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# In some types of pine tree, a thick layer of needles protects the buds

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Re: In some types of pine tree, a thick layer of needles protects the buds  [#permalink]

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02 Jan 2018, 00:40
I could narrow down the options to A and B , I thought A cannot be the answer because of the use of which. here which can refer to what?? can someone help me with this. Thank you
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Re: In some types of pine tree, a thick layer of needles protects the buds  [#permalink]

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06 Jan 2018, 14:19
1
longhaul123 wrote:
I could narrow down the options to A and B , I thought A cannot be the answer because of the use of which. here which can refer to what?? can someone help me with this. Thank you

A couple of related examples:

• The city in which I live has more than 120 breweries. --> "in which I live" describes the city; in other words, I live in a certain city, and it has more than 120 breweries
• The website for which I write SC explanations was created by a friendly Ukrainian genius. --> "for which I write SC explanations" describes "the website"; in other words, I write SC explanations for a certain website, and that website was created by a friendly Ukrainian genius

On to the answer choice (A)...
Quote:
In some types of pine tree, a thick layer of needles protects the buds from which new growth proceeds; consequently they are able to withstand forest fires relatively well.

Using the same logic as my examples above, "from which new growth proceeds" describes "the buds." In other words, new growth proceeds from the buds -- and the sentence is telling us that a thick layer of needles protects those buds.

I also address this issue -- somewhat indirectly -- in this post: https://gmatclub.com/forum/in-some-type ... l#p1984130

I hope this helps!
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Re: In some types of pine tree, a thick layer of needles protects the buds  [#permalink]

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15 Jan 2018, 22:42
AbdurRakib wrote:
The Official Guide for GMAT Verbal Review 2017

Practice Question
Question No.: SC 739
Page: 696

In some types of pine tree, a thick layer of needles protects the buds from which new growth proceeds; consequently they are able to withstand forest fires relatively well.

(A) a thick layer of needles protects the buds from which new growth proceeds; consequently they are able to withstand forest fires relatively well

(B) a thick needle layer protects buds from where new growth proceeds, so that they can withstand forest fires relatively well

(C) a thick layer of needles protect the buds from which new growth proceeds; thus, they are able to withstand relatively well any forest fires

(D) since the buds from which new growth proceeds are protected by a thick layer needle layer, consequently they can therefore withstand forest fires relatively well

(E) because the buds where new growth happens are protected by a thick layer of needles, they are able to withstand forest fires relatively easily as a result

According to me
A:- keep option "a" as subject is thick layer verb is protects and they correctly refer to needles.
B:- option B is incorrect because a thick needle is not appropriate than a thick layer of needles and they wrongly refer to bugs.
c:- Option C is incorrect because of subject verb disagreement a thick layer is singular and verb used is plural.
D&E:- is incorrect first of all passive which is not preferred by gmat and they are not concise And in option D consequently and therefore are redundant as both have same meaning
and in option E use of where in place of which is wrong.
kudoos please if you like my explanation.
thanks in advance.
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Re: In some types of pine tree, a thick layer of needles protects the buds  [#permalink]

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10 Mar 2018, 18:30
AbdurRakib wrote:
The Official Guide for GMAT Verbal Review 2017

Practice Question
Question No.: SC 739
Page: 696

In some types of pine tree, a thick layer of needles protects the buds from which new growth proceeds; consequently they are able to withstand forest fires relatively well.

(A) a thick layer of needles protects the buds from which new growth proceeds; consequently they are able to withstand forest fires relatively well

(B) a thick needle layer protects buds from where new growth proceeds, so that they can withstand forest fires relatively well

(C) a thick layer of needles protect the buds from which new growth proceeds; thus, they are able to withstand relatively well any forest fires

(D) since the buds from which new growth proceeds are protected by a thick layer needle layer, consequently they can therefore withstand forest fires relatively well

(E) because the buds where new growth happens are protected by a thick layer of needles, they are able to withstand forest fires relatively easily as a result

All the errors perfectly covered in the previous posts but how about the Pronoun 'THEY' in the choice A. There are two logical antecedents to this 1. Needles 2. Buds. Which one does the pronoun refer??
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Re: In some types of pine tree, a thick layer of needles protects the buds  [#permalink]

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20 May 2018, 03:51
1
GMATNinja VeritasPrepKarishma

consequently they are able to withstand forest fires relatively well.

