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# If x, y and z are integers and xy + z is an odd integer, is x an even

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Re: If x, y and z are integers and xy + z is an odd integer, is x an even [#permalink]
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You can look at Statement 1 conceptually: when we add z to xy, we get something odd. However, when we add xz to xy, we get something even. So certainly one of z or xz is odd, the other even. Now if xz is different from z, then multiplying by x must have changed z, and that could only happen if x is even and z odd. That's a bit tricky to explain, but I hope that's clear.

Or you can proceed algebraically - notice the similarity between the expression in the question and in Statement 1. We know that xy + xz is even, and xy + z is odd. When you subtract this second expression from the first, you're subtracting an odd from an even, so must get an odd: xy + xz - (xy + z) = xz - z = z(x-1) is odd. Since this is a product, z must be odd, and x-1 must be odd, so x is even. Sufficient.

For Statement 2, all the letters could be odd, so not sufficient.
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Re: If x, y and z are integers and xy + z is an odd integer, is x an even [#permalink]
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Took me less than a min

if XY+Z is odd
these are the possiblities

X Y Z

E E O
O E O
E O O
O O E

so substituting these values in Option A gives the solution write away as Even.
in B we have 2 diff results so

General Discussion
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Re: If x, y and z are integers and xy + z is an odd integer, is x an even [#permalink]
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IanStewart wrote:
You can look at Statement 1 conceptually: when we add z to xy, we get something odd. However, when we add xz to xy, we get something even. So certainly one of z or xz is odd, the other even. Now if xz is different from z, then multiplying by x must have changed z, and that could only happen if x is even and z odd. That's a bit tricky to explain, but I hope that's clear.

Or you can proceed algebraically - notice the similarity between the expression in the question and in Statement 1. We know that xy + xz is even, and xy + z is odd. When you subtract this second expression from the first, you're subtracting an odd from an even, so must get an odd: xy + xz - (xy + z) = xz - z = z(x-1) is odd. Since this is a product, z must be odd, and x-1 must be odd, so x is even. Sufficient.

For Statement 2, all the letters could be odd, so not sufficient.

Fr St2,
y+xz odd
xy+z odd
=> y+zx+xy+z even
=> y(x+1)+z(x+1) even
=> (y+z)(x+1) event
x+1 can be odd or even means that x can be even or odd, insuff
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Re: If x, y and z are integers and xy + z is an odd integer, is x an even [#permalink]
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Aleehsgonji wrote:
If x, y and z are integers and xy + z is an odd integer, is x an even integer?

(1) xy + xz is an even integer
(2) y + xz is an odd integer

Odd/Even questions can be usually solved quite easily if one tries some operations with the statements

We want to know if x is even integer

We are given that xy+z is odd

Statement 1

xq + xz is even

Subtracting

z(x+1) is odd

Therefore, x+1 should be odd and x should be even

Sufficient

Statement 2

Not sufficient

Just my 2c

Cheers
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Re: If x, y and z are integers and xy + z is an odd integer, is x an even [#permalink]
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Odd(O) Even (E)
given:
x,y,z integers
xy+z=O
so only the following scenarios can fulfill the constraints
a) EO+O
b) EE+O
c) OE+O
d) OO+E

question:
x=E?

1) x(y+z)=E
i. (E)(O+O) --> fits scenario a -->yes, x can be even
ii. (O)(E+E) --> n/a - doesn't fit any scenarios
iii. (O)(O+O) --> n/a - doesn't fit any scenarios

stop testing, x can't be odd, sufficient

2) y+xz = O
i. E+(O)(O) --> fits scenario a -->yes, x can be even
ii. O+(E)(E) --> n/a - doesn't fit any scenarios
iii. O+(O)(E) --> fits scenario d -->no, x can be odd

stop testing, x can be either even or odd

insufficient

A
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Re: If x, y and z are integers and xy + z is an odd integer, is x an even [#permalink]
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rahsin wrote:
If x, y, z are integers and xy+z is an odd integer, is x an even integer.

