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In 1852 Robert Angus Smith published a detailed report of the chemistr

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In 1852 Robert Angus Smith published a detailed report of the chemistr  [#permalink]

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In 1852 Robert Angus Smith published a detailed report of the chemistry of rain in a large area around the city of Manchester, England, noting that the closer one came to town, the more the city air would become increasingly acidic.


(A) that the closer one came to town, the more the city air would become increasingly acidic

(B) that the city air became increasingly acidic the closer one came to town

(C) that coming closer to town, the city air became increasingly acidic

(D) that the more the city air became increasingly acidic, the closer one was to town

(E) the city air becoming increasingly acidic as one would come closer to town


Environment 94/95 - Page 152

https://books.google.com.my/books?isbn=1561342742
John L. Allen - 1994 - ‎Snippet view

In the mid 1800s, many features of acid rain were discovered and detailed by Robert Angus Smith, who was a chemist and Britain’s first Alkali Inspector, or public official who monitored pollution. In 1852, Smith published a detailed report of the chemistry of rain in the city of Manchester and noted that the city air became increasingly acidic the closer one came to town. He also noted that sulfuric acid in the air caused textiles to fade and metals to corrode.

Originally posted by guerrero25 on 01 Nov 2013, 05:12.
Last edited by Bunuel on 12 Dec 2018, 05:53, edited 6 times in total.
Renamed the topic and edited the question.
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Re: In 1852 Robert Angus Smith published a detailed report of the chemistr  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Nov 2013, 13:36
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anujkhatiwada wrote:
Mike doesn't choice B have the "the..the" idiom where i changed the font color, or am i misinterpreting your explanation?

Dear anujkhatiwada,
The way the idiom is constructed, in each branch, the comparative word must immediately follow the word "the" ---- "the closer", "the more", etc. The word "city" is not a comparative word.

The more I think about this, the more I think this is not a question up to GMAT standards. Above I chose (A), but now I think that "more ... increasingly acidic" is redundant, and thus, no answer choice correctly phrases this. I think the correct phrasing would be
that the closer one came to town, the more acidic the city air became
Notice the two comparative structures that immediately follow the word "the" in each branch. That's the ideal, and no choice really comes acceptably close to that.

Mike :-)
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Re: In 1852 Robert Angus Smith published a detailed report of the chemistr  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Nov 2013, 10:04
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In 1852 Robert Angus Smith published a detailed report of the chemistry of rain in a large area around the city of Manchester, England, noting that the closer one came to town, the more the city air would become increasingly acidic.

A)that the closer one came to town, the more the city air would become increasingly acidic
B)that the city air became increasingly acidic the closer one came to town
C)that coming closer to town, the city air became increasingly acidic
D)that the more the city air became increasingly acidic, the closer one was to town
E)the city air becoming increasingly acidic as one would come closer to town

Reading the replies of many people, I hope that everyone could easily eliminate the options C, D and E.

Now, considering the choice A:
that the closer one came to town, the more the city air would become increasingly acidic

In this statement, the second part of the sentence has redundancy - the more the city air would become increasingly acidic.

If the choice has stated that - "that the closer one came to town, the more the city air would become acidic", then this choice could have been the answer, but because of redundancy, the choice is incorrect.

However, considering the choice B :
that the city air became increasingly acidic the closer one came to town

The whole statement is in past tense and correctly conveys the meaning without any redundancy, and hence is the correct answer.


Hope it helps.
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Re: In 1852 Robert Angus Smith published a detailed report of the chemistr  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Nov 2013, 11:37
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guerrero25 wrote:
In 1852 Robert Angus Smith published a detailed report of the chemistry of rain in a large area around the city of Manchester, England, noting that the closer one came to town, the more the city air would become increasingly acidic.

A)that the closer one came to town, the more the city air would become increasingly acidic
B)that the city air became increasingly acidic the closer one came to town
C)that coming closer to town, the city air became increasingly acidic
D)that the more the city air became increasingly acidic, the closer one was to town
E)the city air becoming increasingly acidic as one would come closer to town

OA to follow

Dear guerrero25,
I'm happy to help with this. :-)

This one is using a idiom that the GMAT loves. See this blog:
http://magoosh.com/gmat/2012/gmat-gramm ... mparisons/
The form of this idiom is
"the" [comparative][clause #1], "the" [comparative][clause #2]
This idiom implies causality --- it implies that the changing comparative in the first clause is responsible for the changing comparative in the second clause.