Can experts please comment as to why the above sentence is an independent clause?
I believe in spite of having a subject and verb, it communicates partial meaning since
we do not have any antecedence for pronoun - they.
A semi-colon is used to join two independent clauses.
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Re: In some types of pine tree, a thick layer of needles protects the buds  [#permalink]

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31 May 2018, 11:01
1
2
adkikani wrote:
GMATNinja VeritasPrepKarishma

consequently they are able to withstand forest fires relatively well.

Can experts please comment as to why the above sentence is an independent clause?
I believe in spite of having a subject and verb, it communicates partial meaning since
we do not have any antecedence for pronoun - they.
A semi-colon is used to join two independent clauses.

You're undoubtedly familiar with "dependent markers" (although, since, unless, whenever, etc.), which turn an independent clause into a dependent clause. When these markers are present, the "thought" becomes incomplete:

• "Charlie eats 40 burritos a day." -- Independent clause: complete thought, can stand alone.
• "Although Charlie eats 40 burritos a day." -- Dependent. To make any sense of a phrase starting with "although", we need some sort of counterpoint to the phrase (something like "he is still perpetually hungry" or "he weighs less than an aircraft carrier"), but it never happens in this case, so it's dependent.

English also features some independent markers, such as "however" or "consequently" -- and these do NOT turn a clause from independent to dependent.

• "Consequently, they are able to withstand forest fires relatively well."

There's no problem here -- this sentence can absolutely stand alone. Sure, the context is missing, and we need some other information to establish causality -- if we're using "consequently", this sentence presumably needs to be preceded by some evidence for why they are able to withstand forest fires. But that doesn't make the clause grammatically dependent. It just means that we need other sentences to make sense of what's happening.

In a sense, this is similar to using a pronoun in a full, independent sentence: "He likes bhindi masala" is a full sentence, right? No argument there. But we'd need other sentences to give us context on the identity of this fellow who likes bhindi masala.

You might want to check out this article on dependent vs. independent modifiers from the good folks at Purdue OWL: https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/598/1/

I hope this helps!
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Re: In some types of pine tree, a thick layer of needles protects the buds  [#permalink]

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31 May 2018, 14:32
shra1raju wrote:
In some types of pine tree, a thick layer of needles protects the buds from which new growth proceeds; consequently they are able to withstand forest fires relatively well.

All the errors perfectly covered in the previous posts but how about the Pronoun 'THEY' in the choice A. There are two logical antecedents to this 1. Needles 2. Buds. Which one does the pronoun refer??

Hello shra1raju,

I am not sure if you still have this doubt. Here is the explanation nonetheless.

There is only one logical noun that pronoun plural they can refer to - some types of pine tree. See, the sentence says that because of something, they can withstand forest fires relatively better. In forest fires, the trees burn. But because of some factor, some types of pine trees can withstand the forest fires better.

Please note that just because there are multiple plural nouns in the sentence, they all become eligible to be the antecedent of the plural pronoun they. The pronoun must have one logical antecedent. Buds or needles are not the logical antecedent for this pronoun per the context of the sentence.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
Shraddha
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Re: In some types of pine tree, a thick layer of needles protects the buds  [#permalink]

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01 Jun 2018, 23:45
Hi GMATNinja

Thanks for your two cents.

Do you agree that we need a semi-colon before independent marker words as consequently or however
as mentioned in the link you provided?
At least a semi-colon on OA before consequently would have made my life easier to then treat the clause as an independent one.
I hope you see my rationale
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Re: In some types of pine tree, a thick layer of needles protects the buds  [#permalink]

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02 Jun 2018, 00:59
A Conjuctive Adverb (consequently) should be preceded by a semi colon and followed by a comma.

Why is comma missing in Choice A?

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Re: In some types of pine tree, a thick layer of needles protects the buds  [#permalink]

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02 Jun 2018, 06:50
1
adkikani wrote:
Hi GMATNinja

Thanks for your two cents.

