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In day-to-day functioning, people rely on both memory and knowledge

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In day-to-day functioning, people rely on both memory and knowledge  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 04 Oct 2019, 07:15
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New Project RC Butler 2019 - Practice 2 RC Passages Everyday
Passage # 370, Date : 04-Oct-2019
This post is a part of New Project RC Butler 2019. Click here for Details


In day-to-day functioning, people rely on both memory and knowledge of that memory, referred to as metamemory. For example, a person often cannot immediately recall a name upon meeting someone, but they feel that they know it. This feeling is the result of monitoring memory. Because of this feeling-of-knowing (FOK), most people will continue to search their memory for this name. Once a name is generated, people then monitor and decide if they are confident enough to use that name.

Memory monitoring involves evaluating the ongoing progress of any aspect of memory. Experiments that evaluate memory monitoring typically have individuals make subjective judgments about their memory at various stages of learning and recall. Participants are asked a series of questions. After each question that they answer, they are asked to provide a retrospective confidence (RC) judgment, rating the likelihood that their response is accurate. When participants do not answer a question, they are asked for their prospective FOK judgment, assessing whether they nonetheless feel they do know the answer (for example because they think they may be able to remember it at some point in the future).

Perhaps predictably, RC judgments are highly correlated with actual knowledge of a topic. FOK judgments, however, correlate rather weakly—albeit positively—with actual knowledge. While there are some instances where the FOK is the result of a momentary inability to recall something[/color], more often than not the FOK stems from the sense that one should know something, for example because the field is familiar.


Research has resulted in a general consensus that, when monitoring memory, individuals infer whether a particular response will be, or has been, remembered based on the inputs that are readily available. However, the particular inputs used differ depending on when memory is assessed. Prospective FOK judgments are thought to be based on familiarity of the cue, accessibility of information about the memory, or a combination of the two. In contrast, it is widely accepted that RC judgments are based on the memory-retrieval experience—that is, the “on-line” experience of directly retrieving some previously studied item.

1. The author uses the term “on-line” (Highlighted)at the end of the last paragraph in order to:

A. emphasize the importance of readily available inputs for monitoring memory.
B. enhance the understanding of a major difference between RC judgments and FOK judgments.
C. show how similar RC judgments are to the experience of retrieving data from a computer online.
D. highlight the importance of when a memory is assessed in determining the reliability of an RC judgment.
E. clarify the weaknesses inherent in the process for forming FOK judgments.


2. Which of the following best describes the role of the highlighted portion in the 3rd paragraph?

A. It is used to support the idea that RC judgments are strongly correlated with knowledge of a topic.
B. It is used to emphasize why FOK judgments, when compared to RC judgments, are also positively correlated with actual knowledge.
C. It is used to explain why the correlation with actual knowledge for FOK judgments is not as strong as the correlation with actual knowledge for RC judgments.
D. It is used to emphasize the difference between a momentary inability to recall something and actual knowledge of a topic.
E. It is used to support the notion that RC judgments should be used more often to assess recall of information than FOK judgments.


3. According to the passage, an FOK judgment is normally made by experimental subjects

A. before questions are posed to them.
B. after each question.
C. after questions they are unable to answer.
D. after providing an answer to a question.
E. after the answers to all the questions are revealed.


4. Based on the information in the passage, if a person has an FOK that proves to be an accurate assessment of actual knowledge, he or she most likely

A)will quickly give up on attempting to answer the question.
B)is familiar with the field but not the individual piece of information.
C)overestimates how much knowledge he or she really has.
D)is suffering from a temporary inability to recall information.
E)will give an unreliable RC judgment for the same topic.


5. According to the passage, which of the following is true of feeling-of-knowing?

A. It its not correlated with actual knowledge.
B. It is more strongly correlated with actual knowledge than is retrospective confidence.
C. It causes people to stop searching their memory for someone's name.
D. It is considered by researchers to be the best possible predictor of actual knowledge.
E. It is positively correlated with actual knowledge.


Originally posted by sidd13 on 15 Sep 2017, 01:55.
Last edited by SajjadAhmad on 04 Oct 2019, 07:15, edited 11 times in total.
Added Q #5 - Updated complete topic (795)
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Re: In day-to-day functioning, people rely on both memory and knowledge  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Sep 2017, 03:53
For Question Number 3 answer reside in the below line in paragraph 2
When participants do not answer a question, they are asked for their prospective FOK judgment, assessing whether they nonetheless feel they do know the answer (for example because they think they may be able to remember it at some point in the future).
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Re: In day-to-day functioning, people rely on both memory and knowledge  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Sep 2017, 18:00
1
nkmungila wrote:
For Question Number 3 answer reside in the below line in paragraph 2
When participants do not answer a question, they are asked for their prospective FOK judgment, assessing whether they nonetheless feel they do know the answer (for example because they think they may be able to remember it at some point in the future).



