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Historical documents have revealed that among the Timucua of Florida,

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Historical documents have revealed that among the Timucua of Florida, [#permalink]

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Question 2
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48% (00:24) correct 52% (00:36) wrong based on 327

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Historical documents have revealed that among the Timucua of Florida, a Native American people, the best from the hunt or the harvest was given to families of high social status, even in times of economic stress. Archaeological research suggests a similar relationship between social status and diet in the Dallas communities of eastern Tennessee, prehistoric Native American groups with a social organization and economy similar to that of the Timucua. The first real clue came when archaeologists discovered that skeletons of higher-status individuals tended to be several centimeters taller than those of people of lower status.

In the largest Dallas communities, some individuals were buried in the earthen mounds that sewed as substructures for buildings important to civic and religious affairs. These burials included quantities of finely crafted items made of nonlocal material, denoting the high political standing of those interred. Burials of lower-status individuals contained primarily utilitarian items such as cooking vessels and chipped Stone tools and are located in more remote sections of the settlements. The burials actually formed a pattern, the tallest skeletons being found in the mounds, and the heights declining as burials became more distant from the mounds. While it is possible that taller people were simply more successful in achieving high social standing, it is more likely that a number of stresses, including those resulting from a relatively poor diet, which could affect stature, were common among the lower-status groups.

Excavations indicate that three food categories made up the bulk of the population's diet: agricultural crops cultivated in the fertile alluvial soils where the communities were located, game, and wild edible plants, primarily nuts. Information about dietary variation among community members is derived by analyzing trace elements in human bone. Higher than normal levels of manganese, strontium, and vanadium probably indicate a less nutritious diet heavily dependent on edible plants. Very low concentrations of vanadium, which is scarce in meats and somewhat lower in nuts than in other plant resources, are good evidence of meat consumption and thus a better balanced-diet. As expected, vanadium was found in considerably greater quantities in skeletons in the burials of lower-status groups.

[Reveal] Spoiler:
C

1. According to the passage, which of the following statements regarding earthen mounds in the Dallas communities is accurate?

(A) They sewed primarily as burial grounds.
(B) They were constructed in key locations on the perimeter of the village.
(C) They were elements in important structures in the community.
(D) They were used as storehouses for keeping valuable possessions safe.
(E) They contained utilitarian items made of nonlocal materials.


[Reveal] Spoiler:
C

2. In the highlighted text (it is possible that taller people were simply more successful in achieving high social standing), the author of the passage raises the possibility that taller people achieved greater success most probably in order to

(A) suggest that two explanations for a phenomenon are equally plausible
(B) introduce empirical data supporting a position
(C) anticipate an objection to an argument
(D) question the usefulness of relying solely on physical evidence
(E) point out a weakness in a traditional argument


[Reveal] Spoiler:
B

3. The passage suggests that the "relationship" mentioned in the highlighted text was initially recognized when archaeologists

(A) attempted to trace the ancestry of the Timucua of Florida
(B) discovered a height differential among members of subgroups in the Dallas community
(C) realized that the Dallas communities endured periods of nutritional deprivation
(D) began to compare the social organization and economies of the Timucua with that of the Dallas communities
(E) became curious about differences in trace elements found in the bones of Dallas community members


[Reveal] Spoiler:
B

4. The passage suggests which of the following about the diet of the Dallas communities?

(A) Wild edible plants were a relatively minor element in the diet.
(B) Game was less likely to be available to lower-status individuals than were edible plants.
(C) The diet was composed primarily of agricultural crops when game was scarce.
(D) The diet was obtained entirely from local food sources.
(E) The diet was well balanced, especially at harvest time.

[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #1 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #2 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #3 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #4 OA

Last edited by hazelnut on 27 Sep 2017, 05:25, edited 2 times in total.
Edited the question.

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Re: Historical documents have revealed that among the Timucua of Florida, [#permalink]

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New post 18 Jan 2017, 03:09
kkrrsshh feel sorry to hear that. Sometimes GMAT has the capability to throw us a passage that take off the ground.

But if it comforts you, I got only two right and it appeared in the middle of my Exam (awfully scary).

It is an official question, so there is no OE.

What you can do is to request an expert reply. I am sure they will give some good answers to the questions.

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Re: Historical documents have revealed that among the Timucua of Florida, [#permalink]

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New post 27 Sep 2017, 00:03
Can you please explain why answer option A is not correct for Q-4?

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Historical documents have revealed that among the Timucua of Florida, [#permalink]

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New post 27 Sep 2017, 05:28
Hi GMATNinja, Could you help with Question 2?

In the highlighted text (it is possible that taller people were simply more successful in achieving high social standing), the author of the passage raises the possibility that taller people achieved greater success most probably in order to

(A) suggest that two explanations for a phenomenon are equally plausible
(B) introduce empirical data supporting a position
(C) anticipate an objection to an argument
(D) question the usefulness of relying solely on physical evidence
(E) point out a weakness in a traditional argument
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Re: Historical documents have revealed that among the Timucua of Florida, [#permalink]

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New post 29 Sep 2017, 14:39
Anki05 wrote:
Can you please explain why answer option A is not correct for Q-4?

