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# In hoping to restrain economic growth, interest rates were raised by

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22 Mar 2011, 12:43
Noboru

Do you find the sentences "It is interesting to talk to Steve Jobs" or "it is useful to swim" correct?

I can't otherwise explain you this rule but "it" may refer to "to +verb".
I am a non-native speaker, I dont know what is the rule , but in this particular case it may refer to "to+verb"

hope it helps.

noboru wrote:
How can a pronoun refer to a verb?
Thanks!

Pkit wrote:
subhashghosh wrote:
I think it can refer to "borrowing" as it's a gerund, a noun.

PKit, please correct me if I'm wrong.

yes, you are right.

it refers to "to borrow" or to process of borrowing as i stated above.

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Re: In hoping to restrain economic growth, interest rates were raised by  [#permalink]

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22 Mar 2011, 13:25
Hi, Pkit.

Yes, I do find those sentences correct.

However, those "It"s are not pronouns (as the one in the original sentence), but they are Placeholders. It's different.

Each pronoun in a sentence must refer to a specific noun, so I cannot understand how "it" can be substituted by "to borrow", which is a verb, not a noun.

Any more thoughts?

Pkit wrote:
Noboru

Do you find the sentences "It is interesting to talk to Steve Jobs" or "it is useful to swim" correct?

I can't otherwise explain you this rule but "it" may refer to "to +verb".
I am a non-native speaker, I dont know what is the rule , but in this particular case it may refer to "to+verb"

hope it helps.

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Re: In hoping to restrain economic growth, interest rates were raised by  [#permalink]

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22 Mar 2011, 18:46
I got E.... The making closely modifies the 'interest rate' and seems best fits.
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22 Mar 2011, 23:28
brandy96 wrote:
I got E.... The making closely modifies the 'interest rate' and seems best fits.

-ing modifier acts as and adverbial modifier.I think it modifies raised not interest rate. Can someone Please clarify?
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23 Mar 2011, 03:08
Onell wrote:
brandy96 wrote:
I got E.... The making closely modifies the 'interest rate' and seems best fits.

-ing modifier acts as and adverbial modifier.I think it modifies raised not interest rate. Can someone Please clarify?

I agree with you, making...modifies raised...
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23 Mar 2011, 08:51
"the electronic locks are making it increasingly difficult for robbers to steal from lockers"
here "it" doesn't refer to "to steal"(which is a verb)
but to the noun form of stealing ie "theft"
probably same logic applies here
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23 Mar 2011, 09:09
d3thknell wrote:
"the electronic locks are making it increasingly difficult for robbers to steal from lockers"
here "it" doesn't refer to "to steal"(which is a verb)
but to the noun form of stealing ie "theft"
probably same logic applies here

But that noun is not explicitily stated in the sentence, and that is what sounds strange for me.
Thanks.
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23 Mar 2011, 09:21
d3thknell wrote:
"the electronic locks are making it increasingly difficult for robbers to steal from lockers"
here "it" doesn't refer to "to steal"(which is a verb)
but to the noun form of stealing ie "theft"
probably same logic applies here

Exactly the same as I said before :

Quote:
it refers to the process "to borrow".

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25 Mar 2011, 14:11
@Noboru: i agree it has not been stated "Explicitly",u have a good point here,i dont know the exact rules on usage of pronouns when nouns are not explicitly stated, so I wont be able to comment further
@Pkit: my understanding is , " process to borrow" is still a verb, maybe i misunderstood..
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26 Mar 2011, 01:34
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d3thknell wrote:
@Noboru: i agree it has not been stated "Explicitly",u have a good point here,i dont know the exact rules on usage of pronouns when nouns are not explicitly stated, so I wont be able to comment further
@Pkit: my understanding is , " process to borrow" is still a verb, maybe i misunderstood..

"process" is a noun. It may confuse you becuase "process" is an action noun.
if you still dont belive me , try to look into any dictionary.
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Re: In hoping to restrain economic growth, interest rates were raised by  [#permalink]

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28 Jul 2016, 04:48
PTK wrote:
In hoping to restrain economic growth, interest rates were raised by British policymakers, making it more expensive to borrow for businesses and consumers.

A. In hoping to restrain economic growth, interest rates were raised by British policymakers, making it more expensive to borrow for businesses and consumers.
B. Making it more expensive for businesses and consumers to borrow, interest rates were raised by British policymakers, in hopes of their restraining economic growth.
C. In making borrowing for businesses and consumers more expensive, British policymakers, in hopes they will restrain economic growth, had raised interest rates.
D. Hopefully restraining economic growth, British policymakers raised interest rates, making more expensive borrowing by businesses and consumers.
E. Hoping to restrain economic growth, British policymakers raised interest rates, making it more expensive for businesses and consumers to borrow.

'In hoping to restrain economic growth' must modify a 'person' - British Policymakers. A and B are out.

C. In making borrowing for businesses and consumers more expensive, British policymakers, in hopes they will restrain economic growth, had raised interest rates. 'had raised' is not required. Apart from this the structure is awkward.

D. Hopefully restraining economic growth, British policymakers raised interest rates, making more expensive borrowing by businesses and consumers. 'Hopefully and 'hoping to' have different meanings.