We need the word "that" following "noting", so (E) is wrong.

Choices (B) & (C) don't have the form, so they are wrong.

Choice (D) follows the idiom correctly, but the order is strange --- it almost seems to imply that making the air more acidic would cause us to move closer to Manchester. That's not the intended meaning, and it doesn't really make sense.

Choice (A) follows the idiom correctly, and it also has the correct order of causality. As we move closer to Manchester, a direct result of that action would be to encounter air that is more acidic. Choice (A) is the best answer.

Does all this make sense?
Mike :-)
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Re: In 1852 Robert Angus Smith published a detailed report of the chemistr  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Nov 2013, 12:23
guerrero25 wrote:
In 1852 Robert Angus Smith published a detailed report of the chemistry of rain in a large area around the city of Manchester, England, noting that the closer one came to town, the more the city air would become increasingly acidic.

A)that the closer one came to town, the more the city air would become increasingly acidic
B)that the city air became increasingly acidic the closer one came to town
C)that coming closer to town, the city air became increasingly acidic
D)that the more the city air became increasingly acidic, the closer one was to town
E)the city air becoming increasingly acidic as one would come closer to town

OA to follow


Mike doesn't choice B have the "the..the" idiom where i changed the font color, or am i misinterpreting your explanation?
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New post 24 Nov 2013, 09:17
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OA is (B) :(
I picked A because of the similar reasoning as Mike's. I have no clue why the correct answer is B
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Re: In 1852 Robert Angus Smith published a detailed report of the chemistr  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Nov 2013, 16:18
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windofchange wrote:
OA is (B) :(
I picked A because of the similar reasoning as Mike's. I have no clue why the correct answer is B

Dear windofchange,
Apparently, the GMAT tolerates more variation in this idiomatic structure than they did previously. Since this is the case, choice (B) is the best answer, as skyhawk eloquently explained. Let me know if you have any further questions.
Mike :-)
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Re: In 1852 Robert Angus Smith published a detailed report of the chemistr  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Jan 2014, 21:13
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nechets wrote:
(B) is the OA.

Can someone please clarify why this is a best choice than the others?

Thanks!


In 1852 Robert Angus Smith published a detailed report of the chemistry of rain in a large area around the city of Manchester, England, noting that the closer one came to town, the more the city air would become increasingly acidic.

A)that the closer one came to town, the more the city air would become increasingly acidic
The comparatives used here are 'the closer ... the more'. Whatever follows these two should be parallel. The correct way of writing this would be
'the more one came ... the more the city air became...'

Another mistake in A is redundancy - 'more' and 'increasingly'

B)that the city air became increasingly acidic the closer one came to town
No redundancy. Conveys the meaning well. (Even if you are doubtful, keep this option.)

C)that coming closer to town, the city air became increasingly acidic
coming seems to modify 'city air'. This is an example of dangling modifier.

D)that the more the city air became increasingly acidic, the closer one was to town
The causative effect is reversed here. The sentence should mean, 'the closer you are to the city, the air became more acidic'.
Option D inverses the cause-effect.

E)the city air becoming increasingly acidic as one would come closer to town
The clause doesn't have a main verb. 'becoming' is a modifier. 'would come' is wrong. Many issues in here.
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Re: In 1852 Robert Angus Smith published a detailed report of the chemistr  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Feb 2014, 17:51
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A)that the closer one came to town, the more the city air would become increasingly acidic Illogical sentence - it reads as if someone were the reason that rain becomes increasingly acidic; enteral state of the verb "became" should replace "would become" because the conditional tense indicates someone must get closer for the rain to become increasingly acidic

B)that the city air became increasingly acidic the closer one came to town OK; the trap is the inverted sentence structure

C)that coming closer to town, the city air became increasingly acidic The "coming closer to town" modifies "city air", making an illogical meaning -- it reads as if the relationship between the city air and the proximity of the city were the reason for acidity

D)that the more the city air became increasingly acidic, the closer one was to town ]Illogical sentence

E)the city air becoming increasingly acidic as one would come closer to town No verb in subordinate clause.
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Re: In 1852 Robert Angus Smith published a detailed report of the chemistr  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Jun 2014, 13:02
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Meaning & Structure:

In past RAS published report..................., noting something.

Independent clause, -Ing modifier modifying the preceding clause.

In 1852 Robert Angus Smith published a detailed report of the chemistry of rain in a large area around the city of Manchester, England, noting that the closer one came to town, the more the city air would become increasingly acidic.

