GMAT Question of the Day: Daily via email | Daily via Instagram New to GMAT Club? Watch this Video

 It is currently 04 Aug 2020, 04:12

### GMAT Club Daily Prep

#### Thank you for using the timer - this advanced tool can estimate your performance and suggest more practice questions. We have subscribed you to Daily Prep Questions via email.

Customized
for You

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Track

every week, we’ll send you an estimated GMAT score based on your performance

Practice
Pays

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

# In all battles two things are usually required of the Commander-in-Chi

Author Message
TAGS:

### Hide Tags

Senior PS Moderator
Joined: 26 Feb 2016
Posts: 3248
Location: India
GPA: 3.12
In all battles two things are usually required of the Commander-in-Chi  [#permalink]

### Show Tags

Updated on: 09 Apr 2020, 06:38
1
7
Question 1
00:00

based on 330 sessions

39% (03:06) correct 61% (03:26) wrong

### HideShow timer Statistics

Question 2
00:00

based on 327 sessions

42% (01:36) correct 58% (01:39) wrong

### HideShow timer Statistics

Question 3
00:00

based on 317 sessions

36% (01:31) correct 64% (01:23) wrong

### HideShow timer Statistics

New Project RC Butler 2019 - Practice 2 RC Passages Everyday
Passage # 172, Date : 27-APR-2019
This post is a part of New Project RC Butler 2019. Click here for Details

In all battles two things are usually required of the Commander-in-Chief: to make a good plan for his army and to keep a strong reserve. Both of these are also obligatory for the painter. To make a plan, thorough reconnaissance of the country where the battle is to be fought is needed. Its fields, its mountains, its rivers, its bridges, its trees, its flowers, its atmosphere—all require and repay attentive observation from a special point of view.

I think this is one of the chief delights that have come to me through painting. No doubt many people who are lovers of art have acquired it to a high degree without actually practicing. But I expect that nothing will make one observe more quickly or more thoroughly than having to face the difficulty of representing the thing observed. And mind you, if you do observe accurately and with refinement, and if you do record what you have seen with tolerable correspondence, the result follows on the canvas with startling obedience.

But in order to make his plan, the General must not only reconnoitre the battle-ground; he must also study the achievements of the great Captains of the past. He must bring the observations he has collected in the field into comparison with the treatment of similar incidents by famous chiefs.

Considering this fact, the galleries of Europe take on a new—and to me at least — a severely practical interest. You see the difficulty that baffled you yesterday; and you see how easily it has been overcome by a great or even by a skilful painter. Not only is your observation of Nature sensibly improved and developed, but also your comprehension of the masterpieces of art.

But it is in the use and withholding of their reserves that the great commanders have generally excelled. After all, when once the last reserve has been thrown in, the commander‘s part is played. If that does not win the battle, he has nothing else to give. Everything must be left to luck and to the fighting troops. But these last reserves, in the absence of high direction, are apt to get into sad confusion, all mixed together in a nasty mess, without order or plan—and consequently without effect.

Mere masses count no more. The largest brush, the brightest colours cannot even make an impression. The pictorial battlefield becomes a sea of mud mercifully veiled by the fog of war. Even though the General plunges in himself and emerges bespattered, as he sometimes does, he will not retrieve the day. In painting, the reserves consist in Proportion or Relation. And it is here that the art of the painter marches along the road which is traversed by all the greatest harmonies in thought. At one side of the palette there is white, at the other black; and neither is ever used 'neat.' Between these two rigid limits all the action must lie, all the power required must be generated. Black and white themselves placed in juxtaposition make no great impression; and yet they are the most that you can do in pure contrast.

1. As the author creates the analogy between war and painting in the passage, the Commander-in-Chief is to the battleground as the:

A. painter is to the subject being painted.
B. painter is to the canvas of the painting.
C. painter is to the paint colours.
D. painter is to the art gallery.
E. painter is to the brush

2. Following the example of the master Manet, the young Matisse often inserted in his pictures areas of white such as tablecloths or crockery that allowed for striking contrasts with black objects such as a knife or a dark bottle. What is the relevance of this information to the passage?