It also takes into consideration the definition given from paragraph 1, good or tricky part about this RC is the facts need to be kept in mind together
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Re: In day-to-day functioning, people rely on both memory and knowledge  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 28 Feb 2018, 21:07
Based on the information in the passage, if a person has an FOK that proves to be an accurate assessment of actual knowledge, he or she most likely

A)will quickly give up on attempting to answer the question.
B)is familiar with the field but not the individual piece of information.
C)overestimates how much knowledge he or she really has.
D)is suffering from a temporary inability to recall information.
E)will give an unreliable RC judgment for the same topic.

OA:

Official Solution:

This problem requires you to draw an inference based on the information in the third paragraph. While the phrase "most likely" in the question stem seems like it should tie directly back to "more often than not" in the third paragraph (which would lead you to choice B), you must fully understand what the question is asking about. The question wants to know about times when the FOK did reflect actual knowledge. That's where the whole paragraph comes into play. The meaning here:

FOK judgments, however, correlate rather weakly—albeit positively—with actual knowledge. While there are some instances where the FOK is the result of a momentary inability to recall something, more often than not the FOK stems from the sense that one should know something...

Says that FOK judgments rarely mean that there is actual knowledge. Those cases, which are the ones the question asks about, are the rare ones, the "some instances where the FOK is the result of a momentary inability to recall." The "more often than not" cases are the ones in which FOK does not reflect actual knowledge, and those are not the cases that the question is asking about.

So from this you can infer that the cases that reflect actual knowledge are the ones for which there is a momentary inability to recall. That matches answer choice D, the correct answer.

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Originally posted by NandishSS on 22 Feb 2018, 19:45.
Last edited by NandishSS on 28 Feb 2018, 21:07, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: In day-to-day functioning, people rely on both memory and knowledge  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Oct 2019, 07:16
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Re: In day-to-day functioning, people rely on both memory and knowledge  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Oct 2019, 03:33
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Can someone provide official explainations for this passage
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Re: In day-to-day functioning, people rely on both memory and knowledge  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Oct 2019, 20:39
the passage is hard. but if you read slowly, it is understandable. the questions are easy because they do not have close answers. this case is not typical of gmat rc.

for typical gmat rc, questions contain close answer and we have to re-read the relevant sentences to eliminate 4 choice and confirm 1 choice. we can be stuck at two close answer choices. the ability to differentiate 2 close answer choices is key to success on gmat rc.
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Re: In day-to-day functioning, people rely on both memory and knowledge  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Apr 2020, 09:31
Can someone explain the question 5..
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Re: In day-to-day functioning, people rely on both memory and knowledge  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Apr 2020, 10:16
1
SSandy066 wrote:
Can someone explain the question 5..


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Official Explanation


5. According to the passage, which of the following is true of feeling-of-knowing?

Difficulty Level: 600

Explanation

In the beginning of the third paragraph, the author talks about how feeling-of-knowledge (FOK) and retrospective confidence (RC) relate to actual knowledge: Perhaps predictably, RC judgments are highly correlated with actual knowledge of a topic. FOK judgments, however, correlate rather weakly—albeit positively—with actual knowledge. Note the portion between the dashes: FOK judgments are positively correlated with actual knowledge (even though it's a weak correlation), proving answer choice (E) correct.

Among the other choices:

(A) is directly contradicted by the sentence that proves (E), so (A) is incorrect.

(B) is also incorrect, as the sentence prior to the proof for (E) says that RC is highly correlated with actual knowledge, meaning that the weakly-correlated FOK is a lower correlation.

(C) is disproven in paragraph one, where it is mentioned that because of FOK people will continue searching for someone's name even if they do not know it.

And (D) is never mentioned directly but is contradicted by the notion that RC is more highly correlated with actual knowledge than is FOK.

