooley , EMPOWERgmatVerbal

Can you please help me with below questions?

1. According to the passage, which of the following statements regarding earthen mounds in the Dallas communities is accurate?

(A) They sewed primarily as burial grounds.
(B) They were constructed in key locations on the perimeter of the village.
(C) They were elements in important structures in the community.
(D) They were used as storehouses for keeping valuable possessions safe.
(E) They contained utilitarian items made of nonlocal materials.

The relevant part is quoted below, Why not E?

Quote:
In the largest Dallas communities, some individuals were buried in the earthen mounds that sewed as substructures for buildings important to civic and religious affairs. These burials included quantities of finely crafted items made of nonlocal material, denoting the high political standing of those interred.


Hi NandishSS,

Happy to help :-)

To see why E is not correct, we need to look at one more sentence:

Quote:
In the largest Dallas communities, some individuals were buried in the earthen mounds that sewed as substructures for buildings important to civic and religious affairs. These burials included quantities of finely crafted items made of nonlocal material, denoting the high political standing of those interred. Burials of lower-status individuals contained primarily utilitarian items such as cooking vessels and chipped Stone tools and are located in more remote sections of the settlements.


I've bolded the relevant parts. These earthen mounds did contain items made of nonlocal material, but those items were not necessarily utilitarian (since they were associated with people with high political standing, we can assume that these "finely crafted items" were things like jewelry and decoration, which are not utilitarian). The utilitarian items, in contrast, were presumably made of local materials, and were associated with lower-class individuals and were buried separately. So we can't conclude that the earthen mounds contained utilitarian items made of nonlocal materials, as E says Does that make sense?

NandishSS wrote:
3. The passage suggests that the "relationship" mentioned in the highlighted text was initially recognized when archaeologists

(A) attempted to trace the ancestry of the Timucua of Florida
(B) discovered a height differential among members of subgroups in the Dallas community
(C) realized that the Dallas communities endured periods of nutritional deprivation
(D) began to compare the social organization and economies of the Timucua with that of the Dallas communities
(E) became curious about differences in trace elements found in the bones of Dallas community members

The relevant part of the passage is here:

Quote:
Archaeological research suggests a similar relationship between social status and diet in the Dallas communities of eastern Tennessee, prehistoric Native American groups with a social organization and economy similar to that of the Timucua. The first real clue came when archaeologists discovered that skeletons of higher-status individuals tended to be several centimeters taller than those of people of lower status.


The archaeologists' "first clue", indicating the first time that this relationship was recognized, was when they realized that there was a difference in height associated with social status in the Dallas communities. This matches perfectly with B.

Does that make sense? If not, let me know :-)
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Re: Historical documents have revealed that among the Timucua of Florida,  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Sep 2018, 05:11
4. The passage suggests which of the following about the diet of the Dallas communities?

(A) Wild edible plants were a relatively minor element in the diet.
(B)Game was less likely to be available to lower-status individuals than were edible plants.
(C) The diet was composed primarily of agricultural crops when game was scarce.
(D) The diet was obtained entirely from local food sources.
(E) The diet was well balanced, especially at harvest time.

“Very low concentrations of vanadium, which is scarce in meats and somewhat lower in nuts than in other plant resources, are good evidence of meat consumption and thus a better balanced-diet. As expected, vanadium was found in considerably greater quantities in skeletons in the burials of lower-status groups.”

Low vanadium -> Balanced Diet with meat.
High vanadium -> Less meat more plants.
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Re: Historical documents have revealed that among the Timucua of Florida,  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Apr 2019, 10:41
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felippemed wrote:
Historical documents have revealed that among the Timucua of Florida, a Native American people, the best from the hunt or the harvest was given to families of high social status, even in times of economic stress. Archaeological research suggests a similar relationship between social status and diet in the Dallas communities of eastern Tennessee, prehistoric Native American groups with a social organization and economy similar to that of the Timucua. The first real clue came when archaeologists discovered that skeletons of higher-status individuals tended to be several centimeters taller than those of people of lower status.

