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# In some types of pine tree, a thick layer of needles, protects the bud

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Re: In some types of pine tree, a thick layer of needles, protects the bud [#permalink]

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09 Nov 2017, 02:29
Hi,
Can we use 2 adverbs together as done in option (e)-relatively easily?
Is it grammatically correct?

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Re: In some types of pine tree, a thick layer of needles, protects the bud [#permalink]

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06 Dec 2017, 20:06
Can someone please help me understand what sentence correction topic "from which" applies to? As a native English speaker, I've spent hours trying to figure out why this is correct: "a thick layer of needles protects the buds from which new growth proceeds". I thought the phrase is "x protects y from z". I still don't understand what the buds are being protected from. Are the buds being protected from "which new growth proceeds"? If I said, "The armor protects the man from danger", that makes sense. If I said, "The armor protects the man from which new hope proceeds", the meaning of the sentence is not clear.

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Re: In some types of pine tree, a thick layer of needles, protects the bud [#permalink]

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10 Dec 2017, 06:27
Nick90 wrote:
AbdurRakib wrote:
In some types of pine tree, a thick layer of needles, protects the buds form which new growth proceeds; consequently they are able to withstand forest fires relatively well.

A) a thick layer of needles, protects the buds form which new growth proceeds; consequently they are able to withstand forest fires relatively well
B) a thick needle layer protects buds from where new growth proceeds, so that they can withstand forest fires relatively well
C) a thick layer of needles protect the buds from which new growth proceeds; thus, they are able to withstand relatively well any forest fires
D) since the buds from which new growth proceeds are protected by a thick layer needle layer, consequently they can therefore withstand forest fires relatively well
E) because the buds where new growth happens are protected by a thick layer of needles, they are able to withstand forest fires relatively easily as a result

OG 2017 New Question

1st split

from which vs from where -----> from where is used from places and from which is used for items or things .

from which is correct .

C a thick layer (singular) thus protects is needed .

A vs D

D is passive . Also "therefore" used is redundant when since/because is used .

Kudos plzz!!

Agree to your logic, but we have ";" semicolon indicating that "Consequently they....relatively well " as a Independent clause, but it is not . how do you explain it?

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Re: In some types of pine tree, a thick layer of needles, protects the bud [#permalink]

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10 Dec 2017, 21:56
AbdurRakib wrote:
The Official Guide for GMAT Verbal Review 2017

Practice Question
Question No.: SC 739
Page: 696

In some types of pine tree, a thick layer of needles protects the buds from which new growth proceeds; consequently they are able to withstand forest fires relatively well.

(A) a thick layer of needles protects the buds from which new growth proceeds; consequently they are able to withstand forest fires relatively well

(B) a thick needle layer protects buds from where new growth proceeds, so that they can withstand forest fires relatively well

(C) a thick layer of needles protect the buds from which new growth proceeds; thus, they are able to withstand relatively well any forest fires

(D) since the buds from which new growth proceeds are protected by a thick layer needle layer, consequently they can therefore withstand forest fires relatively well

(E) because the buds where new growth happens are protected by a thick layer of needles, they are able to withstand forest fires relatively easily as a result

Dear GMATNinja , need your help here.

I remember your lesson about pronoun in two clauses : GMAT always follows a pattern that pronoun as a Subject in the second clause must have an antecedent in the form of Subject in the first clause.

Using this reasoning, I eliminated A and chose D. Is my reasoning wrong here?

Thank you!
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Re: In some types of pine tree, a thick layer of needles, protects the bud [#permalink]

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20 Dec 2017, 11:12
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Expert's post
atr0038 wrote:
Can someone please help me understand what sentence correction topic "from which" applies to? As a native English speaker, I've spent hours trying to figure out why this is correct: "a thick layer of needles protects the buds from which new growth proceeds". I thought the phrase is "x protects y from z". I still don't understand what the buds are being protected from. Are the buds being protected from "which new growth proceeds"? If I said, "The armor protects the man from danger", that makes sense. If I said, "The armor protects the man from which new hope proceeds", the meaning of the sentence is not clear.

Sure, you could say that "x protects y from z." You could also say "new growth proceeds from buds" -- so then it would be completely fine to say "the buds from which new growth proceeds."

In other words: there's no reason to assume that the word "from" has anything at all to do with "protects" in this particular construction.

I hope this helps!
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Re: In some types of pine tree, a thick layer of needles, protects the bud [#permalink]

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20 Dec 2017, 11:21
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septwibowo wrote:

I remember your lesson about pronoun in two clauses : GMAT always follows a pattern that pronoun as a Subject in the second clause must have an antecedent in the form of Subject in the first clause.

Using this reasoning, I eliminated A and chose D. Is my reasoning wrong here?

Thank you!

Whoa, easy with the extreme language! I didn't say that the GMAT always follows that pattern, or that the subject in the second clause must refer back to the subject of the first clause. The idea is that if the subject of the second clause is a pronoun, it CAN refer back to the subject of the first clause -- even if there are a ton of other potential referents in the sentence.

Here's a variation on the example I used in the webinar:

Cucumbers are more expensive than tomatoes in grocery stores in Western states, and they also taste like poo.

On the face of things, "they" looks ambiguous: the pronoun could refer to "states", "stores", "tomatoes", or "cucumbers." But this sort of construction appears occasionally on the GMAT, and the exam doesn't seem to have a problem with it: because "they" is the subject of the second clause, it CAN refer back to the subject of the first clause, with no worries about ambiguity.