A. It supports the author‘s claim that the great artists are worthy of imitation.
B. It supports the author‘s claim that neither black nor white is ever used 'neat.'
C. It weakens the author‘s claim that black and white themselves placed in juxtaposition make no great impression.
D. It weakens the author‘s claim that great painters take Nature as their subject.
E. This information has no relevance to the information in the passage

3. The author‘s statement - "But [the fighting troops], in the absence of high direction, are apt to get into sad confusion, all mixed together in a nasty mess, without order or plan—and consequently without effect" assumes that:

A. chaotic painting cannot have an unintended artistic effect.
B. an artist naturally resists direction from another individual.
C. a painting cannot help but reflect the mental state of its painter.
D. it is impossible for painters to collaborate on a work without confusion.
E. troops always need someone to guide them

Aristotle Definitive RC -99 Guide Passage #69.

_________________
You've got what it takes, but it will take everything you've got

Originally posted by pushpitkc on 11 Aug 2017, 22:37.
Last edited by SajjadAhmad on 09 Apr 2020, 06:38, edited 5 times in total.
Updated - Complete topic (759).
Manager
Joined: 22 Sep 2018
Posts: 233
Re: In all battles two things are usually required of the Commander-in-Chi  [#permalink]

### Show Tags

28 Dec 2018, 21:12
Can someone share where in the passage does it say "Commander in Chief is to battleground as painter is to the subject being painted."

For number 2, is the reason why the answer weakens the authors claim because the stem states "creates striking contrasts" which means it does create juxtaposition?
Manager
Joined: 12 Nov 2018
Posts: 98
Re: In all battles two things are usually required of the Commander-in-Chi  [#permalink]

### Show Tags

09 May 2019, 22:05

in Q1, A vs B

and in Q2.

b) B. It supports the author‘s claim that neither black nor white is ever used 'neat.'

what does this mean, it is also in the passage couldn't understand this.

C. It weakens the author‘s claim that black and white themselves placed in juxtaposition make no great impression.
this is the OA but I am not sure why, hence I chose E.
GMAT Club team member
Status: GMAT Club Team Member
Affiliations: GMAT Club
Joined: 02 Nov 2016
Posts: 6427
GPA: 3.62
Re: In all battles two things are usually required of the Commander-in-Chi  [#permalink]

### Show Tags

16 May 2019, 12:31
1
goforgmat
puja priya
tamal99
NinetyFour
prototypevenom

here it is.

Official Explanation

Topic and Scope

Parallels are drawn between the skills required to paint a picture and to conduct a battle.

Mapping the Passage

Para 1 compares painting a picture to fighting a battle, lists two similarities, planning and backup, and discusses planning.

Para 2 explains that practicing art is a great way to become a lover of art.

Para 3 and 4 draws in the analogy of the general and explain the need to study previous masters in war and art.

Para 5 and 6 explain the need to keep reserves in battle and painting.

1. As the author creates the analogy between war and painting in the passage, the Commander-in-Chief is to the battleground as the:

Difficulty Level: 750

Explanation

The Commander-in-Chief is mentioned in the first paragraph, so begin your search there. The author says that the battleground must be inspected and studied. What is the equivalent in painting? The subject being painted. (A) fits the bill.

(B): Distortion. A tempting answer choice that might have required careful thought to eliminate if you hadn‘t chosen (A) outright. The general studies the battleground he fights the battle on, and likewise, the painter studies the subject he paints the picture of. Solid understanding of the metaphor is crucial. Hone this ability by paraphrasing at every opportunity.

(C): Out of Scope. Colours are mentioned in the last paragraphs when discussing reserves, a completely different part of the passage than the one in question.

(D): Out of Scope. While the author mentions art galleries in the context of planning, it has nothing to do with the metaphor of the battleground.

