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In its 1903 decision in the case of Lone Wolf v. Hitchcock, the United

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In its 1903 decision in the case of Lone Wolf v. Hitchcock, the United  [#permalink]

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In its 1903 decision in the case of Lone Wolf v. Hitchcock, the United States Supreme Court rejected the efforts of three Native American tribes to prevent the opening of tribal lands to non-Indian settlement without tribal consent. In his study of the Lone Wolf case, Blue Clark properly emphasizes the Court’s assertion of a virtually unlimited unilateral power of Congress (the House of Representatives and the Senate) over Native American affairs. But he fails to note the decision’s more far-reaching impact: shortly after Lone Wolf, the federal government totally abandoned negotiation and execution of formal written agreements with Indian tribes as a prerequisite for the implementation of federal Indian policy. Many commentators believe that this change had already occurred in 1871 when—following a dispute between the House and the Senate over which chamber should enjoy primacy in Indian affairs—Congress abolished the making of treaties with Native American tribes. But in reality the federal government continued to negotiate formal tribal agreements past the turn of the century, treating these documents not as treaties with sovereign nations requiring ratification by the Senate but simply as legislation to be passed by both houses of Congress. The Lone Wolf decision ended this era of formal negotiation and finally did away with what had increasingly become the empty formality of obtaining tribal consent.

1.The author of the passage is primarily concerned with

A. identifying similarities in two different theories

B. evaluating a work of scholarship

C. analyzing the significance of a historical event

D. debunking a revisionist interpretation

E. exploring the relationship between law and social reality


2. According to the passage, which of the following was true of relations between the federal government and Native American tribes?

A. Some Native American tribes approved of the congressional action of 1871 because it simplified their dealings with the federal government.

B. Some Native American tribes were more eager to negotiate treaties with the United States after the Lone Wolf decision.

C. Prior to the Lone Wolf decision, the Supreme Court was reluctant to hear cases involving agreements negotiated between Congress and Native American tribes.

D. Prior to 1871, the federal government sometimes negotiated treaties with Native American tribes.

E. Following 1871, the House exercised more power than did the Senate in the government’s dealings with Native American tribe


3. As an element in the argument presented by the author of the passage, the reference to Blue Clark’s study of the Lone Wolf case serves primarily to

A. point out that this episode in Native American history has received inadequate attention from scholars

B. support the contention of the author of the passage that the Lone Wolf decision had a greater long-term impact than did the congressional action of 1871

C. challenge the validity of the Supreme Court’s decision confirming the unlimited unilateral power of Congress in Native American affairs

D. refute the argument of commentators who regard the congressional action of 1871 as the end of the era of formal negotiation between the federal government and Native American tribes

E. introduce a view about the Lone Wolf decision that the author will expand upon


4. According to the passage, which of the following resulted from the Lone Wolf decision?

A. The Supreme Court took on a greater role in Native American affairs.

B. Native American tribes lost their legal standing as sovereign nations in their dealings with the federal government, but their ownership of tribal lands was confirmed.

C. The federal government no longer needed to conclude a formal agreement with a Native American tribe in order to carry out policy decisions that affected the tribe.

D. The federal government began to appropriate tribal lands for distribution to non-Indian settlers.

E. Native American tribes were no longer able to challenge congressional actions by appealing to the Supreme Court.


5. According to the passage, the congressional action of 1871 had which of the following effects?

(A) Native American tribal agreements were treated as legislation that had to be passed by both houses of Congress.

(B) The number of formal agreements negotiated between the federal government and Native American tribes decreased.

(C) The procedures for congressional approval and implementation of federal Indian policy were made more precise.

(D) It became more difficult for Congress to exercise unilateral authority over Native American affairs.

(E) The role of Congress in the ratification of treaties with sovereign nations was eventually undermined.


