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In humans, ingested protein is broken down into amino acids,

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Re: In humans, ingested protein is broken down into amino acids,  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Sep 2011, 05:24
In humans, ingested protein is broken down into amino acids, all of which must compete to enter the brain. Subsequent ingestion of sugars leads to the production of insulin, a hormone that breaks down the sugars and also rids the bloodstream of residual amino acids, except for tryptophan. Tryptophan then slips into the brain uncontested and is transformed into the chemical serotonin, increasing the brain’s serotonin level. Thus, sugars can play a major role in mood elevation, helping one to feel relaxed and anxiety-free.

Which one of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

(A) Elevation of mood and freedom from anxiety require increasing the level of serotonin in the brain.
(B) Failure to consume foods rich in sugars results in anxiety and a lowering of mood.
(C) Serotonin can be produced naturally only if tryptophan is present in the bloodstream.
(D) Increasing the level of serotonin in the brain promotes relaxation and freedom from anxiety.
(E) The consumption of protein-rich foods results in anxiety and a lowering of mood.
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Re: In humans, ingested protein is broken down into amino acids,  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Sep 2011, 05:27
OFFICIAL EXPLANATION LSAT (Powerscore)
Answer choice (A): Although the author assumes that raising the level of serotonin is sufficient to elevate mood, this answer claims that it is necessary. Hence, this answer is incorrect.

Answer choice (D): This is the correct answer. The author states that after the action of the sugars, more
serotonin enters the brain. The author then concludes that this leads to a mood elevation. Thus, the author
assumes that serotonin has an effect on the mood level.

Answer choice (B): The argument refers to what happens when sugars are ingested. No assumption is
made about what occurs when foods rich in sugars are not ingested.

Answer choice (C): Although the argument states that tryptophan is transformed into serotonin, no
assumption is made that this is the only way serotonin is produced.

Answer choice (E): The author does not assume the statement in this answer. We know from the first
sentence of the stimulus that ingested protein is broken down into amino acids which compete to enter the
brain. This competition could result in mood elevation even without the ingestion of sugars since some
amino acids will enter the brain (some could be tryptophan, for example). Thus, since the author’s
argument contains a scenario that would allow for the opposite of this answer choice to occur, this answer
is not an assumption of the argument.
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Re: In humans, ingested protein is broken down into amino acids,  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 28 Sep 2012, 04:04
In humans, ingested protein is broken down into amino acids, all of which must compete to enter the brain. Subsequent ingestion of sugars leads to the production of insulin, a hormone that breaks down the sugars and also rids the bloodstream of residual amino acids, except for tryptophan. Tryptophan then slips into the brain uncontested and is transformed into the chemical serotonin, increasing the brain’s serotonin level. Thus sugars cause mood elevation, helping one to feel relaxed and anxiety-free.

Which one of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

(A) Elevation of mood and freedom from anxiety require increasing the level of serotonin the brain.
(B) Failure to consume foods rich in sugars results in anxiety and a lowering of mood.
(C) Serotonin can be produced naturally only if tryptophan is presented in the bloodstream.
(D) Increasing the level of serotonin in the brain promotes relaxation and freedom from anxiety.
(E) The consumption of protein-rich foods results in anxiety and a lowering of mood.
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Originally posted by getgyan on 24 Sep 2012, 23:01.
Last edited by getgyan on 28 Sep 2012, 04:04, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: In humans, ingested protein is broken down into amino acids,  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Sep 2012, 23:03
In humans, ingested protein is broken down into amino acids, all of which must compete to enter the brain. Subsequent ingestion of sugars leads to the production of insulin, a hormone that breaks down the sugars and also rids the bloodstream of residual amino acids, except for tryptophan. Tryptophan then slips into the brain uncontested and is transformed into the chemical serotonin, increasing the brain’s serotonin level. Thus sugars cause mood elevation, helping one to feel relaxed and anxiety-free.

Which one of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

(A) Elevation of mood and freedom from anxiety require increasing the level of serotonin the brain.
(B) Failure to consume foods rich in sugars results in anxiety and a lowering of mood.
(C) Serotonin can be produced naturally only if tryptophan is presented in the bloodstream.
(D) Increasing the level of serotonin in the brain promotes relaxation and freedom from anxiety.
(E) The consumption of protein-rich foods results in anxiety and a lowering of mood.
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New post 24 Sep 2012, 23:20
Interesting question, specially the choice between d and a.

In my opinion answer should a as we require a link between serotonin level and sugar therefore answer should be A.