Quote:
4. The passage suggests which of the following about the diet of the Dallas communities?

(A) Wild edible plants were a relatively minor element in the diet.
(B) Game was less likely to be available to lower-status individuals than were edible plants.
(C) The diet was composed primarily of agricultural crops when game was scarce.
(D) The diet was obtained entirely from local food sources.
(E) The diet was well balanced, especially at harvest time.

Refer to the first sentence of the third paragraph: "Excavations indicate that three food categories made up the bulk of the population's diet: agricultural crops cultivated in the fertile alluvial soils where the communities were located, game, and wild edible plants, primarily nuts." We do not know the PROPORTION of each food category, so we have no idea whether wild edible plants were a relatively minor element in the diet. For all we know, wild edible plants may have been the primary element in the diet. Choice (A) might be true, but there isn't enough information in the passage to confirm it.

Choice (B), on the other hand, is strongly supported. Refer to the last few sentences in the passage:

Quote:
Higher than normal levels of manganese, strontium, and vanadium probably indicate a less nutritious diet heavily dependent on edible plants. Very low concentrations of vanadium, which is scarce in meats and somewhat lower in nuts than in other plant resources, are good evidence of meat consumption and thus a better balanced-diet. As expected, vanadium was found in considerably greater quantities in skeletons in the burials of lower-status groups.

Higher levels of vanadium "probably indicate a less nutritious diet heavily dependent on edible plants", while "very low concentrations of vanadium... are good evidence of meat consumption." Since lower-status groups had greater quantities of vanadium in their skeletons, we can infer that they ate less game than the higher-status groups.

hazelnut wrote:
Hi GMATNinja, Could you help with Question 2?

In the highlighted text (it is possible that taller people were simply more successful in achieving high social standing), the author of the passage raises the possibility that taller people achieved greater success most probably in order to

(A) suggest that two explanations for a phenomenon are equally plausible
(B) introduce empirical data supporting a position
(C) anticipate an objection to an argument
(D) question the usefulness of relying solely on physical evidence
(E) point out a weakness in a traditional argument

The evidence suggests that taller people, in general, had higher status. The author wants to argue that height was a function of status (the higher your status, the taller you would be, on average). Why? Because "a number of stresses, including those resulting from a relatively poor diet, which could affect stature, were common among the lower-status groups."

Someone might challenge that theory by saying, "Well, maybe status is a function of height!" Maybe being tall improves your odds of reaching a higher status (reversing the cause and effect presented by the author). The author anticipates this objection, saying that this reversed explanation might be true but that his/her argument "is more likely." Choice (C) is the best answer.
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Re: Historical documents have revealed that among the Timucua of Florida, [#permalink]

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New post 02 Oct 2017, 00:17
what's the difficulty level of this RC??

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Re: Historical documents have revealed that among the Timucua of Florida, [#permalink]

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New post 12 Oct 2017, 05:25
GMATNinja wrote:
Anki05 wrote:
Can you please explain why answer option A is not correct for Q-4?

Quote:
4. The passage suggests which of the following about the diet of the Dallas communities?

(A) Wild edible plants were a relatively minor element in the diet.
(B) Game was less likely to be available to lower-status individuals than were edible plants.
(C) The diet was composed primarily of agricultural crops when game was scarce.
(D) The diet was obtained entirely from local food sources.
(E) The diet was well balanced, especially at harvest time.

Refer to the first sentence of the third paragraph: "Excavations indicate that three food categories made up the bulk of the population's diet: agricultural crops cultivated in the fertile alluvial soils where the communities were located, game, and wild edible plants, primarily nuts." We do not know the PROPORTION of each food category, so we have no idea whether wild edible plants were a relatively minor element in the diet. For all we know, wild edible plants may have been the primary element in the diet. Choice (A) might be true, but there isn't enough information in the passage to confirm it.

Choice (B), on the other hand, is strongly supported. Refer to the last few sentences in the passage:

Quote:
Higher than normal levels of manganese, strontium, and vanadium probably indicate a less nutritious diet heavily dependent on edible plants. Very low concentrations of vanadium, which is scarce in meats and somewhat lower in nuts than in other plant resources, are good evidence of meat consumption and thus a better balanced-diet. As expected, vanadium was found in considerably greater quantities in skeletons in the burials of lower-status groups.

Higher levels of vanadium "probably indicate a less nutritious diet heavily dependent on edible plants", while "very low concentrations of vanadium... are good evidence of meat consumption." Since lower-status groups had greater quantities of vanadium in their skeletons, we can infer that they ate less game than the higher-status groups.



If someone doesn't know the meaning of 'game', then is there any clue in the passage to suggest that it is referring to meat ?
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Re: Historical documents have revealed that among the Timucua of Florida, [#permalink]

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New post 30 Oct 2017, 00:12
GMATNinja wrote:
Anki05 wrote:
Can you please explain why answer option A is not correct for Q-4?

Quote:
4. The passage suggests which of the following about the diet of the Dallas communities?