In the largest Dallas communities, some individuals were buried in the earthen mounds that sewed as substructures for buildings important to civic and religious affairs. These burials included quantities of finely crafted items made of nonlocal material, denoting the high political standing of those interred. Burials of lower-status individuals contained primarily utilitarian items such as cooking vessels and chipped Stone tools and are located in more remote sections of the settlements. The burials actually formed a pattern, the tallest skeletons being found in the mounds, and the heights declining as burials became more distant from the mounds. While it is possible that taller people were simply more successful in achieving high social standing, it is more likely that a number of stresses, including those resulting from a relatively poor diet, which could affect stature, were common among the lower-status groups.

Excavations indicate that three food categories made up the bulk of the population's diet: agricultural crops cultivated in the fertile alluvial soils where the communities were located, game, and wild edible plants, primarily nuts. Information about dietary variation among community members is derived by analyzing trace elements in human bone. Higher than normal levels of manganese, strontium, and vanadium probably indicate a less nutritious diet heavily dependent on edible plants. Very low concentrations of vanadium, which is scarce in meats and somewhat lower in nuts than in other plant resources, are good evidence of meat consumption and thus a better balanced-diet. As expected, vanadium was found in considerably greater quantities in skeletons in the burials of lower-status groups.

1. According to the passage, which of the following statements regarding earthen mounds in the Dallas communities is accurate?

(A) They sewed primarily as burial grounds.
(B) They were constructed in key locations on the perimeter of the village.
(C) They were elements in important structures in the community.
(D) They were used as storehouses for keeping valuable possessions safe.
(E) They contained utilitarian items made of nonlocal materials.



2. In the highlighted text (it is possible that taller people were simply more successful in achieving high social standing), the author of the passage raises the possibility that taller people achieved greater success most probably in order to

(A) suggest that two explanations for a phenomenon are equally plausible
(B) introduce empirical data supporting a position
(C) anticipate an objection to an argument
(D) question the usefulness of relying solely on physical evidence
(E) point out a weakness in a traditional argument



3. The passage suggests that the "relationship" mentioned in the highlighted text was initially recognized when archaeologists

(A) attempted to trace the ancestry of the Timucua of Florida
(B) discovered a height differential among members of subgroups in the Dallas community
(C) realized that the Dallas communities endured periods of nutritional deprivation
(D) began to compare the social organization and economies of the Timucua with that of the Dallas communities
(E) became curious about differences in trace elements found in the bones of Dallas community members



4. The passage suggests which of the following about the diet of the Dallas communities?

(A) Wild edible plants were a relatively minor element in the diet.
(B) Game was less likely to be available to lower-status individuals than were edible plants.
(C) The diet was composed primarily of agricultural crops when game was scarce.
(D) The diet was obtained entirely from local food sources.
(E) The diet was well balanced, especially at harvest time.





I'll explain each and every aspect of this tough GMAT RC because I believe as even I got only 3/4 correct, many more would need help.

Lets see what the passage says, Try to understand the abbreviations

#1
T = Florida
hunt food goes to- hi status
DC = Texas
coz hi (more food), more height, more status


#2
DC
Pots-non local- near- hi stat
pots-local-far- low stat
pattern- decreasing height
(contrast) Stress- less ht- low status

#3
3 food
Alluvial plants, Game, WEP(nuts)
Mg,Sr, V- hi- bad diet- low status
V -less- meat- hi status

NOTE: SINCE NUTS AND ALLUVIAL PLANTS CANNOT BE MEAT, GAME HAS TO BE MEAT. (FOR NON-NATIVE SPEAKERS/ PEOPLE WHO DON'T KNOW WHAT GAME IS)

