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# In a recent survey, one out of six Americans were shown to have vision

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In a recent survey, one out of six Americans were shown to have vision  [#permalink]

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26 Feb 2019, 03:10
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In a recent survey, one out of six Americans were shown to have vision problems, which is a notable increase over the past two decades. The amount of time Americans spend in front of computer and television screens has risen sharply, and to reduce the number of Americans suffering from vision issues, the amount of screen exposure must also be reduced.

Which of the following, if true, would most substantially weaken the author’s conclusion?

(A) Increased screen time is directly correlated with vision problems.

(B) The connection between screen time and vision problems is not entirely clear.

(C) Screen time has increased globally and not just in America.

(D) Americans can reduce their risk of vision problems caused by too much screen time by dimming the screen and using a larger font.

(E) The majority of Americans with vision problems are older people, and the percentage of people over age 60 has steadily increased over the past twenty years.

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Re: In a recent survey, one out of six Americans were shown to have vision  [#permalink]

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26 Feb 2019, 03:59
IMHO. Option E

Option E weakens the conclusion. Aging would also be a criteria for vision problems which the author never considered before considering the conclusion of reduced screen time on computers and digital devices

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Re: In a recent survey, one out of six Americans were shown to have vision  [#permalink]

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26 Feb 2019, 05:26
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Quote:
In a recent survey, one out of six Americans were shown to have vision problems, which is a notable increase over the past two decades. The amount of time Americans spend in front of computer and television screens has risen sharply, and to reduce the number of Americans suffering from vision issues, the amount of screen exposure must also be reduced.

Which of the following, if true, would most substantially weaken the author’s conclusion?

(A) Increased screen time is directly correlated with vision problems.

(B) The connection between screen time and vision problems is not entirely clear.

(C) Screen time has increased globally and not just in America.

(D) Americans can reduce their risk of vision problems caused by too much screen time by dimming the screen and using a larger font.

(E) The majority of Americans with vision problems are older people, and the percentage of people over age 60 has steadily increased over the past twenty years.

Answer option E is the right answer here. The key thing to focus on with any question that asks you strengthen/weaken an argument is the overall conclusion arrived at. The conclusion here is that reducing screen time would cause the vision problems to reduce, since screen time is responsible for the vision deterioration. This has not actually established however (since correlation does not equal causation). Hence, what we're looking to do is to either suggest reverse causation, or provide an alternative explanation.

Option A - This just repeats a premise. Even if there is a correlation, we know nothing about the cause. In fact, even if it DID imply causation it would still be wrong, since that would strengthen the argument. OUT

Option B - This is a bit of a trap answer. However, it merely says that the connection is unclear, not that there is NO causation. The problem with this answer therefore is that it is too vague. OUT

Option C - So what? The scope of the argument only pertains to America. In addition, we do not know about vision problems in the rest of the world, so this doesn't affect the argument in any way. OUT

Option D - While a bit vague, this option actually strengthens the argument since it does suggest that the nature of the screen time causes the problems with vision. OUT

Option E - This option offers an alternative explanation, which is that old age is the cause of the problems. By providing a valid alternative explanation, it weakens the logic of the original argument and therefore answers the question correctly. CORRECT
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In a recent survey, one out of six Americans were shown to have vision  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 26 Feb 2019, 07:45
Bunuel wrote:
In a recent survey, one out of six Americans were shown to have vision problems, which is a notable increase over the past two decades. The amount of time Americans spend in front of computer and television screens has risen sharply, and to reduce the number of Americans suffering from vision issues, the amount of screen exposure must also be reduced.

Which of the following, if true, would most substantially weaken the author’s conclusion?

Objective: To find an option that makes us believe that it is not necessary to reduce screen exposure to reduce the number of Americans suffering from vision issues.

(A) Increased screen time is directly correlated with vision problems.
Wrong. This option is mostly against our objective.