D is not an assumption that, it is more of an inference. As assumption stands before the stimulus and inference is what u derive from it.

Please provide oa.

Posted from my mobile device
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Re: In humans, ingested protein is broken down into amino acids,  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Sep 2012, 04:03
+1 D

Premise - In humans, ingested protein is broken down into amino acids, all of which must compete to enter the brain. Subsequent ingestion of sugars leads to the production of insulin, a hormone that breaks down the sugars and also rids the bloodstream of residual amino acids, except for tryptophan. Tryptophan then slips into the brain uncontested and is transformed into the chemical serotonin, increasing the brain’s serotonin level.

Conclusion - Thus sugars cause mood elevation, helping one to feel relaxed and anxiety-free.

Clearly there is a gap between the premise and the conclusion. Any option which connects these two i.e. Serotonin with relaxation and freedom from anxiety is our answer

After the preliminary check, only options A and D are left.

(A) Elevation of mood and freedom from anxiety require increasing the level of serotonin the brain (This option is poorly constructed and does not include relaxation)
(D) Increasing the level of serotonin in the brain promotes relaxation and freedom from anxiety (This is our answer as it correctly fills the hole between the premise and the assumption)

:-D
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Re: In humans, ingested protein is broken down into amino acids,  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Mar 2013, 23:07
In humans,ingested protein is broken down into amino acids,all of which must compete to enter the brain.Subsequent ingestion of sugars leads to the production of insulin,a horemone that breaks down the sugars and also rids the bloodstream of residual amino acids,except for tryptophan.Tryptohan then slips into the brain uncontested and is transformed into the chemical scrotonin ,increasing the brain`s scrotonin level.Thus,sugars can play a major role in mood elevation,helping one to feel relaxed and anxiety-free.
Which one of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

(A)Elevation of mood and freedom from anxiety require increasing the level of scrotonin in the brain
(B)Failure to consume foods rich in sugars results in anxiety and a lowering of mood
(C)Scrotonin can be produced naturally only if tryptophan is present in the bloodstream
(D)Increasing the level of scrotonin in the brain promotes relaxation and freedom from anxiety
(E)The consumption of protein-rich foods results in anxiety and a lowering of mood.

Need explanation.............
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Re: In humans, ingested protein is broken down into amino acids,  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Mar 2013, 01:10
mun23 wrote:
In humans,ingested protein is broken down into amino acids,all of which must compete to enter the brain.Subsequent ingestion of sugars leads to the production of insulin,a horemone that breaks down the sugars and also rids the bloodstream of residual amino acids,except for tryptophan.Tryptohan then slips into the brain uncontested and is transformed into the chemical scrotonin ,increasing the brain`s scrotonin level.Thus,sugars can play a major role in mood elevation,helping one to feel relaxed and anxiety-free.
Which one of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

(A)Elevation of mood and freedom from anxiety require increasing the level of scrotonin in the brain Strengthens the argument
(B)Failure to consume foods rich in sugars results in anxiety and a lowering of mood Consume =! ingestion
(C)Scrotonin can be produced naturally only if tryptophan is present in the bloodstream How scrotonin is produced is not relevant in this argument --> out of scope
(D)Increasing the level of scrotonin in the brain promotes relaxation and freedom from anxiety Here is the link we are looking for
(E)The consumption of protein-rich foods results in anxiety and a lowering of mood. Protein rich food is not part of the argument --> out of scope

Need explanation.............


You have to find the missing link between the premises (blah blah increasing the brain`s scrotonin level) & the conclusion (sugars can play a major role in mood elevation). The relation between scrotonin level & mood elevation.
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Re: In humans, ingested protein is broken down into amino acids,  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Mar 2013, 03:03
Negating D means that increasing the level of scrotonin in the brain doesn't promote relaxation and freedom from anxiety. In other words, the conclusion based on the fact that ingestion of sugar ( which leads to the production of insulin,a horemone that breaks down the sugars and also rids the bloodstream of residual amino acids,except for tryptophan.Tryptohan then slips into the brain uncontested and is transformed into the chemical scrotonin ,increasing the brain`s scrotonin level) plays a major role in mood elevation,helping one to feel relaxed and anxiety-free will be not valid at all.