QUESTION 1
A. THEY SERVED AS BURIAL GROUNDS BUT NOT "PRIMARILY", IF ANYTHING PASSAGE SUGGESTS THEIR PURPOSE IN #2 THAT HAS SOMETHING TO DO WITH BUILDINGS AND STUFF
B. "VERY TEMPTING CHOICE" THIS CHOICE TAKES ADVANTAGE OF HUMAN BRAIN'S THOUGHT PROCESS, WHILE AUTHOR SAID THAT THERE'S A DIFFERENCE IN BURIAL LOCATION BASED ON HEIGHT AS FOUND IN EVIDENCE, DOES IT HAVE TO BE CIRCULAR OR AROUND THE VILLAGE? OR CAN IT ALSO BE IN A STRAIGHT LINE, MAY BE ZIG ZAG MAY BE LIKE A RANDOM BURIAL ON ONE SIDE, SO PERIMETER OF VILLAGE HERE IS BOTH THE GROUNDS OF TEMPTATION AND ELIMINATION
C. THEY DID SAY SOMETHING ABOUT STRUCTURE/ BUILDING IN PASSAGE SO THIS CHOICE COULD BE RIGHT BUT READ OTHERS
D. NOT MEANT FOR KEEPING ANYTHING SAFE, THINGS WERE KEPT, BUT, SAFE? THEY WERE LIKE COFFINS, DO YOU USE COFFIN TO KEEP ANYTHING SAFE? NO!!!
E. OK THIS OPTION IS WRONG IN TWO WAYS, 1. THERE WERE LOCAL non utility materials in low status group AND 2. WELL THEY ALSO CONTAINED DEAD PEOPLE (BUT THAT'S NOT THE RIGHT THING TO ELIMINATE IT BY), GO WITH FIRST ONE.


QUESTION 2
TRICKY TRICKY TRICKY

YOU KNOW SOME BOOKS ON GMAT, I'M NOT GOING TO TAKE THE NAMES(THEY DON'T PAY ME), SAY THAT LOOK AT THE TONE OF THE PASSAGE, AUTHOR, CONTRAST WORDS etc, THIS IS A QUESTION BASED ON THAT
THE KINDS OF PEOPLE WHO ARE INVOLVED IN THE PASSAGE ARE
AUTHOR
YOU(READER)
T GROUP
DC GROUP
ARCHAEOLOGISTS

IN #1 ARCHAEOLOGIST DUDES FOUND SOMETHING THAT SAID DIET LEADS TO HEIGHT, THEN HEIGHT LEADS TO SOCIAL STATUS
NOW YOU SEE THE WORD WHILE , JUST B4 HIGHLIGHTED TEXT, IT SAYS, OK DUDE WE AGREE WITH YOUR FIRST STATEMENT BUT WE THINK THAT HEIGHT DOESN'T LEAD TO SOCIAL STATUS, SOCIAL STATUS GETS YOU HEIGHT. SO LOOK AT IT THIS WAY

ARCHAEOLOGIST SAID DIET-HEIGHT-STATUS
AUTHOR SAID STATUS-DIET-HEIGHT
SO AUTHOR KINDA SAYS, ARCHAEOLOGISTS CAN &%$# IT.

TONE- NOT HAPPY
A. LOOK AT THE WORD " MORE LIKELY"? YES!!! THAT'S IT, WHEN SOMETHING IS MORE, IT IS NOT EQUAL.... DUHHH!!
B. AUTHOR IS KINDA OPPOSING MUCH AS I TOLD YOU, SO Y WOULD AN OPPOSING PARTY SUPPORT
C. YES HE'S KINDA OBJECTING, AND IN AN ANTICIPATING WAY, THAT IS, "BUT THIS IS ALSO A POSSIBLE EXPLANATION"
D. NOT EVEN MENTIONED THAT AUTHOR IS QUESTIONING PHYSICAL EVIDENCE, THE DUDE SAYS, "FINE, YOU FOUND THE PHYSICAL EVIDENCE, BUT YOUR THEORY IS WRONG" SO HE'S ONTO THE THEORY NOT THE EVIDENCE
E. "VERY TEMPTING" AS THIS OPTION AGREES WITH A DARKER, NEGATIVE TONE, BUT HE'S NOT CALLING THE THEORY WEAK, HE WANTS THE THEORY TO BE WEAK, BY SAYING, "MAY BE YOU ARE RIGHT, BUT PROVE MY ALTERNATIVE WRONG", REMEMBER, MAKING ENEMY WEAK IS NOT THE SAME AS POINTING OUT HIS WEAKNESS.


