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In many nations, criminal law does not apply to corporations, but in t

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Magoosh GMAT Instructor
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Re: In many nations, criminal law does not apply to corporations, but in t  [#permalink]

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New post 31 Mar 2017, 10:31
sleepynut wrote:
Hi mikemcgarry,
I have no objection with the correct answer.
However,can you please elaborate more on the shift of tense in option (A).
IMHO,the second part after "but" explains the condition of criminal law.If this condition is met,something happens.
Why the tense are not all in present tense in this part?

Thanks :-)

Dear sleepynut

I'm happy to respond. :-)

This is a somewhat unusual construction. It sounds perfectly natural to a native speaker, but I can see that it would be puzzling to a non-native speaker.

The basic idea is that there's a time lag between the actions and the evaluation of the actions. You see, if someone steal a car or breaks into a house, these actions are unambiguously crimes, and so the crime is the same as the action and they both happen at the same time. With a complex corporate situation, it's much more ambiguous. Several actors are doing several different things, some responding to direct orders, some responding to company protocols, some acting on their own initiative. A set of consequences arises from all these actions that fall outside what ordinarily would result from legal behavior. Somebody has to investigate, and it may be weeks or months later before this investigator reaches the conclusion that what happened much earlier constituted a crime. The verbs "commits" are in the present, because the judgment that it is a crime is in the present: really, it's a general rule, which is always spoken in the present. The verbs after the comma, about the individual actions themselves, are in the past because invariably they happened long before any judgment is rendered.

Does all this make sense?
Mike :-)
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Re: In many nations, criminal law does not apply to corporations, but in t  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Jun 2017, 19:28
B is wrong because V-ing ins stricted in gmat
C is out because of verb agreement, "corporations" and "its employees"
D is incorrect because of unclear and wrong pronoun "if it was while", this also sounds aliened.
E first discusses "employees", then talks about "the employee", so E cannot be the answer.
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Re: In many nations, criminal law does not apply to corporations, but in t  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Feb 2018, 23:07
1
mikemcgarry wrote:
Chemerical71 wrote:
In many nations, criminal law does not apply to corporations, but in the United States today, a corporation commits a crime whenever one of its employees commits a crime, if the employee acted within the scope of his or her authority and if the corporation benefited as a result.

A. a corporation commits a crime whenever one of its employees commits a crime, if the employee acted

B. a corporation is committing a crime whenever one of its employees committed a crime, if those employees were acting

C. corporations commit a crime whenever one of its employees does, on the condition that the employee acts

D. corporations commit crimes whenever an employee of those corporations commit a crime, if it was while acting

E. the corporation whose employees commit a crime, commits a crime, whenever the employee acted

Dear Chemerical71,
A great question! I'm happy to respond! :-)

A. a corporation commits a crime whenever one of its employees commits a crime, if the employee acted
This choice is flawless, a promising candidate.

B. a corporation is committing a crime whenever one of its employees committed a crime, if those employees were acting
The present progressive "is committing" is awkward, and it mismatches the tense of "committed"--those two should have the same tense, because they are simultaneous actions. This is incorrect.

C. corporations commit a crime whenever one of its employees does, on the condition that the employee acts
Mismatch between antecedent & pronoun: "corporations . . . its employees." This is incorrect.

D. corporations commit crimes whenever an employee of those corporations commit a crime, if it was while acting
This is is logically flaw: how can a single employee be an employee of multiple corporations? Also, after the comma, this one uses "it" to refer to the employee! This is incorrect.

E. the corporation whose employees commit a crime, commits a crime, whenever the employee acted
A logical mismatch: how many employees are committing crimes here? We have multiple criminal employees before the comma, but only a singular example after the comma. This is incorrect.

The only possible answer is (A).

Does all this make sense?
Mike :-)


PLEASE HELP ME IN UNDERSTANDING THE STRUCTURE OF SENTENCE A??
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Re: In many nations, criminal law does not apply to corporations, but in t  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Jun 2018, 07:44
Sankalp92 wrote:
mikemcgarry wrote:
Chemerical71 wrote:
In many nations, criminal law does not apply to corporations, but in the United States today, a corporation commits a crime whenever one of its employees commits a crime, if the employee acted within the scope of his or her authority and if the corporation benefited as a result.

A. a corporation commits a crime whenever one of its employees commits a crime, if the employee acted

B. a corporation is committing a crime whenever one of its employees committed a crime, if those employees were acting

C. corporations commit a crime whenever one of its employees does, on the condition that the employee acts

D. corporations commit crimes whenever an employee of those corporations commit a crime, if it was while acting

E. the corporation whose employees commit a crime, commits a crime, whenever the employee acted

Dear Chemerical71,
A great question! I'm happy to respond! :-)

A. a corporation commits a crime whenever one of its employees commits a crime, if the employee acted
This choice is flawless, a promising candidate.

B. a corporation is committing a crime whenever one of its employees committed a crime, if those employees were acting
The present progressive "is committing" is awkward, and it mismatches the tense of "committed"--those two should have the same tense, because they are simultaneous actions. This is incorrect.

C. corporations commit a crime whenever one of its employees does, on the condition that the employee acts
Mismatch between antecedent & pronoun: "corporations . . . its employees." This is incorrect.

D. corporations commit crimes whenever an employee of those corporations commit a crime, if it was while acting
This is is logically flaw: how can a single employee be an employee of multiple corporations? Also, after the comma, this one uses "it" to refer to the employee! This is incorrect.

E. the corporation whose employees commit a crime, commits a crime, whenever the employee acted
A logical mismatch: how many employees are committing crimes here? We have multiple criminal employees before the comma, but only a singular example after the comma. This is incorrect.

The only possible answer is (A).

