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In recent years much attention has been paid to distilling those facto

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In recent years much attention has been paid to distilling those facto  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 14 Aug 2019, 22:03
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In recent years much attention has been paid to distilling those factors that create a positive work environment for corporate employees. The goal ultimately is to discover what allows some companies to foster high employee morale while other companies struggle with poor productivity and high managerial turnover. Several theories have been posited, but none has drawn as much interest from the corporate world, or has as much promise, as value congruence, which measures the "fit" between an employee's values and those of co-workers and the company itself.

Value congruence can be broken into three main subcategories: person-environment ("P-E"), person-person ("P-P"), and perceptual fit ("PF"). Person-environment congruence refers to a harmony between the personal values of the employee and corporate culture of the company in which he or she works. Someone with a high P-E congruence feels personally in tune with his company's stated policies and goals. Conversely, someone with a low P-E congruence feels a sense of disharmony between his own values and the stated policies and goals of his company. A high P-P congruence indicates a sense of solidarity with one's co-workers in terms of shared values and goals. A low P-P congruence indicates a sense of isolation from co-workers brought about by an absence of shared values. Finally, strong PF suggests a strong correspondence between the values that an employee perceives his company to have (whether or not the company actually does) and the values that his co-workers perceive the company to have (again, whether or not it actually does). A weak PF implies that an employee's perception of his company's values differs significantly from that of his co-workers.

Research has shown that P-E and PF congruence are important measures of employee satisfaction, commitment, and likelihood of turnover, although P-P congruence has little bearing on these parameters. Moreover, PF is especially important in establishing harmonious relations between workers and managers. These measures give corporations a robust paradigm on the basis of which to create long-term personnel plans and productivity growth targets: in particular, P-E and PF congruence allow companies to discover dysfunctional work relationships and clarify misperceived company policies and goals. With these tools in hand, companies can look forward to increased employee satisfaction and, ultimately, improved company performance.
1. According to the passage, which of the following was a motivation in the creation of the system of value congruence?
A) a desire to minimize the liability of upper management for employee dissatisfaction
B) a desire to help companies to improve their internal harmony
C) a desire to allow employees to increase their earning potential
D) a desire to foster awareness of factors influencing managerial success
E) a desire to eliminate discrepancies between a company’s goals and the values of its employees





2. The passage suggests that perceptual fit congruence would be most useful in determining which of the following?
A. whether a company ought to make its policies and goals more transparent
B. whether a company ought to provide sensitivity training for its management
C. whether a company ought to create more opportunities for interaction among workers
D. whether a company ought to address employee grievances more directly
E. whether a company ought to implement a more elaborate orientation program for new employees




3. The primary focus of the passage is on which of the following?
A. Comparing a new theory of corporate performance to a discredited theory and predicting the usefulness of the new theory.
B. Illustrating a new approach to measuring employee satisfaction through a detailed analysis of a particular case.
C. Challenging an old view of employee commitment and suggesting that a new paradigm is necessary.
D. Promoting a new method of measuring the likelihood of corporate success by explaining its benefits
E. Defending a proposed system of corporate analysis through examples of its success.




Originally posted by sharkiam on 28 Oct 2012, 11:21.
Last edited by SajjadAhmad on 14 Aug 2019, 22:03, edited 1 time in total.
Updated - Complete topic (147).
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Re: In recent years much attention has been paid to distilling those facto  [#permalink]

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New post 31 Dec 2013, 10:20
18
1
The question asks us to determine which of the choices was a
motivation in the creation of the system of value
congruence. According to the passage (lines 6-9), value congruence
was one of the theories that was posited "to discover what allows
some companies to foster high employee morale while other
companies struggle with poor productivity and high managerial
turnover."

(A) Poor productivity, high managerial turnover, and employee
morale have little to do with the liability of upper management for
employee satisfaction.

(B) CORRECT. Poor productivity, high managerial turnover, and
employee morale are related to a company's internal harmony or

lack thereof. The proof sentence does not correlate directly to this
answer choice, making this a fairly difficult question.

(C) Poor productivity, high managerial turnover, and employee
morale have little to do with the earning potential of employees.

(D) Poor productivity, high managerial turnover, and employee
morale have little to do with the factors influencing managerial
success.