(A) Wild edible plants were a relatively minor element in the diet.
(B) Game was less likely to be available to lower-status individuals than were edible plants.
(C) The diet was composed primarily of agricultural crops when game was scarce.
(D) The diet was obtained entirely from local food sources.
(E) The diet was well balanced, especially at harvest time.

Refer to the first sentence of the third paragraph: "Excavations indicate that three food categories made up the bulk of the population's diet: agricultural crops cultivated in the fertile alluvial soils where the communities were located, game, and wild edible plants, primarily nuts." We do not know the PROPORTION of each food category, so we have no idea whether wild edible plants were a relatively minor element in the diet. For all we know, wild edible plants may have been the primary element in the diet. Choice (A) might be true, but there isn't enough information in the passage to confirm it.

Choice (B), on the other hand, is strongly supported. Refer to the last few sentences in the passage:

Quote:
Higher than normal levels of manganese, strontium, and vanadium probably indicate a less nutritious diet heavily dependent on edible plants. Very low concentrations of vanadium, which is scarce in meats and somewhat lower in nuts than in other plant resources, are good evidence of meat consumption and thus a better balanced-diet. As expected, vanadium was found in considerably greater quantities in skeletons in the burials of lower-status groups.

Higher levels of vanadium "probably indicate a less nutritious diet heavily dependent on edible plants", while "very low concentrations of vanadium... are good evidence of meat consumption." Since lower-status groups had greater quantities of vanadium in their skeletons, we can infer that they ate less game than the higher-status groups.

hazelnut wrote:
Hi GMATNinja, Could you help with Question 2?

In the highlighted text (it is possible that taller people were simply more successful in achieving high social standing), the author of the passage raises the possibility that taller people achieved greater success most probably in order to

(A) suggest that two explanations for a phenomenon are equally plausible
(B) introduce empirical data supporting a position
(C) anticipate an objection to an argument
(D) question the usefulness of relying solely on physical evidence
(E) point out a weakness in a traditional argument

The evidence suggests that taller people, in general, had higher status. The author wants to argue that height was a function of status (the higher your status, the taller you would be, on average). Why? Because "a number of stresses, including those resulting from a relatively poor diet, which could affect stature, were common among the lower-status groups."

Someone might challenge that theory by saying, "Well, maybe status is a function of height!" Maybe being tall improves your odds of reaching a higher status (reversing the cause and effect presented by the author). The author anticipates this objection, saying that this reversed explanation might be true but that his/her argument "is more likely." Choice (C) is the best answer.


I'm still not clear with Q2. The word "anticipate" means to expect or foresee, but After the quoted lines for this question, there is no argument presented. Only in these lines is it purported that it is quite possible that the relation between status and height may be reversed. In the very next line, the author resumes talking about the argument that the reverse relation is not likely. I don't quite understand what is being "anticipated" here? This made me choose E - "point out a weakness in a traditional argument"
Considering the words written literally, I do agree that the "weakness" is not established, as it is only a conjecture. But I don't think anybody would argue that "status causes height" is not a traditional argument, as this is what is talked about everywhere in the passage. I would really appreciate any help. Sorry for getting too much into details, but that's what works for me :). Thanks in advance for your help
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Re: Historical documents have revealed that among the Timucua of Florida, [#permalink]

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New post 22 Nov 2017, 18:46
ShashankDave wrote:
I'm still not clear with Q2. The word "anticipate" means to expect or foresee, but After the quoted lines for this question, there is no argument presented. Only in these lines is it purported that it is quite possible that the relation between status and height may be reversed. In the very next line, the author resumes talking about the argument that the reverse relation is not likely. I don't quite understand what is being "anticipated" here? This made me choose E - "point out a weakness in a traditional argument"
Considering the words written literally, I do agree that the "weakness" is not established, as it is only a conjecture. But I don't think anybody would argue that "status causes height" is not a traditional argument, as this is what is talked about everywhere in the passage. I would really appreciate any help. Sorry for getting too much into details, but that's what works for me :). Thanks in advance for your help

I might argue that LeBron James is the greatest basketball player of all time. I might ANTICIPATE that someone would respond by saying that Michael Jordan is the greatest basketball player of all time. Knowing that people might make that objection, I would come up with several pieces of statistical evidence to show that LeBron is better. In other words, I'm responding to the objection before someone has a chance to make that objection.

If most rich people are healthy, I could argue that wealth leads to health or that health leads to wealth. Similarly, if the data shows that most tall people have better status, you could argue that height led to status OR that status led to height. The author is trying to argue that height is a function of status and anticipates that someone might object to that argument by saying, "Well, maybe status is a function of height!" By saying, "While it is possible that taller people were simply more successful in achieving high social standing, it is more likely...", the author admits that this is a reasonable objection. However, the author then explains why his/her explanation is "more likely".

I hope that helps!
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How to go from great (760) to incredible (780) on GMAT SC | That "-ing" Word Probably Isn't a Verb | That "-ed" Word Might Not Be a Verb, Either | No-BS Guide to GMAT Idioms | "Being" is not the enemy | WTF is "that" doing in my sentence?

Reading Comprehension, Critical Reasoning, and other articles & resources
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Re: Historical documents have revealed that among the Timucua of Florida,   [#permalink] 22 Nov 2017, 18:46
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