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# In 1995 Richard Stallman, a well-known critic of the patent

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Re: In 1995 Richard Stallman, a well-known critic of the patent  [#permalink]

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16 Nov 2015, 08:43
Nitinaka19 wrote:
Hi E-GMAT,

i have a doubt related to the sentence structure. The opening sentence is an prepositional phrase ,"In 1995 Richard Stallman". So How could Richard Stallman can be the subject of the verb "testified". Although the other options were stands incorrect.

Thanks
Nitin Singh

@Nitanika19

the prepositional phrase is "In 1995" - Richard Stallman starts after the prepositional phrase and not part of it.
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Re: In 1995 Richard Stallman, a well-known critic of the patent  [#permalink]

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11 Dec 2015, 08:24
In 1995 Richard Stallman, a well-known critic of the patent system, testified in Patent Office hearings that, to test the system, a colleague of his had managed to win a patent for one of Kirchhoff's laws, an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and now included in virtually every textbook of elementary physics.

(A) laws, an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and
(B) laws, which was an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and it is
(C) laws, namely, it was an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and
(D) laws, an observation about electric current first made in 1845, it is
(E) laws that was an observation about electric current, first made in 1845, and is

>> I was down to A and D - because in the underlined part - we are describing a law/laws - which is/are still valid, thus past usage is incorrect. However, OA does not mention this particular aspect in their answer explanation. any thoughts?????
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Re: In 1995 Richard Stallman, a well-known critic of the patent  [#permalink]

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22 Dec 2015, 23:22
1
[quote="wininblue"]in 1995 Richard Stallman, a well-known critic of the patent system, testified in Patent Office hearings that, to test the system, a colleague of his had managed to win a patent for one of Kirchhoff's laws, an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and now included in virtually every textbookof elementary physics.

A laws, an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and - Correct.

B laws, which was an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and it is - which not used correctly, no comma after 1845.

C laws, namely, it was an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and - wrong 'namely' is not used correctly.

D laws, an aobservation about electric current first made in 1845, it is - wrong there cannot be two independent clauses in a sentence without a connector.

E laws that was an observation about electric current, first made in 1845, and is - wrong seems like the electric current was made in 1845.
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Re: In 1995 Richard Stallman, a well-known critic of the patent  [#permalink]

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25 Jan 2016, 09:24
Hello guys,I fill D as correct. If I am wrong ,please,explain
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Re: In 1995 Richard Stallman, a well-known critic of the patent  [#permalink]

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10 Feb 2016, 17:31
1
A laws, an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and - Correct.

B laws, which was an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and it is - AFTER AND IT IS PLACD WRONGLY

C laws, namely, it was an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and - wrong 'namely' is not used correctly.

D laws, an aobservation about electric current first made in 1845, it is - wrong there cannot be two independent clauses in a sentence without a connector.

E laws that was an observation about electric current, first made in 1845, and is - wrong seems like the electric current was made in 1845.
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Re: In 1995 Richard Stallman, a well-known critic of the patent  [#permalink]

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06 Jul 2017, 13:32
Can we say that options B,C and E have a meaning shift?

an observation about X - this is still true and hence was an observation - seems incorrect

General truth is expressed using present tense in simple form.
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Re: In 1995 Richard Stallman, a well-known critic of the patent  [#permalink]

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07 Jul 2017, 01:05
manohar0265 wrote:
Hello guys,I fill D as correct. If I am wrong ,please,explain

D cannot be the answer because it is grammatically incorrect.

warriorguy wrote:
Can we say that options B,C and E have a meaning shift?

an observation about X - this is still true and hence was an observation - seems incorrect

General truth is expressed using present tense in simple form.

I would never prefer to go for meaning aspect when I can see that the options are grammatically incorrect.

(B) laws, which was an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and it is --> which must refer to laws. Laws are plural. Hence, using "was" is incorrect.

(C) laws, namely, it was an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and --> Fragment. Two ICs are joined with a comma.

(E) laws that was an observation about electric current, first made in 1845, and is --> Same as B
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Re: In 1995 Richard Stallman, a well-known critic of the patent  [#permalink]

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07 Jul 2017, 04:43
abhimahna wrote:

I would never prefer to go for meaning aspect when I can see that the options are grammatically incorrect.

I feel both meaning and grammar are important - but the intended meaning of my question was apart from the errors (mentioned in all other posts), I see a meaning shift in the options mentioned.
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Re: In 1995 Richard Stallman, a well-known critic of the patent  [#permalink]

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07 Jul 2017, 11:13
A. seems correct.
B. which was - unnecessary wordy, it is ----again not needed
C. namely, it was --redundant
D. it is .....not clear what it is
E. that was .....is not required.... ,...., is not required
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Re: In 1995 Richard Stallman, a well-known critic of the patent  [#permalink]

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08 Jul 2017, 11:28
sandalphon wrote:
In 1995 Richard Stallman, a well-known critic of the patent system, testified in Patent Office hearings that, to test the system, a colleague of his had managed to win a patent for one of Kirchhoff's laws, an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and now included in virtually every textbook of elementary physics.