QUESTION 3
PERHAPS THE EASIEST OF 4, PERHAPS NOT, DEPENDS ON HOW YOU READ THE #1
A. NOPE NOPE NOPE, THINK OF IT THIS WAY, YOU CANNOT CLAP WITH ONE HAND, THE FINDING OF TWO PEOPLE IS NEEDED IF YOU WISH TO ESTABLISH A RELATIONSHIP.
B. "THE "FIRST" REAL CLUE" WE DO NEED INITIALLY/FIRST, DO WE NOT?
C. NOT MENTIONED ANYWHERE NEAR OUR DISCUSSION
D. "TEMPTING" BUT THE RELATIONSHIP WAS IN SOCIAL STATS AND DIET AND THE ORGANISATION AND ECONOMY HAS NOT BEEN SHOWN TO HAVE MUCH OF A CONNECTION, NEVER THE LESS, "THE FIRST" REAL THING, RIGHT? IT COULD BE THE FAKE THING, IT COULD BE THE SECOND REAL THING AND SO IT KINDA MAKES THIS OPTION TOPPLE SO C IS STRONGER THAN D.
E. THAT CURIOSITY MIGHT HELP THEM IN #3 BUT WE WANT #1 PARA RELATIONSHIP

QUESTION 4

REMEMBER THE NOTE I WROTE AFTER SUMMARY, THE QUESTION JUST WANTS YOU TO KNOW THAT GAME WAS MEAT.
ALL OPTIONS ARE MISLEADING, THEY SAY NOTHING ABOUT WHATS MENTIONED IN #3 AND RATHER MAKE UNNECESSARY RELATIONSHIPS, ALL OPTIONS BUT B
LESS VANADIUM MEANS MEAT, THAT GOES TO HI STATUS
AND VANADIUM IS MORE IN LOW STATUS PEOPLE
MEANING??
THEY DIDN'T GET MEAT OR GOT LESS MEAT
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Re: Historical documents have revealed that among the Timucua of Florida,  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Apr 2019, 10:48
felippemed wrote:
Historical documents have revealed that among the Timucua of Florida, a Native American people, the best from the hunt or the harvest was given to families of high social status, even in times of economic stress. Archaeological research suggests a similar relationship between social status and diet in the Dallas communities of eastern Tennessee, prehistoric Native American groups with a social organization and economy similar to that of the Timucua. The first real clue came when archaeologists discovered that skeletons of higher-status individuals tended to be several centimeters taller than those of people of lower status.

In the largest Dallas communities, some individuals were buried in the earthen mounds that sewed as substructures for buildings important to civic and religious affairs. These burials included quantities of finely crafted items made of nonlocal material, denoting the high political standing of those interred. Burials of lower-status individuals contained primarily utilitarian items such as cooking vessels and chipped Stone tools and are located in more remote sections of the settlements. The burials actually formed a pattern, the tallest skeletons being found in the mounds, and the heights declining as burials became more distant from the mounds. While it is possible that taller people were simply more successful in achieving high social standing, it is more likely that a number of stresses, including those resulting from a relatively poor diet, which could affect stature, were common among the lower-status groups.

Excavations indicate that three food categories made up the bulk of the population's diet: agricultural crops cultivated in the fertile alluvial soils where the communities were located, game, and wild edible plants, primarily nuts. Information about dietary variation among community members is derived by analyzing trace elements in human bone. Higher than normal levels of manganese, strontium, and vanadium probably indicate a less nutritious diet heavily dependent on edible plants. Very low concentrations of vanadium, which is scarce in meats and somewhat lower in nuts than in other plant resources, are good evidence of meat consumption and thus a better balanced-diet. As expected, vanadium was found in considerably greater quantities in skeletons in the burials of lower-status groups.

1. According to the passage, which of the following statements regarding earthen mounds in the Dallas communities is accurate?

(A) They sewed primarily as burial grounds.
(B) They were constructed in key locations on the perimeter of the village.
(C) They were elements in important structures in the community.
(D) They were used as storehouses for keeping valuable possessions safe.
(E) They contained utilitarian items made of nonlocal materials.



2. In the highlighted text (it is possible that taller people were simply more successful in achieving high social standing), the author of the passage raises the possibility that taller people achieved greater success most probably in order to

(A) suggest that two explanations for a phenomenon are equally plausible
(B) introduce empirical data supporting a position
(C) anticipate an objection to an argument
(D) question the usefulness of relying solely on physical evidence
(E) point out a weakness in a traditional argument



3. The passage suggests that the "relationship" mentioned in the highlighted text was initially recognized when archaeologists

(A) attempted to trace the ancestry of the Timucua of Florida
(B) discovered a height differential among members of subgroups in the Dallas community
(C) realized that the Dallas communities endured periods of nutritional deprivation
(D) began to compare the social organization and economies of the Timucua with that of the Dallas communities
(E) became curious about differences in trace elements found in the bones of Dallas community members



4. The passage suggests which of the following about the diet of the Dallas communities?

(A) Wild edible plants were a relatively minor element in the diet.
(B) Game was less likely to be available to lower-status individuals than were edible plants.
(C) The diet was composed primarily of agricultural crops when game was scarce.
(D) The diet was obtained entirely from local food sources.
(E) The diet was well balanced, especially at harvest time.