6. According to the passage, in the case of Lone Wolf v. Hitchcock the Supreme Court decided that

(A) disputes among native American tribes over the ownership of tribal lands were beyond the jurisdiction of the Court

(B) Congress had the power to allow outsiders to settle on lands occupied by a Native American tribe without obtaining permission from that tribe

(C) Congress had exceeded its authority in attempting to exercise sole power over native American affairs

(D) the United States was not legally bound by the provisions of treaties previously concluded with Native American tribes

(E) formal agreements between the federal government and Native American tribes should be treated as ordinary legislation rather than as treaties


Originally posted by rohitgoel15 on 17 Mar 2010, 02:08.
Last edited by SajjadAhmad on 29 Jul 2019, 05:22, edited 15 times in total.
Updated complete topic (30).
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Re: In its 1903 decision in the case of Lone Wolf v. Hitchcock, the United  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Mar 2013, 01:52
10
5
C D E C

Q12:
The author of the passage is primarily concerned with

The author is concerned about the far reaching impact of the Supreme Court decision during the Lone Wolf case. A decision which led to abolishing treaties... something the scholar missed to tackle...

A. there were no theories in the passage OUT!
B. he evaluated the scholar's work for a moment BUT that was primarily to get to his point about the effect of the Lone Wolf case later... OUT!
C. BINGO! Analyzing the far reaching impact of an event
D. he pointed out what a scholar was missing but that was ONLY in support to his primary purpose... OUT!
E. law and social reality? too generic.. OUT!

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Q13:
According to the passage, which of the following was true of relations between the federal government and Native American tribes?

A and B. we don't know about what the Native American tribes really thought of the issue and where they stand... OUT!
C. We know one case but we cannot generalize that they were reluctant on some other cases. We dont know. OUT!
D. BINGO! It was mentioned that abolishing the treaties happened in 1871. Then prior to that, there were treaties.
E. Which had greater power, not discussed in the passage. All we know that the Senate do the ratification and both houses pass this as legislation... Who has more power.. Don't know!! OUT!

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Q14:
As an element in the argument presented by the author of the passage, the reference to Blue Clark’s study of the Lone Wolf case serves primarily to

A. That is not the point of the author. He was just hinting on something Blue Clark's study lack upon. OUT!
B. No such comparison in the passage. OUT!
C. The author accepts that and does not challenge the unilateral power. OUT!
D. He does not refute that but he uses that as evidence of the far reaching impact of the Lone Wolf case decision by the SUpreme Court. OUT!
E. BINGO!

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Q15:
According to the passage, which of the following resulted from the Lone Wolf decision?

A. Treaties were abolished but that doesn't mean Supreme Court took the greater role. We don't know that. OUT!
B. This is like assuming beyond what the author has provided. Land confirmation for instance was not mentioned in the passage.
C. BINGO!
D. Not discussed to this extent in the passage. OUT!
E. We don't know whether Native American tribes were able to challenge or not. OUT!
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Re: In its 1903 decision in the case of Lone Wolf v. Hitchcock, the United  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Apr 2010, 04:19
1
12. C
It introduces the event Lone Wolf and then goes on illustrating the far more impact of that event.

13. D
line 20 to 35 state that Federal govt was involved in Treaties with Indians.

14. E
Passage presents a view that the event was propely emphasized by Clark 'but he fails to note
the decision’s more far-reaching'

15. C
Line 15-20
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Re: In its 1903 decision in the case of Lone Wolf v. Hitchcock, the United  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Apr 2011, 07:42
According to the passage, the congressional action of 1871 had which of the following effects?

(A) Native American tribal agreements were treated as legislation that had to be passed by both houses of Congress.
(B) The number of formal agreements negotiated between the federal government and Native American tribes decreased.
(C) The procedures for congressional approval and implementation of federal Indian policy were made more precise.
(D) It became more difficult for Congress to exercise unilateral authority over Native American affairs.
(E) The role of Congress in the ratification of treaties with sovereign nations was eventually undermined.