But that doesn't mean that the 2nd subject ALWAYS refers back to the subject of the 1st clause. It certainly doesn't have to. It's just that in a sentence like my cucumber example, you don't really have to worry about pronoun ambiguity.

For anybody that didn't already suffer through it, the full webinar on pronouns is available here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IhN_KU1bSKU

I hope this helps!
_________________

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Re: In some types of pine tree, a thick layer of needles, protects the bud [#permalink]

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24 Dec 2017, 05:54
GMATNinja wrote:
Whoa, easy with the extreme language! I didn't say that the GMAT always follows that pattern, or that the subject in the second clause must refer back to the subject of the first clause. The idea is that if the subject of the second clause is a pronoun, it CAN refer back to the subject of the first clause -- even if there are a ton of other potential referents in the sentence.

Here's a variation on the example I used in the webinar:

Cucumbers are more expensive than tomatoes in grocery stores in Western states, and they also taste like poo.

On the face of things, "they" looks ambiguous: the pronoun could refer to "states", "stores", "tomatoes", or "cucumbers." But this sort of construction appears occasionally on the GMAT, and the exam doesn't seem to have a problem with it: because "they" is the subject of the second clause, it CAN refer back to the subject of the first clause, with no worries about ambiguity.

But that doesn't mean that the 2nd subject ALWAYS refers back to the subject of the 1st clause. It certainly doesn't have to. It's just that in a sentence like my cucumber example, you don't really have to worry about pronoun ambiguity.

For anybody that didn't already suffer through it, the full webinar on pronouns is available here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IhN_KU1bSKU

I hope this helps!

Dear GMATNinja , thank you so much for your clarification. Apologize for my misunderstanding!
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Re: In some types of pine tree, a thick layer of needles, protects the bud [#permalink]

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24 Dec 2017, 10:08
No worries at all, septwibowo! Glad to hear that the explanation helped!
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Re: In some types of pine tree, a thick layer of needles, protects the bud [#permalink]

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01 Jan 2018, 23:40
I could narrow down the options to A and B , I thought A cannot be the answer because of the use of which. here which can refer to what?? can someone help me with this. Thank you

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Re: In some types of pine tree, a thick layer of needles, protects the bud [#permalink]

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06 Jan 2018, 13:19
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Expert's post
longhaul123 wrote:
I could narrow down the options to A and B , I thought A cannot be the answer because of the use of which. here which can refer to what?? can someone help me with this. Thank you

A couple of related examples:

• The city in which I live has more than 120 breweries. --> "in which I live" describes the city; in other words, I live in a certain city, and it has more than 120 breweries
• The website for which I write SC explanations was created by a friendly Ukrainian genius. --> "for which I write SC explanations" describes "the website"; in other words, I write SC explanations for a certain website, and that website was created by a friendly Ukrainian genius

On to the answer choice (A)...
Quote:
In some types of pine tree, a thick layer of needles protects the buds from which new growth proceeds; consequently they are able to withstand forest fires relatively well.

Using the same logic as my examples above, "from which new growth proceeds" describes "the buds." In other words, new growth proceeds from the buds -- and the sentence is telling us that a thick layer of needles protects those buds.

I also address this issue -- somewhat indirectly -- in this post: https://gmatclub.com/forum/in-some-type ... l#p1984130

I hope this helps!
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How to go from great (760) to incredible (780) on GMAT SC | That "-ing" Word Probably Isn't a Verb | That "-ed" Word Might Not Be a Verb, Either | No-BS Guide to GMAT Idioms | "Being" is not the enemy | WTF is "that" doing in my sentence?

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Re: In some types of pine tree, a thick layer of needles, protects the bud [#permalink]

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15 Jan 2018, 21:42
AbdurRakib wrote:
The Official Guide for GMAT Verbal Review 2017

Practice Question
Question No.: SC 739
Page: 696

In some types of pine tree, a thick layer of needles protects the buds from which new growth proceeds; consequently they are able to withstand forest fires relatively well.

(A) a thick layer of needles protects the buds from which new growth proceeds; consequently they are able to withstand forest fires relatively well

(B) a thick needle layer protects buds from where new growth proceeds, so that they can withstand forest fires relatively well

(C) a thick layer of needles protect the buds from which new growth proceeds; thus, they are able to withstand relatively well any forest fires

(D) since the buds from which new growth proceeds are protected by a thick layer needle layer, consequently they can therefore withstand forest fires relatively well

(E) because the buds where new growth happens are protected by a thick layer of needles, they are able to withstand forest fires relatively easily as a result

According to me
A:- keep option "a" as subject is thick layer verb is protects and they correctly refer to needles.
B:- option B is incorrect because a thick needle is not appropriate than a thick layer of needles and they wrongly refer to bugs.
c:- Option C is incorrect because of subject verb disagreement a thick layer is singular and verb used is plural.
D&E:- is incorrect first of all passive which is not preferred by gmat and they are not concise And in option D consequently and therefore are redundant as both have same meaning
and in option E use of where in place of which is wrong.
kudoos please if you like my explanation.

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Re: In some types of pine tree, a thick layer of needles, protects the bud   [#permalink] 15 Jan 2018, 21:42

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