(A) laws, an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and
(B) laws, which was an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and it is
(C) laws, namely, it was an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and
(D) laws, an observation about electric current first made in 1845, it is
(E) laws that was an observation about electric current, first made in 1845, and is

Official Guide 12 Question

 Question: 40 Page: 41 Difficulty: 600

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Video Explanations:

It is choice B is ambiguous.
D has severe flaw in meaning and it is ambiguous
E is also not correct and is wordy and that refers to laws so plural verb should come.
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Re: In 1995 Richard Stallman, a well-known critic of the patent  [#permalink]

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10 Jul 2017, 02:37
sandalphon wrote:
In 1995 Richard Stallman, a well-known critic of the patent system, testified in Patent Office hearings that, to test the system, a colleague of his had managed to win a patent for one of Kirchhoff's laws, an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and now included in virtually every textbook of elementary physics.

(A) laws, an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and
(B) laws, which was an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and it is
(C) laws, namely, it was an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and
(D) laws, an observation about electric current first made in 1845, it is
(E) laws that was an observation about electric current, first made in 1845, and is

Official Guide 12 Question

 Question: 40 Page: 41 Difficulty: 600

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Video Explanations:

E is wrong because "that was..." is wrong. it should be "that is...". one of the laws is an observation. this is timeless fact.
his law is an observation about photons. this is timeless fact. present simple is used for a timeless fact or a condition which , we think , exist indefinitely.
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Re: In 1995 Richard Stallman, a well-known critic of the patent  [#permalink]

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05 Sep 2017, 06:51
sandalphon wrote:
In 1995 Richard Stallman, a well-known critic of the patent system, testified in Patent Office hearings that, to test the system, a colleague of his had managed to win a patent for one of Kirchhoff's laws, an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and now included in virtually every textbook of elementary physics.

(A) laws, an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and
(B) laws, which was an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and it is
(C) laws, namely, it was an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and
(D) laws, an observation about electric current first made in 1845, it is
(E) laws that was an observation about electric current, first made in 1845, and is

So what is the main problem in D?
1. It - is used wrong. (Frankly speaking do not see big problem in it).
2. There has to be ";" between "1845" and "it"?
3. Or A is just more concise? "it is" is redundant and we can use "and".
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Re: In 1995 Richard Stallman, a well-known critic of the patent  [#permalink]

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14 Sep 2017, 13:03
Eliminated "C", "D", and "E" initially; from the choices between 'A' and 'B', eliminated "B" as "which" is refers to one or to laws. Thus, 'A' is a correct choice - The sentence is using parallel structure appropriately.
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Re: In 1995 Richard Stallman, a well-known critic of the patent  [#permalink]

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20 Oct 2017, 03:26
sandalphon wrote:
In 1995 Richard Stallman, a well-known critic of the patent system, testified in Patent Office hearings that, to test the system, a colleague of his had managed to win a patent for one of Kirchhoff's laws, an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and now included in virtually every textbook of elementary physics.

I just wanted to highlight on the structure of the correct sentence.

(A) laws, an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and
If we separate both the modifiers, it will appear as follows,

Kirchhoff's laws, now included in virtually every textbook of elementary physics

Both of them makes perfect sense.
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Re: In 1995 Richard Stallman, a well-known critic of the patent  [#permalink]

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20 Oct 2017, 06:52
sandalphon wrote:
In 1995 Richard Stallman, a well-known critic of the patent system, testified in Patent Office hearings that, to test the system, a colleague of his had managed to win a patent for one of Kirchhoff's laws, an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and now included in virtually every textbook of elementary physics.

(A) laws, an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and
(B) laws, which was an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and it is
(C) laws, namely, it was an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and
(D) laws, an observation about electric current first made in 1845, it is
(E) laws that was an observation about electric current, first made in 1845, and is

Official Guide 12 Question

 Question: 40 Page: 41 Difficulty: 600

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Video Explanations:

I want to talk about choice E.
the first thing, was and is, why to make two tenses.
the second.
to show a condition which, we think, exist indefinite, forever, we use simple present. "was" in e is wrong.
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Re: In 1995 Richard Stallman, a well-known critic of the patent  [#permalink]

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02 Jan 2018, 01:46
daagh wrote:
B states that laws which was an observation; laws is plural and was is singular . Secondly, the pronoun it has no antecedent. Does it refer to the observation or one of the laws or the patent or what? Therefore B is ruled out

daagh
Sir,
can you please help me understand why 'it' is wrong --understandably it is not clear what it refers to (observation / laws )

1) can it not simply refer to the closest antecedent ? -- if the meaning n logic stays intact
..... he got a patient n it is now included in every textbook

2) Also, the use of 'now' is confusing me --can you please help with that as well ?

In 1995 Richard Stallman, testified in Patent Office hearings that, to test the system, a colleague of his had managed to win a patent for one of Kirchhoff's laws, an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and now

In 1995 Richard Stallman, a well-known critic of the patent system, testified in Patent Office hearings that, to test the system, a colleague of his had managed to win a patent for one of Kirchhoff's laws, an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and now included in virtually every textbook of elementary physics.

A laws, an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and
B laws, which was an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and it is
C laws, namely, it was an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and
D laws, an aobservation about electric current first made in 1845, it is
E laws that was an observation about electric current, first made in 1845, and is
Re: In 1995 Richard Stallman, a well-known critic of the patent &nbs [#permalink] 02 Jan 2018, 01:46

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