(E): Incorrect, as described above.

Strategy Point:

Pay attention to keywords mentioned in the question to get an idea of where to search in the passage.

2. Following the example of the master Manet, the young Matisse often inserted in his pictures areas of white such as tablecloths or crockery that allowed for striking contrasts with black objects such as a knife or a dark bottle. What is the relevance of this information to the passage?

Difficulty Level: 750

Explanation

A synthesis question testing your ability to evaluate the relevance of a new situation to the author‘s arguments. Zero in on elements of the new situation that sound relevant to the passage. Black and white are mentioned in the final paragraph. Recall that the author argues that black and white make weak impressions when contrasted. However, in the question stem situation, the impression is strong. We‘re looking for an answer that points this out, in other words, one that argues the new situation weakens the author‘s view. (C) fits exactly.

(A): Out of Scope. Not only does the situation not support the author‘s argument, but it has nothing to do with the paragraph on imitation. Don‘t get suckered by the false parallel between Matisse and the author‘s own discussion of great artists.

(B): Opposite. Right on topic, but the new situation does just the opposite to the author‘s claim.

(D): Distortion. While the new situation does weaken the author‘s argument, the author never argues that all great painters take Nature as their subject, asthis answer choice suggests.

(E): Incorrect, as described above.

3. The author‘s statement - "But [the fighting troops], in the absence of high direction, are apt to get into sad confusion, all mixed together in a nasty mess, without order or plan—and consequently without effect" assumes that:

Difficulty Level: 750

Explanation

Yet another question testing your understanding of the author‘s extended metaphor. These will be very common in any passage where unusual parallels are drawn. The quoted statement comes from Para 5; since all of the answer choices mention painting, work through how this part of the metaphor corresponds. The author is arguing that without a reserve, colours, like troops, will be confused and without order and therefore useless. For this to be true, the author must also believe that a painting without order suffers artistically, choice (A). To test an assumption in your practice, use the denial test: If the author does in fact assume X, the argument should fall apart if X is false. In this case, if chaotic painting can have an artistic effect, then the author‘s point about confused troops becomes meaningless. The assumption as it is written is therefore valid.

(B): Distortion. While the colours lack direction, there‘s nothing in the metaphor to indicate the artist resists direction.

(C): Out of Scope. Nothing in the statement is correlated to the author‘s general mental state.

(D): Out of Scope. This answer choice mentions confusion, which is also mentioned in the statement. The relevance stops there, though, as the rest of the answer choice is off-topic.

(E): Out of scope. This doesn‘t have to be assumed by the author.

Hope it helps
_________________
Manager
Joined: 28 Jan 2019
Posts: 96
Location: India
GMAT 1: 700 Q49 V36
GPA: 4
WE: Manufacturing and Production (Manufacturing)
Re: In all battles two things are usually required of the Commander-in-Chi  [#permalink]

### Show Tags

17 May 2019, 03:08
goforgmat
puja priya
tamal99
NinetyFour
prototypevenom

here it is.

Official Explanation

Topic and Scope

Parallels are drawn between the skills required to paint a picture and to conduct a battle.

Mapping the Passage
Para 1 compares painting a picture to fighting a battle, lists two similarities, planning and backup, and discusses planning.

Para 2 explains that practicing art is a great way to become a lover of art.

Para 3 and 4 draws in the analogy of the general and explain the need to study previous masters in war and art.

Para 5 and 6 explain the need to keep reserves in battle and painting.

1. As the author creates the analogy between war and painting in the passage, the Commander-in-Chief is to the battleground as the:

Difficulty Level: 750

Explanation

The Commander-in-Chief is mentioned in the first paragraph, so begin your search there. The author says that the battleground must be inspected and studied. What is the equivalent in painting? The subject being painted. (A) fits the bill.

(B): Distortion. A tempting answer choice that might have required careful thought to eliminate if you hadn‘t chosen (A) outright. The general studies the battleground he fights the battle on, and likewise, the painter studies the subject he paints the picture of. Solid understanding of the metaphor is crucial. Hone this ability by paraphrasing at every opportunity.