A)that the closer one came to town, the more the city air would become increasingly acidic
When RAS already noted something, then there is no point using 'WOULD'.
B)that the city air became increasingly acidic the closer one came to town
Correct !
C)that coming closer to town, the city air became increasingly acidic
Who is coming closer ?
D)that the more the city air became increasingly acidic, the closer one was to town
Cause effect reversed.
E)the city air becoming increasingly acidic as one would come closer to town
Would is the issue again.
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New post 08 Jun 2014, 21:24
mikemcgarry wrote:
anujkhatiwada wrote:
Mike doesn't choice B have the "the..the" idiom where i changed the font color, or am i misinterpreting your explanation?

Dear anujkhatiwada,
The way the idiom is constructed, in each branch, the comparative word must immediately follow the word "the" ---- "the closer", "the more", etc. The word "city" is not a comparative word.

The more I think about this, the more I think this is not a question up to GMAT standards. Above I chose (A), but now I think that "more ... increasingly acidic" is redundant, and thus, no answer choice correctly phrases this. I think the correct phrasing would be
that the closer one came to town, the more acidic the city air became
Notice the two comparative structures that immediately follow the word "the" in each branch. That's the ideal, and no choice really comes acceptably close to that.

Mike :-)



This point confused me as well Mike. - More .... increasingly acidic sounded too verbose and wordy , thus incorrect
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New post 09 Jun 2014, 12:45
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himanshujovi wrote:
This point confused me as well Mike. - More .... increasingly acidic sounded too verbose and wordy , thus incorrect

Dear himanshujovi,
I'm happy to respond. :-) The "more .... increasingly acidic" is part of (A), which is the wrong answer. That is a bit wordy, but more importantly, it's redundant. A little wordy is not always a problem, but redundant is always wrong.

The OA is (B). Does this all make sense?

Mike :-)
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New post 24 Aug 2016, 08:29
mikemcgarry wrote:
himanshujovi wrote:
This point confused me as well Mike. - More .... increasingly acidic sounded too verbose and wordy , thus incorrect

Dear himanshujovi,
I'm happy to respond. :-) The "more .... increasingly acidic" is part of (A), which is the wrong answer. That is a bit wordy, but more importantly, it's redundant. A little wordy is not always a problem, but redundant is always wrong.

The OA is (B). Does this all make sense?

Mike :-)


hi Mike

can option A be removed on the basis that double comparatives indicate a causality, and in option A the causality is wrong. i.e. being closer to city does not cause increase in air acidity

thanks
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Re: In 1852 Robert Angus Smith published a detailed report of the chemistr  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Aug 2016, 09:14
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guerrero25 wrote:
In 1852 Robert Angus Smith published a detailed report of the chemistry of rain in a large area around the city of Manchester, England, noting that the closer one came to town, the more the city air would become increasingly acidic.

A)that the closer one came to town, the more the city air would become increasingly acidic
B)that the city air became increasingly acidic the closer one came to town
C)that coming closer to town, the city air became increasingly acidic
D)that the more the city air became increasingly acidic, the closer one was to town
E)the city air becoming increasingly acidic as one would come closer to town

OA to follow


Meaning of the sentence :- RAS published a report on the chemistry of rain. In this report, he noted the relation between 'closeness of the rain to town' and 'acidic nature of city air'.

As two tasks are interrelated, we need parallelism between them:- 'The closer the rain came to the town, the acidity in air increased'

A)that the closer one came to town, the more the city air would become increasingly acidic. 'more' and 'increasingly' are redundant. IMO, if we had either 'more' or 'increase', the sentence would have been correct.

B)that the city air became increasingly acidic the closer one came to town. This is giving us the exact meaning that we wanted

C)that coming closer to town, the city air became increasingly acidic. Interrelation between two tasks is absent here. Instead, it gives the meaning that city air, coming closer to the town, became acidic.

D)that the more the city air became increasingly acidic, the closer one was to town. The relation here is reversed. Instead of having a structure of 'more X leads to more Y', it shows 'More Y leads to more X'

E)the city air becoming increasingly acidic as one would come closer to town. 'noting' present in the non-underlined part requires 'that'. In the absence of 'that', the sentence reads- RAS published a report noting the city air.... And this structure is wrong as report noted something about the air and not the air itslef.
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Re: In 1852 Robert Angus Smith published a detailed report of the chemistr  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Aug 2016, 10:44
tagmag wrote:
hi Mike

can option A be removed on the basis that double comparatives indicate a causality, and in option A the causality is wrong. i.e. being closer to city does not cause increase in air acidity

thanks

Dear tagmag,
I'm happy to respond. :-)

My friend, I am not sure where you heard that rule, the rule that "double comparatives indicate a causal relationship." That is 100% false. It has absolute no basis in reality. As a general rule, double comparatives are simply redundant and wrong.

