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If k is a positive integer, What is the remainder when 2^k is divided  [#permalink]

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Difficulty:   55% (hard)

Question Stats: 63% (01:37) correct 37% (01:47) wrong based on 807 sessions

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If k is a positive integer, What is the remainder when 2^k is divided by 10?

(1) k is divisible by 10
(2) k is divisible by 4

My approach is as follows:
(1) k could be 10, 20, 30...
case i. if k = 10, 2^10, the cyclicity of 2 is 4 (10/4 = reminder 2) so 2^2 is divided by 10 and reminder is 4
case ii. if k = 20, 2^20, the cyclicity of 2 is 4 (20/4 = 5, 5/4 = reminder 1) so 2^1 is divided by 10 and reminder is 2
Insufficient.

(2) k = 4, 8, 12
2^4, the cyclicity of 2 is 4 (4/4 = reminder 0) so 2^0 is divided by 10 and reminder is 1
2^8, the cyclicity of 2 is 4 (8/4 = reminder 0) so 2^0 is divided by 10 and reminder is 1
Sufficient.

Ans. B

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Originally posted by Baten80 on 23 Jan 2012, 21:55.
Last edited by Bunuel on 20 Oct 2014, 08:35, edited 2 times in total.
Edited the question.
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Joined: 02 Sep 2009
Posts: 59089
Re: If k is a positive integer, What is the remainder when 2^k is divided  [#permalink]

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7
8
Baten80 wrote:
If k is a positive integer, What is the remainder when 2^k is divided by 10?
1) k is dividable by 10
2) k is dividable by 4

My approach is as follows:
(1) k could be 10, 20, 30...
case i. if k = 10, 2^10, the cyclicity of 2 is 4 (10/4 = reminder 2) so 2^2 is divided by 10 and reminder is 4
case ii. if k = 20, 2^20, the cyclicity of 2 is 4 (20/4 = 5, 5/4 = reminder 1) so 2^1 is divided by 10 and reminder is 2
Insufficient.

(2) k = 4, 8, 12
2^4, the cyclicity of 2 is 4 (4/4 = reminder 0) so 2^0 is divided by 10 and reminder is 1
2^8, the cyclicity of 2 is 4 (8/4 = reminder 0) so 2^0 is divided by 10 and reminder is 1
Sufficient.

Ans. B

General approach is correct, though the red parts are not.

The last digit of 2^k repeats in pattern of 4 (cyclicity is 4):
2^1=2 --> last digit is 2;
2^2=4 --> last digit is 4;
2^3=8 --> last digit is 8;
2^4=16 --> last digit is 6;

2^5=32 --> last digit is 2 again;

Now, when k itself is a multiple of 4 (when there is no remainder upon division k by cyclicity number), then the last digit will be the last digit of 2^4 (4th in pattern), so 6 not 1 (taking 2^0) as you've written.

If k is a positive integer, what is the remainder when 2^k is divided by 10?

Notice that all we need to know to answer the question is the last digit of 2^k.

(1) k is divisible by 10 --> different multiples of 10 yield different remainders upon division by 4 (for example 10/4 yields 2 and 20/4 yields 0), thus we can not get the single numerical value of the last digit of 2^k. Not sufficient.

(2) k is divisible by 4 --> as discussed, when k is a multiple of 4, the last digit of 2^k equals to the last digit of 2^4, which is 6. Integer ending with 6 yields remainder of 6 upon division by 10. Sufficient.

Hope it's clear.
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Re: If k is a positive integer, What is the remainder when 2^k is divided  [#permalink]

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Re: If k is a positive integer, What is the remainder when 2^k is divided  [#permalink]

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Baten80 wrote:
If k is a positive integer, What is the remainder when 2^k is divided by 10?

(1) k is divisible by 10
(2) k is divisible by 4

2^k divided by 10. The cycliicity of 2 when divided by 10 is 4.

1 - k is divisible by 10 - the number can be 10 (2) or 20(0) - Not Sufficient
2 - k is divisible by 4 - Sufficient.