(C): Out of Scope. Colours are mentioned in the last paragraphs when discussing reserves, a completely different part of the passage than the one in question.

(D): Out of Scope. While the author mentions art galleries in the context of planning, it has nothing to do with the metaphor of the battleground.

(E): Incorrect, as described above.

Strategy Point:

Pay attention to keywords mentioned in the question to get an idea of where to search in the passage.

2. Following the example of the master Manet, the young Matisse often inserted in his pictures areas of white such as tablecloths or crockery that allowed for striking contrasts with black objects such as a knife or a dark bottle. What is the relevance of this information to the passage?

Difficulty Level: 750

Explanation

A synthesis question testing your ability to evaluate the relevance of a new situation to the author‘s arguments. Zero in on elements of the new situation that sound relevant to the passage. Black and white are mentioned in the final paragraph. Recall that the author argues that black and white make weak impressions when contrasted. However, in the question stem situation, the impression is strong. We‘re looking for an answer that points this out, in other words, one that argues the new situation weakens the author‘s view. (C) fits exactly.

(A): Out of Scope. Not only does the situation not support the author‘s argument, but it has nothing to do with the paragraph on imitation. Don‘t get suckered by the false parallel between Matisse and the author‘s own discussion of great artists.

(B): Opposite. Right on topic, but the new situation does just the opposite to the author‘s claim.

(D): Distortion. While the new situation does weaken the author‘s argument, the author never argues that all great painters take Nature as their subject, asthis answer choice suggests.

(E): Incorrect, as described above.

3. The author‘s statement - "But [the fighting troops], in the absence of high direction, are apt to get into sad confusion, all mixed together in a nasty mess, without order or plan—and consequently without effect" assumes that:

Difficulty Level: 750

Explanation

Yet another question testing your understanding of the author‘s extended metaphor. These will be very common in any passage where unusual parallels are drawn. The quoted statement comes from Para 5; since all of the answer choices mention painting, work through how this part of the metaphor corresponds. The author is arguing that without a reserve, colours, like troops, will be confused and without order and therefore useless. For this to be true, the author must also believe that a painting without order suffers artistically, choice (A). To test an assumption in your practice, use the denial test: If the author does in fact assume X, the argument should fall apart if X is false. In this case, if chaotic painting can have an artistic effect, then the author‘s point about confused troops becomes meaningless. The assumption as it is written is therefore valid.

(B): Distortion. While the colours lack direction, there‘s nothing in the metaphor to indicate the artist resists direction.

(C): Out of Scope. Nothing in the statement is correlated to the author‘s general mental state.

(D): Out of Scope. This answer choice mentions confusion, which is also mentioned in the statement. The relevance stops there, though, as the rest of the answer choice is off-topic.

(E): Out of scope. This doesn‘t have to be assumed by the author.

Hope it helps

Hi,
Regarding Q3, should I focus on the tone/approach of the passage over logic?
Option E is a direct assumption, if this were to be critically reasoned. I know this is not a CR question. And I agree E has an extreme language use. And I do understand that the author, in the passage is making parallel comparisons with every aspect of war with painting.
If the option E had something about painting, just as the other options, I would have went ahead with A. But given there was a direct assumption, and a metaphorical comparison, I chose E over A.
_________________
"Luck is when preparation meets opportunity!"
Intern
Joined: 22 Mar 2020
Posts: 24
In all battles two things are usually required of the Commander-in-Chi  [#permalink]

### Show Tags

21 May 2020, 22:27
Sorry but in q3, when chaotic paintings cannot have an unintended effect they can have an intended effect and that would not support the authors line of argumentation

goforgmat
puja priya
tamal99
NinetyFour
prototypevenom

here it is.

Official Explanation

Topic and Scope

Parallels are drawn between the skills required to paint a picture and to conduct a battle.