(B) The connection between screen time and vision problems is not entirely clear.
Wrong. This option doesn't affects our objective because as per the option, the connection between screen time and vision problems could be either positive or negative.

(C) Screen time has increased globally and not just in America.
Wrong. This option is irrelevant to our objective.

(D) Americans can reduce their risk of vision problems caused by too much screen time by dimming the screen and using a larger font.
Correct. This option fulfills our objective as it suggests that it's not necessary to reduce screen exposure to reduce the number of Americans suffering from vision issues.

(E) The majority of Americans with vision problems are older people, and the percentage of people over age 60 has steadily increased over the past twenty years.
Wrong. This option is irrelevant to our objective.

Originally posted by iamsiddharthkapoor on 26 Feb 2019, 07:25.
Last edited by iamsiddharthkapoor on 26 Feb 2019, 07:45, edited 1 time in total.
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In a recent survey, one out of six Americans were shown to have vision  [#permalink]

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26 Feb 2019, 07:43
IMHO option E.
The passage draws the conclusion that only increased screen time is responsible for the increase in vision problems without taking into account any other factors.
Option E presents an alternate explation as age being one of the factors. It states that the majority of people with increased problems are people over 60 years of age and that the number of these people have increased in the last 2 decades.
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Re: In a recent survey, one out of six Americans were shown to have vision  [#permalink]

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26 Feb 2019, 12:22
Bunuel wrote:
In a recent survey, one out of six Americans were shown to have vision problems, which is a notable increase over the past two decades. The amount of time Americans spend in front of computer and television screens has risen sharply, and to reduce the number of Americans suffering from vision issues, the amount of screen exposure must also be reduced.

Which of the following, if true, would most substantially weaken the author’s conclusion?

(A) Increased screen time is directly correlated with vision problems.

(B) The connection between screen time and vision problems is not entirely clear.

(C) Screen time has increased globally and not just in America.

(D) Americans can reduce their risk of vision problems caused by too much screen time by dimming the screen and using a larger font.

(E) The majority of Americans with vision problems are older people, and the percentage of people over age 60 has steadily increased over the past twenty years.

I think D is the correct answer. The doubt is between D and E. But in E there has nowhere been specified that older people have more vision problem. But in D it is clearally stated that even without risking the amount of screen time we can keep the vision intact
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Posts: 59728
Re: In a recent survey, one out of six Americans were shown to have vision  [#permalink]

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27 Feb 2019, 01:51
Bunuel wrote:
In a recent survey, one out of six Americans were shown to have vision problems, which is a notable increase over the past two decades. The amount of time Americans spend in front of computer and television screens has risen sharply, and to reduce the number of Americans suffering from vision issues, the amount of screen exposure must also be reduced.

Which of the following, if true, would most substantially weaken the author’s conclusion?

(A) Increased screen time is directly correlated with vision problems.

(B) The connection between screen time and vision problems is not entirely clear.

(C) Screen time has increased globally and not just in America.

(D) Americans can reduce their risk of vision problems caused by too much screen time by dimming the screen and using a larger font.

(E) The majority of Americans with vision problems are older people, and the percentage of people over age 60 has steadily increased over the past twenty years.

OFFICIAL EXPLANATION:

E. Choice (E) is best because it presents a logical, alternative explanation for the statistics surrounding Americans with vision problems. It isn’t screen time that causes the spike in problems but, instead, a large population of aging Americans. Choice (A) would strengthen rather than weaken the initial argument, so you know that one can’t be right. Choice (B) is a possibility, but you can assume the GMAT is probably looking for something a bit more precise. Choice (C) is irrelevant; the argument is specific to American vision problems, so it doesn’t matter how much time people in other parts of the world spend looking at screens. Choice (D), too, is irrelevant. What people do to reduce vision issues doesn’t call into question the role of screen time in vision problems.
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Re: In a recent survey, one out of six Americans were shown to have vision   [#permalink] 27 Feb 2019, 01:51
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