I'll explain each and every aspect of this tough GMAT RC because I believe as even I got only 3/4 correct, many more would need help.

Lets see what the passage says, Try to understand the abbreviations

#1
T = Florida
hunt food goes to- hi status
DC = Texas
coz hi (more food), more height, more status


#2
DC
Pots-non local- near- hi stat
pots-local-far- low stat
pattern- decreasing height
(contrast) Stress- less ht- low status

#3
3 food
Alluvial plants, Game, WEP(nuts)
Mg,Sr, V- hi- bad diet- low status
V -less- meat- hi status

NOTE: SINCE NUTS AND ALLUVIAL PLANTS CANNOT BE MEAT, GAME HAS TO BE MEAT. (FOR NON-NATIVE SPEAKERS/ PEOPLE WHO DON'T KNOW WHAT GAME IS)

QUESTION 1
A. THEY SERVED AS BURIAL GROUNDS BUT NOT "PRIMARILY", IF ANYTHING PASSAGE SUGGESTS THEIR PURPOSE IN #2 THAT HAS SOMETHING TO DO WITH BUILDINGS AND STUFF
B. "VERY TEMPTING CHOICE" THIS CHOICE TAKES ADVANTAGE OF HUMAN BRAIN'S THOUGHT PROCESS, WHILE AUTHOR SAID THAT THERE'S A DIFFERENCE IN BURIAL LOCATION BASED ON HEIGHT AS FOUND IN EVIDENCE, DOES IT HAVE TO BE CIRCULAR OR AROUND THE VILLAGE? OR CAN IT ALSO BE IN A STRAIGHT LINE, MAY BE ZIG ZAG MAY BE LIKE A RANDOM BURIAL ON ONE SIDE, SO PERIMETER OF VILLAGE HERE IS BOTH THE GROUNDS OF TEMPTATION AND ELIMINATION
C. THEY DID SAY SOMETHING ABOUT STRUCTURE/ BUILDING IN PASSAGE SO THIS CHOICE COULD BE RIGHT BUT READ OTHERS
D. NOT MEANT FOR KEEPING ANYTHING SAFE, THINGS WERE KEPT, BUT, SAFE? THEY WERE LIKE COFFINS, DO YOU USE COFFIN TO KEEP ANYTHING SAFE? NO!!!
E. OK THIS OPTION IS WRONG IN TWO WAYS, 1. THERE WERE LOCAL non utility materials in low status group AND 2. WELL THEY ALSO CONTAINED DEAD PEOPLE (BUT THAT'S NOT THE RIGHT THING TO ELIMINATE IT BY), GO WITH FIRST ONE.


QUESTION 2
TRICKY TRICKY TRICKY

YOU KNOW SOME BOOKS ON GMAT, I'M NOT GOING TO TAKE THE NAMES(THEY DON'T PAY ME), SAY THAT LOOK AT THE TONE OF THE PASSAGE, AUTHOR, CONTRAST WORDS etc, THIS IS A QUESTION BASED ON THAT
THE KINDS OF PEOPLE WHO ARE INVOLVED IN THE PASSAGE ARE
AUTHOR
YOU(READER)
T GROUP
DC GROUP
ARCHAEOLOGISTS

IN #1 ARCHAEOLOGIST DUDES FOUND SOMETHING THAT SAID DIET LEADS TO HEIGHT, THEN HEIGHT LEADS TO SOCIAL STATUS
NOW YOU SEE THE WORD WHILE , JUST B4 HIGHLIGHTED TEXT, IT SAYS, OK DUDE WE AGREE WITH YOUR FIRST STATEMENT BUT WE THINK THAT HEIGHT DOESN'T LEAD TO SOCIAL STATUS, SOCIAL STATUS GETS YOU HEIGHT. SO LOOK AT IT THIS WAY

ARCHAEOLOGIST SAID DIET-HEIGHT-STATUS
AUTHOR SAID STATUS-DIET-HEIGHT
SO AUTHOR KINDA SAYS, ARCHAEOLOGISTS CAN &%$# IT.