Hence, D is the assumption we are looking for

Hope that helps !
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Re: In humans, ingested protein is broken down into amino acids,  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Mar 2013, 13:24
Hello Mun23,

Let me try helping you with this one. The argument mentions that amino acids generally compete to get to the brain. However, subsequent consumption of some sort of sugar causes all amino acids, except tryptophan, to be removed from the bloodstream. Tryptophan then enters the brain and acts as a base for production of serotonin increasing the brain's level of serotonin. Thus, the passage concludes that sugars play an important role in mood elevation and makes one feel relaxed and care-free. However, if you notice here, the argument jumps from the increase in levels of serotonin to mood elevation. This is possible only if serotonin causes mood elevation. This should lead us directly to D. However, let us analyze the rest of the statements for clarity.

(A)Elevation of mood and freedom from anxiety require increasing the level of serotonin in the brain.
This is stretching reality a bit far too much. In this case, all the passage mentions is that the presence of serotonin is good for enhancing mood and proving freedom from anxiety. However, it does not mention anywhere that serotonin is required for this. Many other chemicals in the body could also provide the same relaxed feeling, for all we know. Now let us negate the statement. Negating the statement tells us that the elevation of mood and freedom does not require increasing the level of serotonin in the brain. This can be interpreted as the elevation of mood does not necessarily require an increase in level of serotonin in the brain. It could be achieved by a number of other chemicals. The negation of this statement does not cause the argument to fall apart and hence, not the answer.

(B)Failure to consume foods rich in sugars results in anxiety and a lowering of mood.
This tells us that absence of sugar does not result in anxiety but does not tell us whether the presence of sugar causes an elevation in mood. It could be possible that the absence of sugar does not cause anxiety but the presence of sugar relieves one from anxiety. Also, we need a link between serotonin and elevation of mood. This gives us no such link between the two.

(C)Serotonin can be produced naturally only if tryptophan is present in the bloodstream.
This is not an assumption that is required. So what id serotonin can be produced only if tryptophan is present in the bloodstream. It does not give us any information that could negate our conclusion or make it fall apart.

(D)Increasing the level of scrotonin in the brain promotes relaxation and freedom from anxiety. Answer

(E)The consumption of protein-rich foods results in anxiety and a lowering of mood.
This cannot be confirmed based on the content in the passage. The passage mentions that the consumption of sugars might lower in anxiety. However, we do not know whether the consumption of protein lowers the amount of serotonin in brain or not. If we knew something in this direction, it might have been possible to confirm this statement. Also, negating this does not cause the argument to fall apart.

Hope this helps! Let me know if I can help you any further.

mun23 wrote:
In humans,ingested protein is broken down into amino acids,all of which must compete to enter the brain.Subsequent ingestion of sugars leads to the production of insulin,a horemone that breaks down the sugars and also rids the bloodstream of residual amino acids,except for tryptophan.Tryptohan then slips into the brain uncontested and is transformed into the chemical scrotonin ,increasing the brain`s scrotonin level.Thus,sugars can play a major role in mood elevation,helping one to feel relaxed and anxiety-free.
Which one of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

(A)Elevation of mood and freedom from anxiety require increasing the level of scrotonin in the brain
(B)Failure to consume foods rich in sugars results in anxiety and a lowering of mood
(C)Scrotonin can be produced naturally only if tryptophan is present in the bloodstream
(D)Increasing the level of scrotonin in the brain promotes relaxation and freedom from anxiety
(E)The consumption of protein-rich foods results in anxiety and a lowering of mood.

Need explanation.............
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Re: In humans, ingested protein is broken down into amino acids,  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Apr 2013, 23:07
All duplicate threads on this topic have been merged.

Please check and follow the Guidelines for Posting in Verbal GMAT forum before posting anything.
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New post 24 Nov 2015, 20:25
A is wrong, coz, it is not that relaxation requires setorin. It is that setorin causes relaxation which is D. So D.
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Re: In humans, ingested protein is broken down into amino acids,  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Apr 2017, 03:15
Sugar–> tryptophan –> serotonin –> feel relaxed and anxiety-free
Conclusion: "Thus sugars can play a major role in mood elevation, helping one to feel relaxed and anxiety-free"
Negating answer choice D :-
"Increasing the level of serotonin in the brain do not promotes relaxation and freedom from anxiety".{Negation of answer choice D states increased levels of
serotonin in the brain do not promotes relaxation and freedon from anxiety invalidating the conclusion which says that sugar can play a major role in mood elevation
afterall breaking down of sugar leads to serotonin}. Hence, choice D is correct.

Alternate Solution :-

Conclusion: sugars can play a major role in mood elevation, helping one to feel relaxed and anxiety-free.
Premise: Tryptophan is transformed into serotonin in the brain causing an increase in the brain's serotonin level.