OA : A .

thx guys. but i really dnt understand this one. I chose a B. got it all wrong!
:-(

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Re: In its 1903 decision in the case of Lone Wolf v. Hitchcock, the United  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Apr 2011, 08:01
Q12: C
(front)…In his study of the Lone Wolf case…he fails to note the decision’s more far-reaching impact ….(end) The Lone Wolf decision ended this era of formal negotiation

Q13: D
(mid)…1871 when— following a dispute between the House and the Senate over which chamber should enjoy primacy in Indian affairs—Congress abolished the making of treaties with Native American tribes.

Q14: B (looks like I got this wrong according to others. I was between B or D - appreciate if you can explain! My thinking was that the weight of the Blue Clark example was on its failure to recognize the more far-reaching impact. Commentators believed otherwise, but in fact LW ended the era. It doesn't seem as it is brought up strictly to refute the commentators, rather the author is drawing an example to support his/her view.)

…he fails to note the decision’s more far-reaching impact… Many commentators believe… But in reality the federal government continued to negotiate… (“In fact”) The Lone Wolf decision ended this era of formal negotiation and finally did away

Q15: C
(mid)…the federal government totally abandoned negotiation and execution of formal written agreements with Indian tribes as a prerequisite for the implementation of federal Indian policy.….(end)The Lone Wolf decision ended this era of formal negotiation
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Re: In its 1903 decision in the case of Lone Wolf v. Hitchcock, the United  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Jun 2013, 22:31
1
rohitgoel15 wrote:
In its 1903 decision in the case of Lone Wolf v. Hitchcock, the United States Supreme Court rejected the
Line efforts of three Native American tribes
(5) to prevent the opening of tribal lands
to non-Indian settlement without tribal
consent. In his study of the Lone
Wolf case, Blue Clark properly
emphasizes the Court’s assertion
(10) of a virtually unlimited unilateral power
of Congress (the House of Represen-
tatives and the Senate) over Native
American affairs. But he fails to note
the decision’s more far-reaching
(15) impact: shortly after Lone Wolf, the
federal government totally abandoned
negotiation and execution of formal
written agreements with Indian tribes
as a prerequisite for the implemen-
(20) tation of federal Indian policy. Many
commentators believe that this change
had already occurred in 1871 when—
following a dispute between the
House and the Senate over which
(25) chamber should enjoy primacy in
Indian affairs—Congress abolished
the making of treaties with Native
American tribes. But in reality the
federal government continued to nego-
(30) tiate formal tribal agreements past
the turn of the century, treating these
documents not as treaties with sover-
eign nations requiring ratification by the
Senate but simply as legislation to be
(35) passed by both houses of Congress.
The Lone Wolf decision ended this
era of formal negotiation and finally
did away with what had increasingly
become the empty formality of obtain-
ing tribal consent.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Q12:
The author of the passage is primarily concerned with

A. identifying similarities in two different theories
B. evaluating a work of scholarship
C. analyzing the significance of a historical event
D. debunking a revisionist interpretation
E. exploring the relationship between law and social reality

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Q13:
According to the passage, which of the following was true of relations between the federal government and Native American tribes?

A. Some Native American tribes approved of the congressional action of 1871 because it simplified their dealings with the federal government.
B. Some Native American tribes were more eager to negotiate treaties with the United States after the Lone Wolf decision.
C. Prior to the Lone Wolf decision, the Supreme Court was reluctant to hear cases involving agreements negotiated between Congress and Native American tribes.
D. Prior to 1871, the federal government sometimes negotiated treaties with Native American tribes.
E. Following 1871, the House exercised more power than did the Senate in the government’s dealings with Native American tribes.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Q14:
As an element in the argument presented by the author of the passage, the reference to Blue Clark’s study of the Lone Wolf case serves primarily to

A. point out that this episode in Native American history has received inadequate attention from scholars
B. support the contention of the author of the passage that the Lone Wolf decision had a greater long-term impact than did the congressional action of 1871
C. challenge the validity of the Supreme Court’s decision confirming the unlimited unilateral power of Congress in Native American affairs
D. refute the argument of commentators who regard the congressional action of 1871 as the end of the era of formal negotiation between the federal government and Native American tribes
E. introduce a view about the Lone Wolf decision that the author will expand upon

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Q15:
According to the passage, which of the following resulted from the Lone Wolf decision?