Does all this make sense?
Mike :-)


PLEASE HELP ME IN UNDERSTANDING THE STRUCTURE OF SENTENCE A??


Hey,

The structure is as follows

[prepositional phrase], [Clause] , but [prepositional phrase] , [clause], [phrase]

Please note that the end of the sentence is a phrase because there is no verb in the entire sentence. Hope this is clear.
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Re: In many nations, criminal law does not apply to corporations, but in t  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Jun 2018, 09:57
KC wrote:
In many nations, criminal law does not apply to corporations, but in the United Stated today, a corporation commits a crime whenever one of its employees commits a crime, if the employee acted within the scope of his or her authority and if the corporation benefited as a result.


(A) a corporation commits a crime whenever one of its employees commits a crime, if the employee acted

(B) a corporation is committing a crime whenever one of its employees committed a crime, if those employees were acting

(C) corporations commit a crime whenever one of its employees does, on the condition that the employee acts

D) corporations commit crimes whenever an employee of those corporations commit a crime, if it was while acting

(E) the corporation whose employees commit a crime, commits a crime, whenever the employee acted

It's A.
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Re: In many nations, criminal law does not apply to corporations, but in t  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Jul 2018, 09:25
Quote:
In many nations, criminal law does not apply to corporations, but in the United States today, a corporation commits a crime whenever one of its employees commits a crime, if the employee acted within the scope of his or her authority and if the corporation benefited as a result.

A. a corporation commits a crime whenever one of its employees commits a crime, if the employee acted

B. a corporation is committing a crime whenever one of its employees committed a crime, if those employees were acting

C. corporations commit a crime whenever one of its employees does, on the condition that the employee acts

D. corporations commit crimes whenever an employee of those corporations commit a crime, if it was while acting

E. the corporation whose employees commit a crime, commits a crime, whenever the employee acted


mikemcgarry, is the usage of "whose" in choice E correct?
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Re: In many nations, criminal law does not apply to corporations, but in t  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Jul 2018, 00:26
egmat , , the "if part " is in past tense here : if ... acted....
then shouldnt according egmat sc >> if (past tense ), then (simple past)/ (would ) , is the structure. But in A then construction is > if (simple past), then (simple present){fact}...

plz explain egmat
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Re: In many nations, criminal law does not apply to corporations, but in t  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Oct 2018, 09:00
"one of its employees commits" is this correct?
Employees -> plural
Commits -> Singular
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In many nations, criminal law does not apply to corporations, but in t  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Nov 2018, 20:39
sleepynut wrote:
Hi mikemcgarry,
I have no objection with the correct answer.
However,can you please elaborate more on the shift of tense in option (A).
IMHO,the second part after "but" explains the condition of criminal law.If this condition is met,something happens.
Why the tense are not all in present tense in this part?

Thanks :-)




a corporation commits a crime whenever one of its employees commits a crime, if the employee acted within the scope of his or her authority and if the corporation benefited as a result

Note whenever also acts as IF...If simple present then simple present ..
commits ..whenever...commits fine..(simple present tense)

If the employee acted within the scope of his or her authority and if the corporation benefited as a result

All tenses are parallel and makes sense.


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Re: In many nations, criminal law does not apply to corporations, but in t  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Nov 2018, 20:45
sahanas wrote:
"one of its employees commits" is this correct?
Employees -> plural
Commits -> Singular



Yes this is perfect..

One of the X--takes a singular verb..so commits is fine



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In many nations, criminal law does not apply to corporations, but in t  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Nov 2018, 11:44
In many nations, criminal law does not apply to corporations, but in the United Stated today, a corporation commits a crime whenever one of its employees commits a crime, if the employee acted within the scope of his or her authority and if the corporation benefited as a result.

(A) a corporation commits a crime whenever one of its employees commits a crime, if the employee acted - Correct

(B) a corporation is committing a crime whenever one of its employees committed a crime, if those employees were acting - Tense issue -- is committing and committed should be in same tense

(C) corporations commit a crime whenever one of its employees does, on the condition that the employee acts - tense issue - acts and benefited should be in same tense since both of those actions are simultaneous; corporations and its employees -- Pronoun issue

D) corporations commit crimes whenever an employee of those corporations commit a crime, if it was while acting - tense issue same as C

(E) the corporation whose employees commit a crime, commits a crime, whenever the employee acted - the modifier "whose employees commit a crime" is set off by only one comma. a modifier must be set off by either 2 commas or 0 commas (unless it begins or ends the entire sentence).
unacceptable shift of meaning: the original context is that the corporation commits a crime if ONE of the employees commits a crime, but this sentence describes a crime committed by multiple employees
"whenever" is not parallel to "...and if"

In conditional verb, we have the below three forms-
1. IF clause (Simple present), Then (Simple present or Simple future)
2. IF clause (Simple past), Then (Simple past or Would verb)
3. IF clause (Past perfect), Then (Would have verb)

In OA-A, since the IF clause is in simple past - if the employee acted within the scope of his or her authority and if the corporation benefited as a result.
shouldn't the THEN clause - a corporation commits a crime whenever one of its employees commits a crime- be in simple past?

1.In many nations, criminal law does not apply to corporations, but in the United States today, a corporation committed a crime whenever one of its employees committed a crime, if the employee acted within the scope of his or her authority and if the corporation benefited as a result. --> The use of past tense here seems awkward as the fact is still true.

2. In many nations, criminal law does not apply to corporations, but in the United States today, a corporation commits a crime whenever one of its employees commits a crime, if the employee acts within the scope of his or her authority and if the corporation benefits as a result. --> This seems better

AjiteshArun , GMATNinja , MagooshExpert , GMATGuruNY , VeritasKarishma , DmitryFarber , ChiranjeevSingh , VeritasPrepBrian , MartyMurray , other experts - please enlighten

Answer A
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