Fix the missing pieces in the jigsaw puzzle.

Assumption: Serotonin causes mood elevation.

Now lets look at the options:

(A) Elevation of mood and freedom from anxiety require increasing the level of serotonin in the brain. [This is the reverse. Increased level of serotonin causes mood elevation is what our assumption says, but elevation in mood does not necessarily require increased serotonin activity. Say my mood is elevated when listening to music. So is serotonin involved?? NO. This is a nice trap laid to lure test takers. I hope i have differentiated the subtle difference in the meaning. Eliminated!]

(B) Failure to consume foods rich in sugars results in anxiety and a lowering of mood. [we know what happens when we consume sugar rich foods. But what happens when we don't consume is beyond the scope of our stimulus.- remember when we say animals exposed to sunlight suffer from skin cancer we cannot infer that animals not exposed to sunlight do not suffer from skin cancer. Eliminated!]

(C) Serotonin can be produced naturally only if tryptophan is present in the bloodstream. [we do not have info to comment on the various methods of serotonin production. we know tryptophan transforms in serotonin. There may be other ways too. Eliminated!]

(D) Increasing the level of serotonin in the brain promotes relaxation and freedom from anxiety. [Bingo! we have our assumption stated word to word. click. confirm and move. ]

(E) The consumption of protein-rich foods results in anxiety and a lowering of mood. [This is exact opposite to what is stated in the stimulus. Eliminated!]

Hence D.
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Re: In humans, ingested protein is broken down into amino acids,  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Oct 2017, 20:31
MA wrote:
In humans, ingested protein is broken down into amino acids, all of which must compete to enter the brain. Subsequent ingestion of sugars leads to the production of insulin, a hormone that breaks down the sugars and also rids the bloodstream of residual amino acids, except for tryptophan, Tryptophan then slips into the brain uncontested and is transformed into the chemical serotonin, increasing the brain's serotonin level. Thus sugars can play a major role in mood elevation, helping one to feel relaxed and anxiety-free.

Which one of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

(A) Elevation of mood and freedom from anxiety require increasing the level of serotonin the brain.
(B) Failure to consume foods rich in sugars results in anxiety and a lowering of mood.
(C) Serotonin can be produced naturally only if tryptophan is presented in the bloodstream.
(D) Increasing the level of serotonin in the brain promotes relaxation and freedom from anxiety.
(E) The consumption of protein-rich foods results in anxiety and a lowering of mood.

Source : LSAT PrepTest38 Q#22



D is the correct answer. The conclusion introduces a rogue idea that sugars can play a major role in mood elevation. The premises prior to that only talk about sugars, amino acids and insulin and then serotonin, but not mood elevation. There is a logical gap. The correct answer choice will link the premises and the conclusion.

A is close but 'require' is too extreme therefore eliminate it.
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Re: In humans, ingested protein is broken down into amino acids,  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Oct 2017, 23:06
grumpyoldman wrote:
Good question, domleon. It's a basic principle that shows up in many CR questions. The principle is that "If X, then Y" does not mean the same thing as "If Y, then X". This seems obvious when expressed this way, and it is -- but the testmakers have ways of writing "If X, then Y" statements that are hard to recognize.

In this case, the evidence definitely proves that (as long as protein is ingested first), ingestion of sugar will increase the brain's serotonin level. The conclusion is that ingesting sugar will help you feel relaxed and anxiety-free. It's fairly clear what the missing assumption is: Increasing the brain's serotonin level will help you feel relaxed and anxiety-free.

What is not so obvious is that this is really an if-then statement: If the brain's serotonin level is increased, then you are more likely to feel relaxed and anxiety-free (If X, then Y). In other words, increasing the brain's serotonin level will have this effect, but it is NOT necessarily the ONLY way to have this effect.

This is NOT the same as saying "If you feel more relaxed and anxiety-free, then your serotonin level must have increased." (If Y, then X) This statement says that increasing serotonin is the ONLY way to feel more relaxed and anxiety-free.

Choice A is wrong because it says that increasing serotonin is the ONLY way to feel more relaxed and anxiety-free -- in other words, "If you feel more relaxed etc., then your serotonin level must have increased." That's "If Y, then X", where we need "If X, then Y".


Perfectly put. Adding a Roadmap here in simple if-else statement to get the concept visually noted. This helps me every time :


if (Sero level increases)
{
relaxed mood
}


Entering any 'if' statement is always from top to down- ONE WAY ROAD.
"A" goes from down to top and "D" correctly goes from top to down. So, D-correct.
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