We are told that k > j > 0, and both k and j are integers. The remainder when k is divided by j may be expressed as r in this formula:
k = jq + r
In this formula,
(a) all of the variables are integers,
(b) q (the quotient) is the greatest number of j's such that jx < k, and
(c) r < j.
(If r were greater than j, then q would not be the greatest number of j's in k.)
Thus, the question may be rephrased: “If k = jq + r, and q is maximized such that jq < k and r < j,
what is the value of r?”
(1) INSUFFICIENT: At first glance, this may seem sufficient since it is in the form of our remainder equation. Certainly, m could equal q (the quotient) and r (the remainder) could be 5.
For example, k = 13 and j = 8 yield a remainder of 5 when k is divided by j: 13 = (8)(1) + 5, where m = 1 is the greatest number of 8's such that (8)(1) < 13, and r < j (i.e. 5 < 8).
However, this statement does not indicate whether m is the greatest number of j's such that jm < k and r < j, as our rephrased question requires.
For example, k = 13 and j = 2 may be expressed in this form: 13 = (2)(4) + 5, where m = 4.
However, 5 is not the remainder because 5 > j, and 4 is not the greatest number of 2's in 13. When 13 is divided by 2, the quotient is 6 and the remainder is 1.
If j ≤ 5, then 5 cannot be the remainder and m is not the quotient.
If j > 5, then 5 must be the remainder and m must be the quotient.
(2) INSUFFICIENT: This statement gives us a range of possible values of j. Without information about k, we cannot determine anything about the remainder when k is divided by j.
(1) AND (2) SUFFICIENT: Statement (2) tells us that j > 5, so we can conclude from statement (1) that 5 is the remainder and m is the quotient when k is divided by j.
The correct answer is C.
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Thanks & Regards,
Anaira Mitch