1. xy +xz is an even integer

2. y+ xz is an odd integer

Statement 1

xy+xz is even
xy+z is odd

Subtract the two. xy+xz-xy-z = xz-z

xz-z will be odd (even - odd will always result in odd)

z(x-1) will be odd

This is only possible when both z and (x-1) are odd.

x-1 is odd. This means that x is even.

Sufficient.

Statement 2

y+xz is odd
xy+z is odd

Add the two. y+xz+xy+z = x(y+z)+1 (y+z) = (x+1) (y+z).

(x+1)(y+z) will be even (odd+odd is even)

Now here x+1 can be even and y+z can be odd. (Even * odd will result in an even result)
or x+1 can be odd and y+z can be even (Even * odd will result in an even result)
or both (x+1) and (y+z) can be even (Even * even will result in an even result)

So x+1 can be both odd and even. In other words, x can be both even and odd.

This is only possible when both z and (x-1) are odd.

x-1 is odd. This means that x is even.

NOT Sufficient.

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Re: If x, y and z are integers and xy + z is an odd integer, is x an even [#permalink]
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(1) Since xy + z is odd and xy +xz is even, subtracting we can deduce that z-xz = z(1-x) is odd. Thus 1 - x is odd, so x must be even. SUFF

(2) SUbtracting, we see that xy - y + z - xz = y(x - 1) - z(x - 1) =(y - z)(x - 1) is even. If y - z is odd, x - 1 is even and thus x is odd. On the other hand, if y - z is even, x is even. NOT SUFF

Hence A.
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Re: If x, y and z are integers and xy + z is an odd integer, is x an even [#permalink]
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Aleehsgonji wrote:
If x, y and z are integers and xy + z is an odd integer, is x an even integer?

(1) xy + xz is an even integer
(2) y + xz is an odd integer

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Re: If x, y and z are integers and xy + z is an odd integer, is x an even [#permalink]
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Aleehsgonji wrote:
If x, y and z are integers and xy + z is an odd integer, is x an even integer?

(1) xy + xz is an even integer
(2) y + xz is an odd integer

Statement 1:
Test whether it's possible that x is odd.
Let x=1.
Substituting x=1 into xy+z = ODD, we get:
y+z = ODD
Substituting x=1 into xy+xz = EVEN, we get:
y+z = EVEN
The equations in red contradict each other, implying that it is not possible that x is odd.
Thus, x must be even.
SUFFICIENT.

Statement 2:
Test whether it's possible that x is odd.
Let x=1.
Substituting x=1 into xy+z = ODD, we get:
y+z = ODD
Substituting x=1 into y+xz = ODD, we get:
y+z = ODD
Since the equations in green are the same, it's possible that x is odd.

Test whether it's possible that x is even.
Let x=2.
Substituting x=2 into xy+z = ODD, we get:
2y+z = ODD
Substituting x=2 into y+xz = ODD, we get:
y+2z = ODD
The equations in green are both viable if y=1 and z=1, implying that it's possible that x is even.

Since the answer to the question stem is NO in the first case but YES in the second case, INSUFFICIENT.

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Re: If x, y and z are integers and xy + z is an odd integer, is x an even [#permalink]
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Hi All,

We're told that X, Y and Z are INTEGERS and (X)(Y) + Z is an ODD integer. We're asked if X is an EVEN integer. This is a YES/NO question and can be solved by either TESTing VALUES or using Number Properties. While it certainly appears more complex than a typical DS prompt, the basic Number Property rules involved are just about multiplication and addition, so you might find it easiest to think in terms of those patterns (although this question is step-heavy and you do have to be thorough with your work and not miss any of the options).

To start, since (X)(Y) + Z is an ODD, we can 'map out' the limited number of possibilities for the 3 variables. We could have...

(X)(Y) = Even, Z = Odd
(X)(Y) = Odd, Z = Even

From here, we then need to sub-divide (X)(Y):
-IF (X)(Y) is Even, then either both are Even OR one is Odd and the other is Even (this includes the option in which one is 0 and the other could be any integer).
-IF (X)(Y) is Odd, then both MUST be Odd

This ultimately means that these are the only 4 options for the three variables:
X = Even, Y = Even, Z = Odd
X = Even, Y = Odd, Z = Odd
X = Odd, Y = Even, Z = Odd
X = Odd, Y = Odd, Z = Even

Having this list should make working through the two Facts a lot easier.