Does all this make sense?

Mike :-)
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Re: In 1852 Robert Angus Smith published a detailed report of the chemistr  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Aug 2016, 10:48
mikemcgarry wrote:
tagmag wrote:
hi Mike

can option A be removed on the basis that double comparatives indicate a causality, and in option A the causality is wrong. i.e. being closer to city does not cause increase in air acidity

thanks

Dear tagmag,
I'm happy to respond. :-)

My friend, I am not sure where you heard that rule, the rule that "double comparatives indicate a causal relationship." That is 100% false. It has absolute no basis in reality. As a general rule, double comparatives are simply redundant and wrong.

Does all this make sense?

Mike :-)

By double comparative I mean the structure like....The bigger it is, the better it is

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New post 24 Aug 2016, 11:13
tagmag wrote:
mikemcgarry wrote:
tagmag wrote:
hi Mike

can option A be removed on the basis that double comparatives indicate a causality, and in option A the causality is wrong. i.e. being closer to city does not cause increase in air acidity

thanks

Dear tagmag,
I'm happy to respond. :-)

My friend, I am not sure where you heard that rule, the rule that "double comparatives indicate a causal relationship." That is 100% false. It has absolute no basis in reality. As a general rule, double comparatives are simply redundant and wrong.

Does all this make sense?

Mike :-)

By double comparative I mean the structure like....The bigger it is, the better it is

Dear tagmag,

Thank you for clarifying. A structure such as "The bigger it is, the better it is" doesn't really have a name, and calling it a "double comparative" is likely to cause confusion. Choice (A) has a grammatical mistake that I would call a "double comparative":
....the more the city air would become increasingly acidic.
That is truly redundant and wrong, because two different comparatives are used for the same comparison. That's what I would call a "double comparative."

What you are discussing is a correct grammatical structure without an adequate name, but I would say that this structure doesn't necessarily imply causality. It merely indicates correlation. For example,

The more suntan lotion people buy, the more ice cream they buy.

That is a true statement. In this sentence, one does not cause the other: instead, both are caused by hot sunny weather.

Does all this make sense?
Mike :-)
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New post 24 Aug 2016, 11:40
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mikemcgarry wrote:
tagmag wrote:
hi Mike

can option A be removed on the basis that double comparatives indicate a causality, and in option A the causality is wrong. i.e. being closer to city does not cause increase in air acidity

thanks

Dear tagmag,
I'm happy to respond. :-)

My friend, I am not sure where you heard that rule, the rule that "double comparatives indicate a causal relationship." That is 100% false. It has absolute no basis in reality. As a general rule, double comparatives are simply redundant and wrong.

Does all this make sense?

Mike :-)

hi Mike
thanks for the input but this is what I read in Magoosh Gmat_Idiom book( nice book, cleared many of my doubts)


Excerpt from Magoosh Idiom pdf book

Suppose A and B are two items or qualities or quantities, and we want to express how one of
them changes as a result of the other one changing
; that is, we want to express the interrelated
nature of their changes. This is the formal structure of the idiom:
“the” (comparative adjective or adverb) (independent clause about A), “the” (comparative
adjective or adverb) (independent clause about B)

1) According to Kepler’s Second Law of Planetary Motion, as a planet moves through its
elliptical orbit, it changes its orbital speed as its distance from the Sun changes: in particular,
the closer the planet is to the Sun, then it is moving its orbit that much faster.
A. the closer the planet is to the Sun, then it is moving in its orbit that much faster
B. the closer the planet is to the Sun, the faster it moves in its orbit
C. when the planet is closer to the Sun, the faster it moves in its orbit
D. when the planet is closer to the Sun, moving fasting in its orbit as well
E. by being closer to the Sun, also moving fasting in its orbit
2) Kepler’s Third Law says expresses the relationship between the semi-major axis of a
planet’s orbit and its orbital period: the further a planet’s orbit is from the Sun, the longer the
planet’s period of revolution around the Sun.
A. the further a planet’s orbit is from the Sun, the longer the planet’s period of revolution
around the Sun
B. when a planet’s orbit is further from the Sun, the longer the planet’s period of revolution
around the Sun
C. the further a planet’s orbit is from the Sun, thereby the planet’s period of revolution around
the Sun is that much longer
D. when a planet’s orbit is further from the Sun, the planet’s period of revolution around the
Sun being that much longer
E. by having an orbit further from the Sun, a planet also having a period of revolution around
the Sun being that much longer