Do you agree that we need a semi-colon before independent marker words as consequently or however
as mentioned in the link you provided?
At least a semi-colon on OA before consequently would have made my life easier to then treat the clause as an independent one.
I hope you see my rationale

Sure, if "consequently" or "however" is the beginning of the 2nd independent clause in a sentence, then there should be a semicolon preceding it. That's part of why (A) is the correct answer here: "consequently" is preceded by a semicolon.

Shobhit7 wrote:
A Conjuctive Adverb (consequently) should be preceded by a semi colon and followed by a comma.

Why is comma missing in Choice A?

Posted from my mobile device

It's a funny thing: commas have been disappearing from English over the past few decades, so this is somewhat of a grey area now. When I was a kid, our teachers taught us to put commas after words such as "consequently" and "however." But now, those commas are optional. I still use them, but plenty of editors would disagree with me.

Partly because there's disagreement about the correct uses of commas, it's very rare that commas are a deciding factor on the GMAT, unless the comma somehow affects the meaning of the sentence. So in general, you don't want to worry about commas too much on the GMAT. More on that issue -- and on GMAT punctuation in general -- in this video.

I hope this helps!
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Re: In some types of pine tree, a thick layer of needles protects the buds  [#permalink]

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02 Sep 2018, 01:28
abhimahna wrote:
brightandamen wrote:
Hi,

Is it correct use "from which" instead of "from where" to modifies "buds"?

Hi brightandamen ,

GMAT is very strict with the use of 'where'.

'Where' MUST always be used to refer to physical places.

Hence, where usage in this sentence is 100% incorrect.

Hello, I'm quite confused on why 'where' is wrong here because it is referring to a physical location : the bud, where growth proceeds.
IMO I think option B is wrong because it changes the meaning of the sentence and "thick" modifies needle instead of 'layer' and option E is just too wordy. Pls help evaluate my understanding... mikemcgarry broall, daagh Souvik Please, I would appreciate if you could clarify thanks.

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Re: In some types of pine tree, a thick layer of needles protects the buds  [#permalink]

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02 Sep 2018, 03:27
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Kem

Bud is not a place. It is a part of a plant(an unopened flower). Whether it is a thick layer of needles or a thick needle layer does not dilute the essence of the text.
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Re: In some types of pine tree, a thick layer of needles protects the buds  [#permalink]

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07 Sep 2018, 05:23
Quote:
In some types of pine tree, a thick layer of needles protects the buds from which new growth proceeds; consequently they are able to withstand forest fires relatively well.
The first split I see in option A,B and C is Protect Vs Protects. As the subject here is the "A thick Layer" i.e. singular, protects goes with the singular subject.

Quote:
(A) a thick layer of needles protects the buds from which new growth proceeds; consequently they are able to withstand forest fires relatively well
There isn't any pronoun ambiguity "they" very well refers to "pine trees". Refer to GMATNinja's pronoun ambiguity video. If there are two independent clauses, the pronoun of the second IC refers to the noun of the first IC. i.e. GMAT always follows a pattern that pronoun as a Subject in the second clause must have an antecedent in the form of Subject in the first clause.
This is the best option. Keep A

Quote:
(B) a thick needle layer protects buds from where new growth proceeds, so that they can withstand forest fires relatively well
This option distorts the intended meaning. "a thick needle" isn't something the author wants to convey. The author wants to convey a "thick layer of needles"
This option goes out.

Quote:
(C) a thick layer of needles protect the buds from which new growth proceeds; thus, they are able to withstand relatively well any forest fires
Goes out for the reason mentioned above.

Quote:
(D) since the buds from which new growth proceeds are protected by a thick needle layer, consequently they can therefore withstand forest fires relatively well
Consequently and Therefore are redundant. Cannot be used together in a sentence. D goes out.

Quote:
(E) because the buds where new growth happens are protected by a thick layer of needles, they are able to withstand forest fires relatively easily as a result
Where incorrectly modifies buds. Usage of where has to be with the physical spaces. Hence E goes out.
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Re: In some types of pine tree, a thick layer of needles protects the buds  [#permalink]

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27 Nov 2018, 18:12
1
Hello Everyone!

Let's tackle this question, one thing at a time, and find the correct choice as quickly as possible! First, here is the original question, with the major differences between the options highlighted in orange:

In some types of pine tree, a thick layer of needles protects the buds from which new growth proceeds; consequently they are able to withstand forest fires relatively well.