(1) (X)(Y) + (X)(Z) is an EVEN integer

Using the 4 options above, (X)(Y) + (X)(Z) would be....

(E)(E) + (E)(O) = Even... This IS a match
(E)(O) + (E)(O) = Even... This IS a match
(O)(E) + (O)(O) = Odd... This is NOT a match
(O)(O) + (O)(E) = Odd... This is NOT a match

Two of the options fit Fact 1 - and they BOTH require that X be EVEN, so the answer to the question is ALWAYS YES.
Fact 1 is SUFFICIENT

(2) Y + (X)(Z) is an ODD integer

Using the 4 options above, (Y) + (X)(Z) would be....

(E) + (E)(O) = Even... This is NOT a match
(O) + (E)(O) = Odd... This IS a match
(E) + (O)(O) = Odd... This IS a match
(O) + (O)(E) = Odd... This IS a match

In the three options that fit Fact 2, X is sometimes Even (a "Yes" answer) but sometimes Odd (a "No" Answer).
Fact 2 is INSUFFICIENT

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Re: If x, y and z are integers and xy + z is an odd integer, is x an even [#permalink]
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Aleehsgonji wrote:
If x, y and z are integers and xy + z is an odd integer, is x an even integer?

(1) xy + xz is an even integer
(2) y + xz is an odd integer

Is x an even integer?

(1) $$xy + xz is a even integer$$
$$xy + z = odd$$

$$xy + xz - xy - z = xz - z$$

$$xz - z = odd$$
Therefore $$z(x-1) = odd$$
z and x - 1 must be odd; x must be even. SUFFICIENT.

(2) $$y + xz = odd$$
$$xy + z = odd$$
$$y + xz + xy + z = odd$$
$$y(1 + x) + z(1 + x)$$
$$(y + z ) (1 + x) = even$$

We can have one term = even or two terms = even. INSUFFICIENT.
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Re: If x, y and z are integers and xy + z is an odd integer, is x an even [#permalink]
Video solution from Quant Reasoning starts at 0:26:
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Re: If x, y and z are integers and xy + z is an odd integer, is x an even [#permalink]
I have a question regarding one of the Methods used above several times to analyze Statement 2. Hopefully someone could provide me with some feedback.

chetan2u EMPOWERgmatRichC

Is X an Even Integer?

Given: XY + Z = ODD

Statement 2: Y + XZ = ODD

If we look at either the Given Info. or Statement 2 Alone, the following 2 Cases are NOT Possible:

Case 1: All 3 Variables are EVEN: E * E + E = Even, NOT Odd

or

Case 2: All 3 Variables are ODD: O * O + O = Even, NOT Odd

However, some methods above have analyzed Statement 2 by Combining the Given Information with Statement 2's Information:

XY + Z = Odd Integer

+ (Y + XZ = Odd Integer)
____________________

XY + Z + Y + XZ = EVEN Integer

then by Factoring:

XY + Y + XZ + Z = EVEN Integer

Y (X + 1) + Z (X + 1) = Even Integer

(X + 1) (Y + Z) = Even Integer

if we just look at this combined information alone, it seems as if all 3 Variables could be ODD or all 3 Variables could be EVEN

X, Y, Z = ODD
(Odd + 1) (Odd + Odd) = (Even) (Even) = Even Integer

X, Y, Z = EVEN
(Even + 1) (Even + Even) = (Odd) (Even) = Even Integer

My question is the following:

How can we avoid making such invalid inferences after combining the Information? Should we note the available cases (such as EMPOWERgmatRichC did at the outset) or avoid any combination of information that involves Multiplication and/or Division in questions where you have to determine the Even or Odd nature of a Variable?
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Re: If x, y and z are integers and xy + z is an odd integer, is x an even [#permalink]
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Fdambro294 wrote:
I have a question regarding one of the Methods used above several times to analyze Statement 2. Hopefully someone could provide me with some feedback.