(E) Poor productivity, high managerial turnover, and employee
morale have little to do with the discrepancies between a company's
goals and the values of its employees.

The correct answer is B



7. The question asks us to determine which of the choices would be
the best use for perceptual fit ("PF"). The passage defines
perceptual fit as the congruence between a given employee's
perception of his company's values and the perception of the
company's values held by other employees. Therefore, we need to
determine which answer choice could be determined using this
measure.

(A) CORRECT. This choice suggests that PF could be used to
determine whether a company ought to make its policies and goals
more transparent. PF will indicate to a company whether its
employees generally see the company's values the same way. This
would be useful in determining whether the company needed to do
a better job in making those values clear to its employees.

(B) This choice suggests that PF could be used to determine
whether a company ought to provide sensitivity training for its
management. PF is not relevant to issues of sensitivity training.

(C) This choice suggests that PF could be used to determine
whether a company ought to create more opportunities for
interaction among workers. Since PF is used to determine whether
employees hold the same view of the company's values, this choice
may seem attractive. But it does not specifically relate to the notion
of company values, as choice A does.

(D) This choice suggests that PF could be used to determine
whether a company needed to address employee grievances more
directly. PF is not related to the concept of company values.


(E) This choice suggests that PF could be used to determine whether
a company ought to have a more elaborate orientation program for
new employees. PF is not related to the concept of company values
as seen by employees.

The correct answer is A.



8. This question asks us to find a choice that describes the primary
focus of the passage. The correct answer must cover the entirety of
the passage without misrepresenting it.

(A) This choice mentions a comparison between a new theory and a
"discredited theory". Since there is no discussion of a discredited
theory in the passage, this choice is incorrect.

(B) This choice mentions a "detailed analysis of a particular
case". Since the passage does not focus on a particular case, this
choice is incorrect.

(C) This choice describes the passage as challenging an "old view of
employee commitment". Since the passage does not discuss old
views of employee commitment, this choice is incorrect.

(D) CORRECT. This choice describes the passage as "promoting a
new method of measuring the likelihood of corporate success" – so
far, so good – and as "explaining its benefits". This covers the
entirety of the passage and describes its purpose and function
accurately.

(E) This choice states that the passage defends "a proposed system
of corporate analysis through examples of its success." Since the
passage does not discuss examples of success, this choice is
incorrect.

The correct answer is D.


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Re: In recent years much attention has been paid to distilling those facto  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Apr 2017, 20:18
1
Although i got question 2 wrong .
But on the second reading of the passage it became clear that A is the correct answer.
Moreover, PF is especially important in establishing harmonious relations between workers and managers. These measures give corporations a robust paradigm on the basis of which to create long-term personnel plans and productivity growth targets: in particular, P-E and PF congruence allow companies to discover dysfunctional work relationships and clarify misperceived company policies and goals.
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Re: In recent years much attention has been paid to distilling those facto  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Jun 2018, 02:28
This one's a nice passage. I got all in 8 min. and 1 wrong

1. According to the passage, which of the following was a motivation in the creation of the system of value congruence?
A) a desire to minimize the liability of upper management for employee dissatisfaction (I think the answer is here: 'much attention has been paid to distilling those factors that create a positive work environment for corporate employees.')
B) a desire to help companies to improve their internal harmony
C) a desire to allow employees to increase their earning potential
D) a desire to foster awareness of factors influencing managerial success
E) a desire to eliminate discrepancies between a company’s goals and the values of its employees (this one's tempting, but this may be the goal of VC, not the motivation to develop it)
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Re: In recent years much attention has been paid to distilling those facto  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Dec 2018, 09:39
Hi,

can you please tell me how Q2 Option D is wrong and that P-F is not related to company values. Since it states "Finally, strong PF suggests a strong correspondence between the values that an employee perceives his company to have (whether or not the company actually does) and the values that his co-workers perceive the company to have (again, whether or not it actually does)."



carcass wrote:
The question asks us to determine which of the choices was a
motivation in the creation of the system of value
congruence. According to the passage (lines 6-9), value congruence
was one of the theories that was posited "to discover what allows
some companies to foster high employee morale while other
companies struggle with poor productivity and high managerial
turnover."

(A) Poor productivity, high managerial turnover, and employee
morale have little to do with the liability of upper management for
employee satisfaction.