A. The Supreme Court took on a greater role in Native American affairs.
B. Native American tribes lost their legal standing as sovereign nations in their dealings with the federal government, but their ownership of tribal lands was confirmed.
C. The federal government no longer needed to conclude a formal agreement with a Native American tribe in order to carry out policy decisions that affected the tribe.
D. The federal government began to appropriate tribal lands for distribution to non-Indian settlers.
E. Native American tribes were no longer able to challenge congressional actions by appealing to the Supreme Court.



C
D
E
C

Hi BB,

Can someone explain about the relationships between Supreme court/Federal government/Congress etc...
I have seen so many passages related to them. I think understanding of this structure by, say US citizens or those who are aware of it, makes it a lot easier for them to understand the passage from the go.

Can you direct me to some link where I ca get more information about this.

KR,
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Re: In its 1903 decision in the case of Lone Wolf v. Hitchcock, the United  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Jun 2013, 08:06
2
1
Hi - Try wikipedia :-)

In all seriousness though, you do not need to know anything about the US system for this to make sense.

You can of course learn about it, it will not hurt, but if I had limited time to revise - I'd concentrate on the core GMAT skills...

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Re: In its 1903 decision in the case of Lone Wolf v. Hitchcock, the United  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Aug 2013, 02:13
Can somebody explain me the details of this passage in simple language?

I struggled to understand the sentence below.

"In his study of the Lone
Wolf case, Blue Clark properly
emphasizes the Court’s assertion
(10) of a virtually unlimited unilateral power
of Congress (the House of Represen-
tatives and the Senate) over Native
American affairs. "

Does this mean that Clark is pointing that the Congress (Senate and HOR) has used its law-making power unjustly against the tribes??
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Re: In its 1903 decision in the case of Lone Wolf v. Hitchcock, the United  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Jul 2015, 21:08
1
Time Taken 8 mins. All Correct.

Q2:

According to the passage, which of the following was true of relations between the federal government and Native American tribes?
D. Prior to 1871, the federal government sometimes negotiated treaties with Native American tribes.
E. Following 1871, the House exercised more power than did the Senate in the government’s dealings with Native American tribes.

>>Though arg support both , I selected D over E because E is more strong. any thoughts?

Many commentators believe that this change had already occurred in 1871 when following a dispute between the House and the Senate over which chamber should enjoy primacy in Indian affairs—Congress abolished the making of treaties with Native American tribes.
But in reality the federal government continued to negotiate formal tribal agreements past the turn of the century, treating these documents not as treaties with sovereign nations requiring ratification by the Senate but simply as legislation to be passed by both houses of Congress.
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Re: In its 1903 decision in the case of Lone Wolf v. Hitchcock, the United  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Dec 2016, 23:49
1
Hi experts, and mikemcgarry
would you please guide how should I distinguish B and C for main idea question. following is the detail of the main idea question
"The author of the passage is primarily concerned with

A. identifying similarities in two different theories
B. evaluating a work of scholarship
C. analyzing the significance of a historical event
D. debunking a revisionist interpretation
E. exploring the relationship between law and social reality"

I picked up B , but correct answer is C.

recently, I found I failed on most main idea questions,
in this case, I am surprised when read the OA, because I picked up wrong answer, B, while correct one is C
and then I spent much time to compare B and C, unfortunately, I have not got the idea,
regarding the future practices and tests, I have no idea how should I avoid the pick up wrong answers while I feel I would pick up the "right" but actual "wrong" answer.