My question is the following:

How can we avoid making such invalid inferences after combining the Information? Should we note the available cases or avoid any combination of information that involves Multiplication and/or Division in questions where you have to determine the Even or Odd nature of a Variable?

Hi

When you get an equation, where product of two terms is odd, it limits your possibilities : Only one Odd*Odd.
The moment you convert it into even, the possibilities increase : Even*Even or Even*Odd or Odd*Even. So always try to keep it to product as odd unless the question demands.

Example x*y=odd.....Clearly, if x and y are integers, both are odd.
But I multiply by 2 => 2*x*y=even. Now I cannot even say that xy is odd or even.

Whatever method you follow : Look at the possibilities initially, and do not do something to the equation that increases the possibilities.
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Re: If x, y and z are integers and xy + z is an odd integer, is x an even [#permalink]
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Hi Fdambro294,

As a general rule, going through a math 'step' is supposed to make the remaining work EASIER to deal with - and the examples that you are referring to do not appear to do that. By combining the information in the way described, you would end up inadvertently creating new possibilities that do NOT fit the original information.

Here's a much simpler example of that concept:
If X = 2....
we could square both sides and end up with X^2 = 4....
However, this creates a new option that does not fit the original 'limitations' (in this "new" equation, X could also equal -2).

By dealing with the information one 'piece' at a time (as I did in my post), you should be able to avoid those types of potential errors in logic.

GMAT assassins aren't born, they're made,
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Re: If x, y and z are integers and xy + z is an odd integer, is x an even [#permalink]
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We need to remember that, in such questions the GMAT expects you to use a mathematical operation instead of just plugging values. It is also good to remember that in questions on Odds & Evens, GMAT tests whether you can convert addition/subtraction of terms to multiplication of terms, because multiplication of Odds & Evens is easier to work with.

For example, if two numbers are added and you get an odd number, you will have to deal with two cases; on the other hand, when you multiply two numbers and get an odd number, there can only be one conclusion – that both are odd.

Therefore, when you see a question on odds and evens, try to convert the expression to a multiplication of terms by factoring out common terms.

Question data tells us that x, y and z are integers and xy + z = odd.

From statement I alone, xy + xz = even. Note how there’s an xy in both equations. We can use Algebra to deal with these two equations:
xy + z = odd

xy + xz = even

Subtracting the first equation from the second, xy gets cancelled leaving us with xz – z = even – odd.

Factoring out z, we have z(x-1) = odd. This means both z and (x-1) are odd numbers. (x-1) can be an odd number only when x is an even number.

Is x even? It certainly is. Statement I alone is sufficient to give a definite YES.
Answer options B, C and E can be eliminated. Possible answer options are A or D.

From statement II alone, y + xz = odd. The two equations we now have are:

y + xz = odd

xy + z = odd.

Adding these two equations, we have,
xy + y + z + xz = odd + odd

Factoring out the common terms and simplifying, we have,
y(x+1) + z(x+1) = even.

Since (x+1) is common, we can factor it out and rewrite the equation as
(x+1) (y+z) = even.

Now, when the product of two numbers is even, either of them could be even or both could be even. Therefore, the above equation is not sufficient to conclude if (x+1) is odd or even.

If (x+1) = odd, x = even; but, if (x+1) = even, x = odd.
Statement II alone is insufficient to give a definite YES or NO. Answer option D can be eliminated.

The correct answer option is A.

Hope that helps!
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If x, y and z are integers and xy + z is an odd integer, is x an even [#permalink]
Hi,

Why Zero is not being considered here? Zero is also an integer, an even integer.

_______________________

Oh, I just try to prove if zero also follows to the rules as well, looks like it does. as well as negative scenario.

4 - 2 = 2
even - even = even
4 - 0 = 4
even - even = even

3 - 2 = 1
odd - even = odd
3 - 0 = 3
odd - even = odd

4 - 3 = 1
even - odd = odd
-4 - 3 = -1
even - odd = odd
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