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# In 1979, John A. Eddy of the High Altitude Observatory and Aram A. Bo

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Re: In 1979, John A. Eddy of the High Altitude Observatory and Aram A. Bo [#permalink]
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P1 - a theory is given by 2 guys.
P2 - a flaw in theory and how to improve.
P3 - final verdict far less then estimation.

1. The author argues that Eddy and Boornazian have

c. probably drawn an incorrect conclusion due to their reliance on unreliable data - yes

rest all the answer are too broad.
--------------------------------------------------
2. According to the author, evidence that the sun is shrinking only at a negligible rate is based on
P3
I. measurement of the length of solar eclipses - y
II. measurement of the time during which Mercury can be observed crossing the sun's path - y
III. daily measurements of the sun's image - not mentioned.

a. I only
b. II only
c. III only
d. I and II only
e. I, II and III
----------------------------------------------------
3. It can be inferred from the passage that all of the following cast doubt on Eddy and Boornazian's conclusion EXCEPT

a. the non-uniformity of atmospheric clarity - "the imperfect and variable transparency of the earth’s atmosphere"
b. the calculations used to determine the sun's horizontal diameter - not mentioned
c. atmospheric distortion even during periods of clear skies - "the imperfect and variable transparency of the earth’s atmosphere"
d. the sheer intensity of the sun's radiance - "the brilliance of the sun’s disk"
e. the comparatively brief period of time their study covers - as it mentioned in P2, they must observed for a longer duration.

MaheshDuggirala - i have tried to explain Q3, let me know if you need more clarity.
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Re: In 1979, John A. Eddy of the High Altitude Observatory and Aram A. Bo [#permalink]
3. It can be inferred from the passage that all of the following cast doubt on Eddy and Boornazian's conclusion EXCEPT

a. the non-uniformity of atmospheric clarity---the imperfect and variable transparency of the earth’s atmosphere Eliminated

b. the calculations used to determine the sun's horizontal diameter

c. atmospheric distortion even during periods of clear skies---the imperfect and variable transparency of the earth’s atmosphere Eliminated

d. the sheer intensity of the sun's radiance----- the brilliance of the sun’s disk (eliminated )

e. the comparatively brief period of time their study covers

stuck between B and E.Kindly anyone help me in eliminating Answer E
AkshdeepS,workout--help me
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Re: In 1979, John A. Eddy of the High Altitude Observatory and Aram A. Bo [#permalink]
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teja@6091 wrote:
3. It can be inferred from the passage that all of the following cast doubt on Eddy and Boornazian's conclusion EXCEPT

a. the non-uniformity of atmospheric clarity---the imperfect and variable transparency of the earth’s atmosphere Eliminated

b. the calculations used to determine the sun's horizontal diameter

c. atmospheric distortion even during periods of clear skies---the imperfect and variable transparency of the earth’s atmosphere Eliminated

d. the sheer intensity of the sun's radiance----- the brilliance of the sun’s disk (eliminated )

e. the comparatively brief period of time their study covers

stuck between B and E.Kindly anyone help me in eliminating Answer E
AkshdeepS,workout--help me

Lets observe following lines.
last sentence of P2 - roughly twice the number of years covered by the data used by Eddy and Boornazian.
or 1st sentence of P3 - When the observations of total solar eclipses over the past three centuries are analyzed

we can term for a longer duration observation in final study. This way we can eliminate E. B is the best answer.
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Re: In 1979, John A. Eddy of the High Altitude Observatory and Aram A. Bo [#permalink]
MaheshDuggirala wrote:
can anyone explain how to eliminate Option D in the 3rd question.

You can eliminate choice D in question 3 by referring to the first sentence of the 2nd paragraph.

Heliologists contend that the brilliance of the sun’s disk, and the imperfect and variable transparency of the earth’s atmosphere, make observations from the earth’s surface unreliable.

"The brilliance of the sun's disk", refers to the intensity of the sun's radiance.
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Re: In 1979, John A. Eddy of the High Altitude Observatory and Aram A. Bo [#permalink]
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Can someone help with question no. 6?

Posted from my mobile device
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Re: In 1979, John A. Eddy of the High Altitude Observatory and Aram A. Bo [#permalink]
5th and 6th question please
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Re: In 1979, John A. Eddy of the High Altitude Observatory and Aram A. Bo [#permalink]
Expert Reply
proudcrimson wrote:
Can someone help with question no. 6?

Posted from my mobile device

Explanation

6. Which of the following statements, if true, would best support the conclusion that the sun's shrinkage is less than Eddy and Boornazian had reported?

Difficulty Level: 700

Explanation

The only answer option C makes this question a hard one, all other three options are easy to eliminate. This question is based on paragraph 2. Let's read the answer choices one by one.

A. Solar eclipses occur on an irregular basis, providing less frequent data collection opportunities than image measurement does.

This answer choice is saying that the duration of solar eclipses is the wrong indication of solar measurement. It opposing to what is discussed in paragraph 2 hence this option is the opposite.

B. A third statistical check, the amount of UV hitting the earth's surface, corroborates the findings of eclipse duration.

This is supporting to what is written in the second paragraph, let's read it.

A better source of data regarding solar shrinkage is the duration of total solar eclipses, while a second statistically independent check is provided by the time the planet Mercury is visible against the solar disk. These observations allow monitoring of changes in the sun’s diameter at reasonably regular intervals back to about the start of the 18th century

This option verifying that the duration of solar eclipses is a better way to measure the sun's diameter. This is correct.

C. Solar eclipses are a phenomenon that has been recorded by modern scientists and ancient astronomers alike.

This is a trap answer, this option only tells us that Solar eclipses are a phenomenon that has been recorded by modern scientists but it didn't tell us whether it is reliable or not. Hence this is incorrect

D. Although Mercury's transit has been recorded for centuries, earlier scientific instruments lacked the precision necessary to make accurate observations.

This is providing unrelated information having no connection with the question.

E. Eddy and Boornazian developed a sophisticated computer model to compensate for atmospheric variations during image measurements.

This is rather opposite indicating that Eddy and Boornazian's calculations are better and reliable.

Answer: B
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Re: In 1979, John A. Eddy of the High Altitude Observatory and Aram A. Bo [#permalink]
Expert Reply
GAngstA wrote:
5th and 6th question please

Explanation

5. The passage suggests that which of the following statements, if true, would be most useful in corroborating solar image measurements?

Difficulty Level: 600

Explanation

This is a comparatively easy question because of the answer choices other than the correct one, they are so indicating that they are wrong. Let's not forget what is question is asking for. Read the answer choices one by one.

A. Image measurements are taken simultaneously from two different locations.

Out of context. Nothing is there about the two locations.

B. Image measurements are recorded while wearing special goggles that cut down on the sun's brilliance.

Special googles? wow. Out of context.

C. Light refraction measurement tables for atmospheric gases are developed.

Out of context.

D. Climatic variations are minimized by citing image measurement stations in the desert.

It is very little better than the other three options but still out of context.

E. Image measurements are made by solar radiation-proofed instruments on satellites orbiting above the earth's atmosphere.

This is the answer not because it is perfect but because it is less flawed than the other four options.

Answer: E

For the explanation of question number 6 click on the link given below

https://gmatclub.com/forum/in-1979-john ... l#p2812622

Thank you
Re: In 1979, John A. Eddy of the High Altitude Observatory and Aram A. Bo [#permalink]
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