TONE- NOT HAPPY
A. LOOK AT THE WORD " MORE LIKELY"? YES!!! THAT'S IT, WHEN SOMETHING IS MORE, IT IS NOT EQUAL.... DUHHH!!
B. AUTHOR IS KINDA OPPOSING MUCH AS I TOLD YOU, SO Y WOULD AN OPPOSING PARTY SUPPORT
C. YES HE'S KINDA OBJECTING, AND IN AN ANTICIPATING WAY, THAT IS, "BUT THIS IS ALSO A POSSIBLE EXPLANATION"
D. NOT EVEN MENTIONED THAT AUTHOR IS QUESTIONING PHYSICAL EVIDENCE, THE DUDE SAYS, "FINE, YOU FOUND THE PHYSICAL EVIDENCE, BUT YOUR THEORY IS WRONG" SO HE'S ONTO THE THEORY NOT THE EVIDENCE
E. "VERY TEMPTING" AS THIS OPTION AGREES WITH A DARKER, NEGATIVE TONE, BUT HE'S NOT CALLING THE THEORY WEAK, HE WANTS THE THEORY TO BE WEAK, BY SAYING, "MAY BE YOU ARE RIGHT, BUT PROVE MY ALTERNATIVE WRONG", REMEMBER, MAKING ENEMY WEAK IS NOT THE SAME AS POINTING OUT HIS WEAKNESS.


QUESTION 3
PERHAPS THE EASIEST OF 4, PERHAPS NOT, DEPENDS ON HOW YOU READ THE #1
A. NOPE NOPE NOPE, THINK OF IT THIS WAY, YOU CANNOT CLAP WITH ONE HAND, THE FINDING OF TWO PEOPLE IS NEEDED IF YOU WISH TO ESTABLISH A RELATIONSHIP.
B. "THE "FIRST" REAL CLUE" WE DO NEED INITIALLY/FIRST, DO WE NOT?
C. NOT MENTIONED ANYWHERE NEAR OUR DISCUSSION
D. "TEMPTING" BUT THE RELATIONSHIP WAS IN SOCIAL STATS AND DIET AND THE ORGANISATION AND ECONOMY HAS NOT BEEN SHOWN TO HAVE MUCH OF A CONNECTION, NEVER THE LESS, "THE FIRST" REAL THING, RIGHT? IT COULD BE THE FAKE THING, IT COULD BE THE SECOND REAL THING AND SO IT KINDA MAKES THIS OPTION TOPPLE SO C IS STRONGER THAN D.
E. THAT CURIOSITY MIGHT HELP THEM IN #3 BUT WE WANT #1 PARA RELATIONSHIP

QUESTION 4

REMEMBER THE NOTE I WROTE AFTER SUMMARY, THE QUESTION JUST WANTS YOU TO KNOW THAT GAME WAS MEAT.
ALL OPTIONS ARE MISLEADING, THEY SAY NOTHING ABOUT WHATS MENTIONED IN #3 AND RATHER MAKE UNNECESSARY RELATIONSHIPS, ALL OPTIONS BUT B
LESS VANADIUM MEANS MEAT, THAT GOES TO HI STATUS
AND VANADIUM IS MORE IN LOW STATUS PEOPLE
MEANING??
THEY DIDN'T GET MEAT OR GOT LESS MEAT
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Re: Historical documents have revealed that among the Timucua of Florida,  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Jul 2019, 22:04
MagooshExpert wrote:
NandishSS wrote:
HI GMATNinja , mikemcgarry , egmat , sayantanc2k, RonPurewal , DmitryFarber , MagooshExpert (Carolyn), ccooley , EMPOWERgmatVerbal

Can you please help me with below questions?

1. According to the passage, which of the following statements regarding earthen mounds in the Dallas communities is accurate?