Ans. B
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Re: If k is a positive integer, What is the remainder when 2^k is divided  [#permalink]

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1
Bunuel wrote:
Baten80 wrote:
If k is a positive integer, What is the remainder when 2^k is divided by 10?
1) k is dividable by 10
2) k is dividable by 4

My approach is as follows:
(1) k could be 10, 20, 30...
case i. if k = 10, 2^10, the cyclicity of 2 is 4 (10/4 = reminder 2) so 2^2 is divided by 10 and reminder is 4
case ii. if k = 20, 2^20, the cyclicity of 2 is 4 (20/4 = 5, 5/4 = reminder 1) so 2^1 is divided by 10 and reminder is 2
Insufficient.

(2) k = 4, 8, 12
2^4, the cyclicity of 2 is 4 (4/4 = reminder 0) so 2^0 is divided by 10 and reminder is 1
2^8, the cyclicity of 2 is 4 (8/4 = reminder 0) so 2^0 is divided by 10 and reminder is 1
Sufficient.

Ans. B

General approach is correct, though the red parts are not.

The last digit of 2^k repeats in pattern of 4 (cyclicity is 4):
2^1=2 --> last digit is 2;
2^2=4 --> last digit is 4;
2^3=8 --> last digit is 8;
2^4=16 --> last digit is 6;

2^5=32 --> last digit is 2 again;

Now, when k itself is a multiple of 4 (when there is no remainder upon division k by cyclicity number), then the last digit will be the last digit of 2^4 (4th in pattern), so 6 not 1 (taking 2^0) as you've written.

If k is a positive integer, what is the remainder when 2^k is divided by 10?

Notice that all we need to know to answer the question is the last digit of 2^k.

(1) k is divisible by 10 --> different multiples of 10 yield different remainders upon division by 4 (for example 10/4 yields 2 and 20/4 yields 0), thus we can not get the single numerical value of the last digit of 2^k. Not sufficient.

(2) k is divisible by 4 --> as discussed, when k is a multiple of 4, the last digit of 2^k equals to the last digit of 2^4, which is 6. Integer ending with 6 yields remainder of 6 upon division by 10. Sufficient.

Hope it's clear.

To add some clarity for myself and viewers:

Since the last digit in 2^k repeats in cycles of 4, you will ALWAYS know the last digit (and remainder) if k is a multiple of 4.

Therefore 2^4, 2^8,2^12. 2_16, etc.... will always have a last digit of 6.

If k is a multiple of 10, you know if k = 10, the last digit will be 4, and if k=20 the last digit will be 6, k=30 the last digit will be 4, etc... in repeating pattern. However without knowing the exact value of k you won't know the remainder.
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Re: If k is a positive integer, What is the remainder when 2^k is divided  [#permalink]

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Baten80 wrote:
If k is a positive integer, What is the remainder when 2^k is divided by 10?

(1) k is divisible by 10
(2) k is divisible by 4

My approach is as follows:
(1) k could be 10, 20, 30...
case i. if k = 10, 2^10, the cyclicity of 2 is 4 (10/4 = reminder 2) so 2^2 is divided by 10 and reminder is 4
case ii. if k = 20, 2^20, the cyclicity of 2 is 4 (20/4 = 5, 5/4 = reminder 1) so 2^1 is divided by 10 and reminder is 2
Insufficient.

(2) k = 4, 8, 12
2^4, the cyclicity of 2 is 4 (4/4 = reminder 0) so 2^0 is divided by 10 and reminder is 1
2^8, the cyclicity of 2 is 4 (8/4 = reminder 0) so 2^0 is divided by 10 and reminder is 1
Sufficient.

Ans. B

remainder by 10 means units digit.

1) k is div by 10
k = 10 ; 2^10 ends in 4
k = 20 ; 2^20 ends in 6
insufficient.

2) k is div by 4
2^(4k) always ends in 6
sufficient.

B.
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GRE 1: Q169 V154 Re: If k is a positive integer, What is the remainder when 2^k is divided  [#permalink]

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here the trick is to realise that the cylicity of 2 => Four
hence statement 2 is sufficient and the remainder will be always => 6
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Re: If k is a positive integer, What is the remainder when 2^k is divided  [#permalink]

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_________________ Re: If k is a positive integer, What is the remainder when 2^k is divided   [#permalink] 04 Sep 2019, 18:35
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