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In response to rapidly rising crime rates, legislators in Georgian Eng

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In response to rapidly rising crime rates, legislators in Georgian Eng  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 19 Mar 2019, 12:39
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New Project RC Butler 2019 - Practice 2 RC Passages Everyday
Passage # 70, Date : 07-MAR-2019
This post is a part of New Project RC Butler 2019. Click here for Details


In response to rapidly rising crime rates, legislators in Georgian England initiated a policy of imposing mandatory capital punishment for what to modem eyes is an astonishing range of crimes. Over 200 crimes were punishable by hanging: not only murder and kidnapping, but forgery, petty theft, and "posing as a gypsy." However, although the number of crimes punishable by death increased, and more and more criminals were brought to trial, the numbers of people who were actually hanged fell.

Simple decency alone accounts for many of the instances in which the English chose not to use their lethal laws. Judges could commute the death sentence on suitably penitent felons. Juries could undervalue stolen goods so as to bilk the prosecution. (Since the law demanded that anyone who stole 40 shillings or more must hang, hundreds of theft of goods valued by the jury at 39 shillings were handed down every year for the convictions.) However, so many remissions seem to indicate that the exercising of mercy was also part of an active strategy. If a convicted felon could obtain references and sub-petitions from the clergy or other respectable persons, he could seek the Royal Mercy by petitioning the Home Secretary. It was within the power of the king to override courts and sentences and he often did, proving to his subjects that he was concerned with their cares.

Simply repealing the hanging laws would have had quite a different effect than maintaining but not always using them. If each reprieve were a special case where the ruler chose mercy over death, then that decision would be repaid in devotion and gratitude. Without the Royal Mercy and judicial commission, so many Englishmen would have met their end at the gallows that it would have provoked general riots.

1. The author mentions the crimes of forgery, petty theft, and "posing as a gypsy" (Highlighted) in order to

A) give examples of crimes which were typically punishable by death in Georgian England

B) illustrate the types of crime prevalent in Georgian England

C) provide examples of crimes that were formerly considered to be much more serious than they are now

D) highlight how the death penalty in Georgian England was even applied to what would now be considered minor crimes

E) contrast the seventy of punishment in Georgian England with the magnitude of the crime finance and other political issues.

2. The primary purpose of the passage is to

A) outline judicial measures brought in response to increasing crime rates in Georgian England

B) demonstrate how the Royal Mercy and judicial commission were used to secure the king’s position in Georgian England

C) show why the number of people hanged in Georgian England fell, despite rise in number of capital offenses and criminal trials

D) review and evaluate the effectiveness of capital punishment in Georgian England

E) define the limits of judicial and royal power in Georgian England


3. According to the passage, which of the following statements is NOT true of the legal system of Georgian England?

A) The law provided for mandatory penalties for some crimes.

B) Judges were compelled to adhere to the letter of the law.

C) Juries had latitude to determine the precise charges on which they convicted prisoners.

D) There was a system of appeals in place.

E) The king had ultimate authority over the administration of justice.


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Originally posted by LordStark on 04 Mar 2019, 09:29.
Last edited by SajjadAhmad on 19 Mar 2019, 12:39, edited 2 times in total.
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Re: In response to rapidly rising crime rates, legislators in Georgian Eng  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Mar 2019, 21:31
Can any one explain why D is not correct for Q2.
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Re: In response to rapidly rising crime rates, legislators in Georgian Eng  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Mar 2019, 07:11
zac123 wrote:
Can any one explain why D is not correct for Q2.

in first paragraph author presents a paradox and then go on to explain the reason for that
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Re: In response to rapidly rising crime rates, legislators in Georgian Eng  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Mar 2019, 11:27
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Re: In response to rapidly rising crime rates, legislators in Georgian Eng  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Mar 2019, 23:42
1
Q1-
the highlighted text shows how crimes that are not serious today were considered serious in Georgian England. Hence D is the answer.

Q2-
First para-'However, although the number of crimes punishable by death increased, and more and more criminals were brought to trial, the numbers of people who were actually hanged fell. '

The next para goes on to explain why that happened.

Answer:B

Q3-
Judges did not adhere to the law on many occasions, for instance-Simple decency alone accounts for many of the instances in which the English chose not to use their lethal laws. Judges could commute the death sentence on suitably penitent felons. Juries could undervalue stolen goods so as to bilk the prosecution. (Since the law demanded that anyone who stole 40 shillings or more must hang, hundreds of theft of goods valued by the jury at 39 shillings were handed down every year for the convictions.)

Hence B is the answer.

All other options are correct as per the passage.
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Re: In response to rapidly rising crime rates, legislators in Georgian Eng  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Mar 2019, 08:56
Can someone please explain why answer for Q2 is not D?
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Re: In response to rapidly rising crime rates, legislators in Georgian Eng  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Mar 2019, 10:58
zac123 wrote:
Can any one explain why D is not correct for Q2.


The author does not evaluate how effective the capital punishments were.

He simply tells the reasons that why the hangings reduced in the rest of the passage.