E. Hoping to restrain economic growth (correctly modifies BP), British policymakers raised interest rates (following sentence shows the result of increased interest rates), making it more expensive for businesses and consumers to borrow. correct choice
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Re: In hoping to restrain economic growth, interest rates were raised by  [#permalink]

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04 Dec 2016, 08:41
Another question...

Consider the following modifaction of answer choice B:

Making it more expensive for businesses and consumers to borrow, interest rates were raised by British policymakers, hoping to restrain economic growth.

In my opinion this sentence is correct, isnt it?

Now consider you had both, the modification of B and E in the answer choices. In this case, does the GMAT prefer active voice, thus you would pick answer choice E?

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Re: In hoping to restrain economic growth, interest rates were raised by  [#permalink]

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04 Dec 2016, 09:13
martinjudge91 wrote:
Another question...

Consider the following modifaction of answer choice B:

Making it more expensive for businesses and consumers to borrow, interest rates were raised by British policymakers, hoping to restrain economic growth.

In my opinion this sentence is correct, isnt it?

Now consider you had both, the modification of B and E in the answer choices. In this case, does the GMAT prefer active voice, thus you would pick answer choice E?

Thanks

"Making it more expensive for businesses and consumers to borrow, interest rates were raised by British policymakers, hoping to restrain economic growth." ...... in this sentence the modifier "hoping to restrain economic growth" is a present participle modifier wrongly referring to "interest rates", the subject of the previous clause. In active construction this problem will be eliminated.
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In hoping to restrain economic growth, interest rates were raised by  [#permalink]

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05 Apr 2018, 05:13
GMATNinja VeritasPrepKarishma egmat

Quote:
(E) Hoping to restrain economic growth, British policymakers raised interest rates, making it more expensive for businesses and consumers to borrow.

Can Experts confirm if IT correctly refers to singular noun - Economic growth in (E)?
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Re: In hoping to restrain economic growth, interest rates were raised by  [#permalink]

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05 Apr 2018, 10:52
GMATNinja VeritasPrepKarishma egmat

Quote:
(E) Hoping to restrain economic growth, British policymakers raised interest rates, making it more expensive for businesses and consumers to borrow.

Can Experts confirm if IT correctly refers to singular noun - Economic growth in (E)?

Thank you for the query.

In the correct answer choice E, it is a placeholder pronoun that does not really refer to any noun in the sentence as such.

Economic growth cannot be the logical antecedent of it because it makes no sense to say that the policymakers by doing something made the economic growth expensive.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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In hoping to restrain economic growth, interest rates were raised by  [#permalink]

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06 Apr 2018, 00:10
Quote:
(E) Hoping to restrain economic growth, British policymakers raised interest rates, making it more expensive for businesses and consumers to borrow.

Can Experts confirm if IT correctly refers to singular noun - Economic growth in (E)?

Hi adkikani, this is a typical case where a pronoun (it) is used before the antecedent.

Here, it is referring to to borrow. So, the sentence is basically:

making (to borrow) more expensive for businesses and consumers.

Another simpler example:

It is immoral to lie.

Again, it is referring to to lie. So, this is equivalent to:

(to lie) is immoral.

There are two main instances when a pronoun is used before the antecedent. Our book EducationAisle Sentence Correction Nirvana discusses these instances, their application and examples in significant detail. If someone is interested, PM me your email-id; I can mail the corresponding section.
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Re: In hoping to restrain economic growth, interest rates were raised by  [#permalink]

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26 Jul 2019, 07:15
PTK wrote:
In hoping to restrain economic growth, interest rates were raised by British policymakers, making it more expensive to borrow for businesses and consumers.

(A) In hoping to restrain economic growth, interest rates were raised by British policymakers, making it more expensive to borrow for businesses and consumers.

(B) Making it more expensive for businesses and consumers to borrow, interest rates were raised by British policymakers, in hopes of their restraining economic growth.

(C) In making borrowing for businesses and consumers more expensive, British policymakers, in hopes they will restrain economic growth, had raised interest rates.

(D) Hopefully restraining economic growth, British policymakers raised interest rates, making more expensive borrowing by businesses and consumers.

(E) Hoping to restrain economic growth, British policymakers raised interest rates, making it more expensive for businesses and consumers to borrow.

(A) In hoping to restrain economic growth, interest rates were raised by British policymakers, making it more expensive to borrow for businesses and consumers. - Wrong: Modifier issue

(B) Making it more expensive for businesses and consumers to borrow, interest rates were raised by British policymakers, in hopes of their restraining economic growth. - Wrong: Modifier issue 2) Pronoun ambiguity

(C) In making borrowing for businesses and consumers more expensive, British policymakers, in hopes they will restrain economic growth, had raised interest rates. - Wrong: Pronoun ambiguity 2) Wrong verb

(D) Hopefully restraining economic growth, British policymakers raised interest rates, making more expensive borrowing by businesses and consumers. - Wrong: Meaning issue

(E) Hoping to restrain economic growth, British policymakers raised interest rates, making it more expensive for businesses and consumers to borrow. - Correct
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Re: In hoping to restrain economic growth, interest rates were raised by   [#permalink] 26 Jul 2019, 07:15

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