Answer: E

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Re: In day-to-day functioning, people rely on both memory and knowledge  [#permalink]

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New post 24 May 2020, 08:01
sidd13 wrote:
New Project RC Butler 2019 - Practice 2 RC Passages Everyday
Passage # 370, Date : 04-Oct-2019
This post is a part of New Project RC Butler 2019. Click here for Details


In day-to-day functioning, people rely on both memory and knowledge of that memory, referred to as metamemory. For example, a person often cannot immediately recall a name upon meeting someone, but they feel that they know it. This feeling is the result of monitoring memory. Because of this feeling-of-knowing (FOK), most people will continue to search their memory for this name. Once a name is generated, people then monitor and decide if they are confident enough to use that name.

Memory monitoring involves evaluating the ongoing progress of any aspect of memory. Experiments that evaluate memory monitoring typically have individuals make subjective judgments about their memory at various stages of learning and recall. Participants are asked a series of questions. After each question that they answer, they are asked to provide a retrospective confidence (RC) judgment, rating the likelihood that their response is accurate. When participants do not answer a question, they are asked for their prospective FOK judgment, assessing whether they nonetheless feel they do know the answer (for example because they think they may be able to remember it at some point in the future).

Perhaps predictably, RC judgments are highly correlated with actual knowledge of a topic. FOK judgments, however, correlate rather weakly—albeit positively—with actual knowledge. While there are some instances where the FOK is the result of a momentary inability to recall something[/color], more often than not the FOK stems from the sense that one should know something, for example because the field is familiar.


Research has resulted in a general consensus that, when monitoring memory, individuals infer whether a particular response will be, or has been, remembered based on the inputs that are readily available. However, the particular inputs used differ depending on when memory is assessed. Prospective FOK judgments are thought to be based on familiarity of the cue, accessibility of information about the memory, or a combination of the two. In contrast, it is widely accepted that RC judgments are based on the memory-retrieval experience—that is, the “on-line” experience of directly retrieving some previously studied item.

1. The author uses the term “on-line” (Highlighted)at the end of the last paragraph in order to:

A. emphasize the importance of readily available inputs for monitoring memory.
B. enhance the understanding of a major difference between RC judgments and FOK judgments.
C. show how similar RC judgments are to the experience of retrieving data from a computer online.
D. highlight the importance of when a memory is assessed in determining the reliability of an RC judgment.
E. clarify the weaknesses inherent in the process for forming FOK judgments.


2. Which of the following best describes the role of the highlighted portion in the 3rd paragraph?

A. It is used to support the idea that RC judgments are strongly correlated with knowledge of a topic.
B. It is used to emphasize why FOK judgments, when compared to RC judgments, are also positively correlated with actual knowledge.
C. It is used to explain why the correlation with actual knowledge for FOK judgments is not as strong as the correlation with actual knowledge for RC judgments.
D. It is used to emphasize the difference between a momentary inability to recall something and actual knowledge of a topic.
E. It is used to support the notion that RC judgments should be used more often to assess recall of information than FOK judgments.


3. According to the passage, an FOK judgment is normally made by experimental subjects

A. before questions are posed to them.
B. after each question.
C. after questions they are unable to answer.
D. after providing an answer to a question.
E. after the answers to all the questions are revealed.


4. Based on the information in the passage, if a person has an FOK that proves to be an accurate assessment of actual knowledge, he or she most likely

A)will quickly give up on attempting to answer the question.
B)is familiar with the field but not the individual piece of information.
C)overestimates how much knowledge he or she really has.
D)is suffering from a temporary inability to recall information.
E)will give an unreliable RC judgment for the same topic.


5. According to the passage, which of the following is true of feeling-of-knowing?

A. It its not correlated with actual knowledge.
B. It is more strongly correlated with actual knowledge than is retrospective confidence.
C. It causes people to stop searching their memory for someone's name.
D. It is considered by researchers to be the best possible predictor of actual knowledge.
E. It is positively correlated with actual knowledge.



Can someone please explain Question (1)?

Although it is clear in hindsight, for future reference I'd like to fully understand the underlying approach.

My understanding is that the use of the words in bold "...memory-retrieval experience—that is, the “on-line” experience of..." modifies the term memory-retrieval experience through use of 'that is'. Therefore isn't "on-line" used to expand on this term (i.e. Answer C)?

Thanks
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In day-to-day functioning, people rely on both memory and knowledge  [#permalink]

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New post 02 Jun 2020, 18:54
SajjadAhmad wrote:
+1 Kudos to posts containing answer explanation of all questions


Hello. Could you provide the explanation for Question 4
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In day-to-day functioning, people rely on both memory and knowledge   [#permalink] 02 Jun 2020, 18:54

In day-to-day functioning, people rely on both memory and knowledge

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