(A) They sewed primarily as burial grounds.
(B) They were constructed in key locations on the perimeter of the village.
(C) They were elements in important structures in the community.
(D) They were used as storehouses for keeping valuable possessions safe.
(E) They contained utilitarian items made of nonlocal materials.

The relevant part is quoted below, Why not E?

Quote:
In the largest Dallas communities, some individuals were buried in the earthen mounds that sewed as substructures for buildings important to civic and religious affairs. These burials included quantities of finely crafted items made of nonlocal material, denoting the high political standing of those interred.


Hi NandishSS,

Happy to help :-)

To see why E is not correct, we need to look at one more sentence:

Quote:
In the largest Dallas communities, some individuals were buried in the earthen mounds that sewed as substructures for buildings important to civic and religious affairs. These burials included quantities of finely crafted items made of nonlocal material, denoting the high political standing of those interred. Burials of lower-status individuals contained primarily utilitarian items such as cooking vessels and chipped Stone tools and are located in more remote sections of the settlements.


I've bolded the relevant parts. These earthen mounds did contain items made of nonlocal material, but those items were not necessarily utilitarian (since they were associated with people with high political standing, we can assume that these "finely crafted items" were things like jewelry and decoration, which are not utilitarian). The utilitarian items, in contrast, were presumably made of local materials, and were associated with lower-class individuals and were buried separately. So we can't conclude that the earthen mounds contained utilitarian items made of nonlocal materials, as E says Does that make sense?

NandishSS wrote:
3. The passage suggests that the "relationship" mentioned in the highlighted text was initially recognized when archaeologists

(A) attempted to trace the ancestry of the Timucua of Florida
(B) discovered a height differential among members of subgroups in the Dallas community
(C) realized that the Dallas communities endured periods of nutritional deprivation
(D) began to compare the social organization and economies of the Timucua with that of the Dallas communities
(E) became curious about differences in trace elements found in the bones of Dallas community members

The relevant part of the passage is here:

Quote:
Archaeological research suggests a similar relationship between social status and diet in the Dallas communities of eastern Tennessee, prehistoric Native American groups with a social organization and economy similar to that of the Timucua. The first real clue came when archaeologists discovered that skeletons of higher-status individuals tended to be several centimeters taller than those of people of lower status.


The archaeologists' "first clue", indicating the first time that this relationship was recognized, was when they realized that there was a difference in height associated with social status in the Dallas communities. This matches perfectly with B.

Does that make sense? If not, let me know :-)
-Carolyn

MagooshExpert

The passage map for para 1 says
1) they discovered a relationship in diet and Social class in Florida
2) the found a same relationship in dallas communities
3) the first evidence was the height differential in corposes

The question stem asks for the point where relationship was first recognized and not when it was first proved or first evidence of the relationship is provided. I can recall a similar question from OG ( mouse experiment and protein and tryptophan) where the option choice which stated the first inference as the correct answer choice. Can you please explain why the OA to this question is B and not D.

GMATNinja if you can help.

Thanks
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Re: Historical documents have revealed that among the Timucua of Florida,  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Jul 2019, 20:58
1
Mudit27021988 wrote:
[
MagooshExpert

The passage map for para 1 says
1) they discovered a relationship in diet and Social class in Florida
2) the found a same relationship in dallas communities
3) the first evidence was the height differential in corposes

The question stem asks for the point where relationship was first recognized and not when it was first proved or first evidence of the relationship is provided. I can recall a similar question from OG ( mouse experiment and protein and tryptophan) where the option choice which stated the first inference as the correct answer choice. Can you please explain why the OA to this question is B and not D.

GMATNinja if you can help.

Thanks

Hi Mudit27021988!

Happy to help :)

Just because certain things are listed in a particular order in the passage does not mean that that's the order in which those events occurred :) Here, the passage is not saying that the three phenomena that you mentioned occurred in that order. The paragraph is instead summarizing our present knowledge of these societies. Numbers 1 and 2 that you identified are simply the author's summary of what we now know. The first time that the relationship was recognized, as indicated by the passage (by "first clue"), was the height differences. Those height differences then indicated that there may be a relationship between social class and diet. This clue then led to further studies of the social organization and economies of these communities.

Hope that's helpful :)
-Carolyn
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Re: Historical documents have revealed that among the Timucua of Florida,   [#permalink] 14 Jul 2019, 20:58
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