Please ~~~~


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New post 29 Dec 2016, 07:14
zoezhuyan wrote:
Hi experts, and mikemcgarry
would you please guide how should I distinguish B and C for main idea question. following is the detail of the main idea question
"The author of the passage is primarily concerned with

B. evaluating a work of scholarship
C. analyzing the significance of a historical event"

ZOE


Hi Zoe,

I am neither Mike nor expert but I can say from Manhattan Reading Comprehension great explanation that the purpose of the passage comes from the point of the author, which is analogous to the "conclusion" in critical reasoning, but in a passage.

It worth reading the manhattan reading comprehension guide to understand how to locate the author's point that can be located anywhere in the text.

Posted from my mobile device

Posted from my mobile device

Posted from my mobile device
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New post 29 Dec 2016, 21:49
felippemed wrote:
Hi Zoe,

I am neither Mike nor expert but I can say from Manhattan Reading Comprehension great explanation that the purpose of the passage comes from the point of the author, which is analogous to the "conclusion" in critical reasoning, but in a passage.

It worth reading the manhattan reading comprehension guide to understand how to locate the author's point that can be located anywhere in the text.

Posted from my mobile device

Posted from my mobile device

Posted from my mobile device


thanks so much for your share.

my test is close, I am not sure whether I can add the whole guide on my list.
but I will follow your proposal after this time test. I believe I will do better next test.

have a nice day
>_~

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New post 31 Dec 2016, 06:08
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New post 01 Jan 2017, 04:43
felippemed wrote:
http://www.manhattanprep.com/gmat/blog/2011/07/22/how-to-find-the-point-in-an-rc-passage/

zoezhuyan

Hope it helps you b4 the test

thank you so much indeed, felippemed

I read it, very helpful...

lucky , I practiced OG12 RC many times, and the examples mention in the article are familiar with me. I can recall immediately,

I think I need more practice as the pointers in the articles.

thank you again.

happy new year.

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New post 28 Apr 2017, 04:39
2
In its 1903 decision in the case of Lone Wolf v. Hitchcock, the United States Supreme Court rejected the Line efforts of three Native American tribes to prevent the opening of tribal lands to non-Indian settlement without tribal consent. In his study of the Lone Wolf case, Blue Clark properly emphasizes the Court’s assertion of a virtually unlimited unilateral power of Congress (the House of Representatives and the Senate) over Native American affairs.

But he fails to note the decision’s more far-reaching impact: shortly after Lone Wolf, the federal government totally abandoned negotiation and execution of formal written agreements with Indian tribes as a prerequisite for the implementation of federal Indian policy. Many commentators believe that this change had already occurred in 1871 when following a dispute between the House and the Senate over which chamber should enjoy primacy in Indian affairs—Congress abolished the making of treaties with Native American tribes. But in reality, the federal government continued to negotiate formal tribal agreements past the turn of the century, treating these
documents not as treaties with sovereign nations requiring ratification by the Senate but simply as legislation to be passed by both houses of Congress.
The Lone Wolf decision ended this era of formal negotiation and finally did away with what had increasingly become the empty formality of obtaining tribal consent.

Passage summary
P1:- About decision in the case of Lone Walk and Blue Clark' study.
P2 :- About decision's far reaching impact. (Note by reading 1st line of P2 we may think that author will explain about Blue Clark’s study in this paragraph, but in last line it is clear that author is still talking about decision.)

By passage summary we can pre-think that author is discussing about decision.
The author of the passage is primarily concerned with

A. identifying similarities in two different theories (not theories)
B. evaluating a work of scholarship ---( Yes author put some light on a Work of Blue Clarke but this not the primary purpose.)
C. analyzing the significance of a historical event ---- Correct align with pre-think.
D. debunking a revisionist interpretation
E. exploring the relationship between law and social reality


--------------------------------------***********************---------------------------------

According to the passage, which of the following was true of relations between the federal government and Native American tribes?

Background - Answer will be explicitly mention in the passage.
Congress abolished the making of treaties with Native American tribes. But in reality, the federal government continued to negotiate formal tribal agreements past the turn of the century.