The words “the” beginning each part are crucial, as is the comma separating the two parts.
This idiom stands alone as an independent clause, and therefore can be a complete sentence
by itself, or can play a role in a larger sentence. Here are some examples.
3) The higher they fly, the harder they fall.
4) The straighter an arrow, the truer it flies.
5) The hotter the surface temperature of a star, the more light per square meter it radiates.
6) “The more you tighten your grip, Tarkin, the more star systems will slip through your
????????
If you understand the layout of this idiom, see whether that changes your answers to the
questions above. You may want to give them a second look before reading the solutions
below. May the Force be with you.
??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????
Only one of the answers in each follows this particular idiom perfectly, and the other four
answer choices in each are both idiomatically and grammatically incorrect. The correct
choices are (B) in the first and(A) in the second.
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Re: In 1852 Robert Angus Smith published a detailed report of the chemistr  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Aug 2016, 12:35
mikemcgarry wrote:
guerrero25 wrote:
In 1852 Robert Angus Smith published a detailed report of the chemistry of rain in a large area around the city of Manchester, England, noting that the closer one came to town, the more the city air would become increasingly acidic.

A)that the closer one came to town, the more the city air would become increasingly acidic
B)that the city air became increasingly acidic the closer one came to town
C)that coming closer to town, the city air became increasingly acidic
D)that the more the city air became increasingly acidic, the closer one was to town
E)the city air becoming increasingly acidic as one would come closer to town

OA to follow

Dear guerrero25,
I'm happy to help with this. :-)

This one is using a idiom that the GMAT loves. See this blog:
http://magoosh.com/gmat/2012/gmat-gramm ... mparisons/
The form of this idiom is
"the" [comparative][clause #1], "the" [comparative][clause #2]
This idiom implies causality --- it implies that the changing comparative in the first clause is responsible for the changing comparative in the second clause.

We need the word "that" following "noting", so (E) is wrong.

Choices (B) & (C) don't have the form, so they are wrong.

Choice (D) follows the idiom correctly, but the order is strange --- it almost seems to imply that making the air more acidic would cause us to move closer to Manchester. That's not the intended meaning, and it doesn't really make sense.

Choice (A) follows the idiom correctly, and it also has the correct order of causality. As we move closer to Manchester, a direct result of that action would be to encounter air that is more acidic. Choice (A) is the best answer.

Does all this make sense?
Mike :-)

hi mike
please help...
I posted an excerpt from the magoosh idiom ebook related to my doubt that structure such as the more, the merrier is used to show causal relation.
can i rely on this.. please clear my doubt
thanks
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New post 25 Aug 2016, 13:41
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tagmag wrote:
hi mike
please help...
I posted an excerpt from the magoosh idiom ebook related to my doubt that structure such as the more, the merrier is used to show causal relation.
can i rely on this.. please clear my doubt
thanks

Dear tagmag,
Perhaps the wording in that ebook is open to misinterpretation a little on this point, at least from a certain perspective. This grammatical structure is often used to denote a causal connection--that is probably its most frequent use--but strictly logically speaking, it implies only correlation, not causality. You want to deduce something rigorously and absolutely logical from a grammatical structure that is, at best, only suggestive. Language is NOT mathematics, but you seem to want the same B/W certainty about a grammatical-logical point. This entire line of thinking will produce several misunderstandings of grammar & logic on the GMAT SC.

It is 100% impossible to arrive at GMAT SC mastery by learning some theoretical complete list of rules. That approach is ultimately doomed to failure. Yes, there are many grammar rules and a few logic or rhetorical rules to know, but to a great extent, it's about getting a sense of how the language is used in context, in formal writing used in the modern business world. There is no substitute for reading. See:
How to Improve Your GMAT Verbal Score

Does all this make sense?
Mike :-)
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Mike McGarry
Magoosh Test Prep


Education is not the filling of a pail, but the lighting of a fire. — William Butler Yeats (1865 – 1939)
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Re: In 1852 Robert Angus Smith published a detailed report of the chemistr   [#permalink] 25 Aug 2016, 13:41

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