(B) CORRECT. Poor productivity, high managerial turnover, and
employee morale are related to a company's internal harmony or

lack thereof. The proof sentence does not correlate directly to this
answer choice, making this a fairly difficult question.

(C) Poor productivity, high managerial turnover, and employee
morale have little to do with the earning potential of employees.

(D) Poor productivity, high managerial turnover, and employee
morale have little to do with the factors influencing managerial
success.

(E) Poor productivity, high managerial turnover, and employee
morale have little to do with the discrepancies between a company's
goals and the values of its employees.

The correct answer is B



7. The question asks us to determine which of the choices would be
the best use for perceptual fit ("PF"). The passage defines
perceptual fit as the congruence between a given employee's
perception of his company's values and the perception of the
company's values held by other employees. Therefore, we need to
determine which answer choice could be determined using this
measure.

(A) CORRECT. This choice suggests that PF could be used to
determine whether a company ought to make its policies and goals
more transparent. PF will indicate to a company whether its
employees generally see the company's values the same way. This
would be useful in determining whether the company needed to do
a better job in making those values clear to its employees.

(B) This choice suggests that PF could be used to determine
whether a company ought to provide sensitivity training for its
management. PF is not relevant to issues of sensitivity training.

(C) This choice suggests that PF could be used to determine
whether a company ought to create more opportunities for
interaction among workers. Since PF is used to determine whether
employees hold the same view of the company's values, this choice
may seem attractive. But it does not specifically relate to the notion
of company values, as choice A does.

(D) This choice suggests that PF could be used to determine
whether a company needed to address employee grievances more
directly. PF is not related to the concept of company values.


(E) This choice suggests that PF could be used to determine whether
a company ought to have a more elaborate orientation program for
new employees. PF is not related to the concept of company values
as seen by employees.

The correct answer is A.



8. This question asks us to find a choice that describes the primary
focus of the passage. The correct answer must cover the entirety of
the passage without misrepresenting it.

(A) This choice mentions a comparison between a new theory and a
"discredited theory". Since there is no discussion of a discredited
theory in the passage, this choice is incorrect.

(B) This choice mentions a "detailed analysis of a particular
case". Since the passage does not focus on a particular case, this
choice is incorrect.

(C) This choice describes the passage as challenging an "old view of
employee commitment". Since the passage does not discuss old
views of employee commitment, this choice is incorrect.

(D) CORRECT. This choice describes the passage as "promoting a
new method of measuring the likelihood of corporate success" – so
far, so good – and as "explaining its benefits". This covers the
entirety of the passage and describes its purpose and function
accurately.

(E) This choice states that the passage defends "a proposed system
of corporate analysis through examples of its success." Since the
passage does not discuss examples of success, this choice is
incorrect.

The correct answer is D.


Please leave kudos.

Do not esistate to ask if something remains unclear
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Re: In recent years much attention has been paid to distilling those facto  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Dec 2018, 00:33
this passage is a great example of a scenario of RC in which the passage is easy to understand but the questions are hard to answer. the reason is the inference needed to answer questions requires high level of reasoning. this scenario dose occur in official books. the lession is that focus on reading hard passage is only a part of RC job. the other job is practice answering questions. this practice has more to do with POE (power of eliminating) than prethinking (prethink an answer before reading answer choices). POE is time consuming and require you to find one wrong word in an answer to eliminate it. POE is a skill gmat want us to have because POE require a higher level of understanding the test

while prethinking requires us to find a piece of information in the passage and then find a match among answer choices. POE requires us to understand fully eachh answer choices. So, the job of POE can be 5 time more than the job of prethinking. prethinking is only helpfull for easy question.

when we read a question stem, the first thing we do is prethinking. we return to the passage, find the relevant text and find the information needed. but for harder questions, prethink dose not help. we can not find the relevant text and can not find the information needed. we have to read each answer choice and find our 1 or 2 words which is not consistent with the information in the passage to eliminate the answer choices.

anticipate this kind of scenario, easy passage-close answers, to slow down, calm down, and take enough time to do POE for each answer choice. never rush on this kind of scenario.
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Re: In recent years much attention has been paid to distilling those facto   [#permalink] 30 Dec 2018, 00:33
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