A. Some Native American tribes approved of the congressional action of 1871 because it simplified their dealings with the federal government.
B. Some Native American tribes were more eager to negotiate treaties with the United States after the Lone Wolf decision.
C. Prior to the Lone Wolf decision, the Supreme Court was reluctant to hear cases involving agreements negotiated between Congress and Native American tribes.
D. Prior to 1871, the federal government sometimes negotiated treaties with Native American tribes.
E. Following 1871, the House exercised more power than did the Senate in the government’s dealings with Native American tribes.


--------------------------------------***********************---------------------------------

As an element in the argument presented by the author of the passage, the reference to Blue Clark’s study of the Lone Wolf case serves primarily to

Background - This role type question( IN CR) -- If we read 2nd paragraph we can find that with reference of his study author picking up new view and discuss.

A. point out that this episode in Native American history has received inadequate attention from scholars
B. support the contention of the author of the passage that the Lone Wolf decision had a greater long-term impact than did the congressional action of 1871
C. challenge the validity of the Supreme Court’s decision confirming the unlimited unilateral power of Congress in Native American affairs
D. refute the argument of commentators who regard the congressional action of 1871 as the end of the era of formal negotiation between the federal government and Native American tribes
E. introduce a view about the Lone Wolf decision that the author will expand upon


--------------------------------------***********************---------------------------------

According to the passage, which of the following resulted from the Lone Wolf decision?

Background -1st line of p2- Impact: shortly after Lone Wolf, the federal government totally abandoned negotiation and execution of formal written agreements with Indian tribes as a prerequisite for the implementation of federal Indian policy.
and last line of p2 - The Lone Wolf decision ended this era of formal negotiation and finally did away with what had increasingly become the empty formality of obtaining tribal consent.

A. The Supreme Court took on a greater role in Native American affairs.
B. Native American tribes lost their legal standing as sovereign nations in their dealings with the federal government, but their ownership of tribal lands was confirmed.
C. The federal government no longer needed to conclude a formal agreement with a Native American tribe in order to carry out policy decisions that affected the tribe. ---Align with last line of p2.
D. The federal government began to appropriate tribal lands for distribution to non-Indian settlers.
E. Native American tribes were no longer able to challenge congressional actions by appealing to the Supreme Court.

Please share your doubt , if any.
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New post 06 Nov 2017, 08:07
Nightmare007 wrote:
saintlychik wrote:
According to the passage, the congressional action of 1871 had which of the following effects?

(A) Native American tribal agreements were treated as legislation that had to be passed by both houses of Congress.
(B) The number of formal agreements negotiated between the federal government and Native American tribes decreased.
(C) The procedures for congressional approval and implementation of federal Indian policy were made more precise.
(D) It became more difficult for Congress to exercise unilateral authority over Native American affairs.
(E) The role of Congress in the ratification of treaties with sovereign nations was eventually undermined.

OA : A .

thx guys. but i really dnt understand this one. I chose a B. got it all wrong!
:-(

P

Hi in the last paragraph last 2-3 sentences you will see that just bill passing is done with both the houses . I hope you liked the answer . If so Hit kudos :)


Hi,
I am facing difficulty with this question. Isn't the question asking what happened after the dispute of 1871 and, thus after 'Congress abolished the making of treaties with Native American tribes' ?
"Native American tribal agreements were treated as legislation that had to be passed by both houses of Congress"- wasn't this prior to the congressional action of 1871 ?

Thank you.
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New post 09 Aug 2018, 21:44
Shahzad hassan wrote:

If this was an inference question than would the answer be option E ?


The author mentions treaties with sovereign nations to compare with the treaties with native tribes. The author doesn't really talk in depth about treaties with sovereign nations. Hence option E would not make an inference.
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Re: In its 1903 decision in the case of Lone Wolf v. Hitchcock, the United  [#permalink]

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Re: In its 1903 decision in the case of Lone Wolf v. Hitchcock, the United   [#permalink] 10 Aug 2019, 07:15
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In its 1903 decision in the case of Lone Wolf v. Hitchcock, the United

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