Mapping the Passage

Para 1 compares painting a picture to fighting a battle, lists two similarities, planning and backup, and discusses planning.

Para 2 explains that practicing art is a great way to become a lover of art.

Para 3 and 4 draws in the analogy of the general and explain the need to study previous masters in war and art.

Para 5 and 6 explain the need to keep reserves in battle and painting.

1. As the author creates the analogy between war and painting in the passage, the Commander-in-Chief is to the battleground as the:

Difficulty Level: 750

Explanation

The Commander-in-Chief is mentioned in the first paragraph, so begin your search there. The author says that the battleground must be inspected and studied. What is the equivalent in painting? The subject being painted. (A) fits the bill.

(B): Distortion. A tempting answer choice that might have required careful thought to eliminate if you hadn‘t chosen (A) outright. The general studies the battleground he fights the battle on, and likewise, the painter studies the subject he paints the picture of. Solid understanding of the metaphor is crucial. Hone this ability by paraphrasing at every opportunity.

(C): Out of Scope. Colours are mentioned in the last paragraphs when discussing reserves, a completely different part of the passage than the one in question.

(D): Out of Scope. While the author mentions art galleries in the context of planning, it has nothing to do with the metaphor of the battleground.

(E): Incorrect, as described above.

Strategy Point:

Pay attention to keywords mentioned in the question to get an idea of where to search in the passage.

2. Following the example of the master Manet, the young Matisse often inserted in his pictures areas of white such as tablecloths or crockery that allowed for striking contrasts with black objects such as a knife or a dark bottle. What is the relevance of this information to the passage?

Difficulty Level: 750

Explanation

A synthesis question testing your ability to evaluate the relevance of a new situation to the author‘s arguments. Zero in on elements of the new situation that sound relevant to the passage. Black and white are mentioned in the final paragraph. Recall that the author argues that black and white make weak impressions when contrasted. However, in the question stem situation, the impression is strong. We‘re looking for an answer that points this out, in other words, one that argues the new situation weakens the author‘s view. (C) fits exactly.

(A): Out of Scope. Not only does the situation not support the author‘s argument, but it has nothing to do with the paragraph on imitation. Don‘t get suckered by the false parallel between Matisse and the author‘s own discussion of great artists.

(B): Opposite. Right on topic, but the new situation does just the opposite to the author‘s claim.

(D): Distortion. While the new situation does weaken the author‘s argument, the author never argues that all great painters take Nature as their subject, asthis answer choice suggests.

(E): Incorrect, as described above.

3. The author‘s statement - "But [the fighting troops], in the absence of high direction, are apt to get into sad confusion, all mixed together in a nasty mess, without order or plan—and consequently without effect" assumes that:

Difficulty Level: 750

Explanation

Yet another question testing your understanding of the author‘s extended metaphor. These will be very common in any passage where unusual parallels are drawn. The quoted statement comes from Para 5; since all of the answer choices mention painting, work through how this part of the metaphor corresponds. The author is arguing that without a reserve, colours, like troops, will be confused and without order and therefore useless. For this to be true, the author must also believe that a painting without order suffers artistically, choice (A). To test an assumption in your practice, use the denial test: If the author does in fact assume X, the argument should fall apart if X is false. In this case, if chaotic painting can have an artistic effect, then the author‘s point about confused troops becomes meaningless. The assumption as it is written is therefore valid.

(B): Distortion. While the colours lack direction, there‘s nothing in the metaphor to indicate the artist resists direction.

(C): Out of Scope. Nothing in the statement is correlated to the author‘s general mental state.

(D): Out of Scope. This answer choice mentions confusion, which is also mentioned in the statement. The relevance stops there, though, as the rest of the answer choice is off-topic.

(E): Out of scope. This doesn‘t have to be assumed by the author.

Hope it helps

Posted from my mobile device
In all battles two things are usually required of the Commander-in-Chi   [#permalink] 21 May 2020, 22:27