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Re: In response to rapidly rising crime rates, legislators in Georgian Eng  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Mar 2019, 13:26
anmit123 wrote:
Q1-
the highlighted text shows how crimes that are not serious today were considered serious in Georgian England. Hence D is the answer.

Q2-
First para-'However, although the number of crimes punishable by death increased, and more and more criminals were brought to trial, the numbers of people who were actually hanged fell. '

The next para goes on to explain why that happened.

Answer:B

Q3-
Judges did not adhere to the law on many occasions, for instance-Simple decency alone accounts for many of the instances in which the English chose not to use their lethal laws. Judges could commute the death sentence on suitably penitent felons. Juries could undervalue stolen goods so as to bilk the prosecution. (Since the law demanded that anyone who stole 40 shillings or more must hang, hundreds of theft of goods valued by the jury at 39 shillings were handed down every year for the convictions.)

Hence B is the answer.

All other options are correct as per the passage.



IF WHAT YOU SAY IN Q1 IS CORRECT, SHOULD THE ANSWER NOT BE C?
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In response to rapidly rising crime rates, legislators in Georgian Eng  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Mar 2019, 13:13
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Explanation


General Comment

4 Minutes and all three correct

It is a 700-Level question but its difficulty level is a bit debatable. A 700-Level question from Official guide is a way hard than this passage. Why it is not as much hard as OG is its answer choices. The answer choices are predictive to the answer and are easy to eliminate while an OG questions becomes hard due to its same-looking answer choices and at least 2 answer choices in OG Always looks relevant to the question.


1. The author mentions the crimes of forgery, petty theft, and "posing as a gypsy" (Highlighted) in order to

Explanation

Discussed in the first paragraph

"but forgery, petty theft, and "posing as a gypsy."

We will understand the intended meaning of the question if we read a little bit more like this:

“Over 200 crimes were punishable by hanging: not only murder and kidnapping, but forgery, petty theft, and "posing as a gypsy."

Now look at the answer choices

A) give examples of crimes which were typically punishable by death in Georgian England – It could be a trap answer here it all OK choice if passage didn’t give us the tone not only murder and kidnapping, but, this tone tells us that it is not just examples and something more so eliminate it.

B) illustrate the types of crime prevalent in Georgian England - This is a premature answer maybe these crime would be prevalent, it is also possible that these crimes could be unique in Georgian England who know? It is supported by passage so eliminate it.

C) provide examples of crimes that were formerly considered to be much more serious than they are now – same as B It tell a bit near about examples. Yes they look like examples but we don’t know further. Until “provide examples of crimes” it is OK but problem starts from “formerly considered to be much more serious than they are now” which makes it wrong so eliminate it.

D) highlight how the death penalty in Georgian England was even applied to what would now be considered minor crimes – Why this option is true the reason that tone I discussed earlier, not only murder and kidnapping, but it says that how these miner crime then receive a capital punishment and this is the intended meaning of the question.

E) contrast the seventy of punishment in Georgian England with the magnitude of the crime finance and other political issues. – this option is trouble making things more diplomatic and complicated and giving new facts which don't come under the umbrella of the passage. So discard it.

ANSWER: D


2. The primary purpose of the passage is to

Explanation

In the first paragraph passage discussed an idea in about Capital Punishment then provide a discrepancy and in the 2nd para it gives us details why that discrepancy happened and in the last paragraph it has concluded the same.

Now look at the answer choices

A) outline judicial measures brought in response to increasing crime rates in Georgian England – it is discussed only in second paragraph it is just a part of a passage and couldn’t be primary purpose. Eliminate it.

B) demonstrate how the Royal Mercy and judicial commission were used to secure the king’s position in Georgian England – again it is a part of passage discussed after half of the passage and it couldn’t be the primary purpose so discard it.

C) show why the number of people hanged in Georgian England fell, despite rise in number of capital offenses and criminal trials – This is correct one for the above mentioned reason and it represents the whole passage and intention of the passage.

D) review and evaluate the effectiveness of capital punishment in Georgian England - This option completely neglect the first paragraph in which the main purpose is hidden so eliminate it.

E) define the limits of judicial and royal power in Georgian England - Only a fractional part of the passage and it couldn’t be the primary purpose so eliminate it

ANSWER: C


3. According to the passage, which of the following statements is NOT true of the legal system of Georgian England?

Explanation

Keep in view the word NOT

Legal system of Georgian England has been discussed throughout the passage but more in second and third paragraph

Look at answer choices

A) the law provided for mandatory penalties for some crimes. – Discussed in the first paragraph by giving examples of different punishment

B) Judges were compelled to adhere to the letter of the law.– No such indication is there and it meets our requirement of NOT – Keep it.

C) Juries had latitude to determine the precise charges on which they convicted prisoners. – Discussed in the start of the second paragraph so eliminate it too.

D) There was a system of appeals in place. - Widely discussed throughout the passage discard it.

E) The king had ultimate authority over the administration of justice. – Discussed in the middle of 2nd paragraph so it is also out.

ANSWER: B


Hope it helps
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In response to rapidly rising crime rates, legislators in Georgian Eng   [#permalink] 19 Mar 2019, 13:13
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