(A) a thick layer of needles protects the buds from which new growth proceeds; consequently they are able to withstand forest fires relatively well
(B) a thick needle layer protects buds from where new growth proceeds, so that they can withstand forest fires relatively well
(C) a thick layer of needles protect the buds from which new growth proceeds; thus, they are able to withstand relatively well any forest fires
(D) since the buds from which new growth proceeds are protected by a thick needle layer, consequently they can therefore withstand forest fires relatively well
(E) because the buds where new growth happens are protected by a thick layer of needles, they are able to withstand forest fires relatively easily as a result

After a quick glance over the options, there are a few things we can focus on to narrow down our choices:

1. protects / protect / are protected by (verb tense & active/passive voice)
2. from which / from where / where (agreement)
3. consequently / so that / thus / they (conjunctions & punctuation)

Let's start with #1 on our list: verb tenses. This should be an easier grammar concept to focus on first, and it should narrow down a few options quickly. To do this, we need to make sure that the subjects and verbs agree in number, and we must also make sure to use active voice whenever possible (the GMAT does not like passive voice answers). Here is how each option breaks down:

(A) a thick layer of needles protects the buds from which new growth proceeds; consequently they are able to withstand forest fires relatively well -> GOOD (The singular subject "a thick layer" agrees with singular verb "protects," so let's keep this option for later!)

(B) a thick needle layer protects buds from where new growth proceeds, so that they can withstand forest fires relatively well --> GOOD (The subject and verb in this option are both singular, just like option A, so let's also keep this option for later!)

(C) a thick layer of needles protect the buds from which new growth proceeds; thus, they are able to withstand relatively well any forest fires --> INCORRECT (This is wrong because the singular subject (a thick layer) should have a singular verb. Instead, this sentence uses a plural verb (protect), which doesn't agree.)

(D) since the buds from which new growth proceeds are protected by a thick needle layer, consequently they can therefore withstand forest fires relatively well --> INCORRECT (This is wrong because it uses passive voice! It switches the subject and object of the sentence. The GMAT prefers active voice over passive voice whenever possible, so let's rule this out.)

(E) because the buds where new growth happens are protected by a thick layer of needles, they are able to withstand forest fires relatively easily as a result --> INCORRECT (This is wrong because it uses passive voice! It switches the subject and object of the sentence. The GMAT prefers active voice over passive voice whenever possible, so let's rule this out.)

We can eliminate options C, D, and E because they use the wrong verb tenses or passive voice.

Now that we have this narrowed down to just 2 options, let's take a closer look at #2 and #3 on our list to determine which is the better option:

(A) a thick layer of needles protects the buds from which new growth proceeds; consequently they are able to withstand forest fires relatively well

This is the CORRECT choice! It uses the correct phrasing "from which" to indicate that the growth comes from the buds, not from some location around the buds. It also uses the conjunction "consequently" to show a cause/effect relationship, and the semicolon is used correctly to split the two independent clauses up nicely.

(B) a thick needle layer protects buds from where new growth proceeds, so that they can withstand forest fires relatively well

This is INCORRECT for a couple reasons. First, the phrase "from where" is confusing to readers because it changes the meaning slightly. Instead of saying the growth comes from the buds themselves, this sentence says the buds happen to be in the same area where new growth appears on its own, which doesn't make sense. Second, the subordinating conjunction "so that" does NOT need a comma before it.

There you go - option A is the correct choice!

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Re: In some types of pine tree, a thick layer of needles protects the buds  [#permalink]

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16 Jan 2019, 13:16
Hi,

I see of people have eliminated C option as plural verb protect is used with a number of thick needles. But as far as I remember " The number of students" uses singular verb but "A number of students uses plural". Is my understanding correct? If not please tell me the right way to approach such sentences and if it correct then why did we eliminate this option.
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Re: In some types of pine tree, a thick layer of needles protects the buds  [#permalink]

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20 Jan 2019, 03:49
1
anc wrote:
Hi,

I see of people have eliminated C option as plural verb protect is used with a number of thick needles. But as far as I remember " The number of students" uses singular verb but "A number of students uses plural". Is my understanding correct? If not please tell me the right way to approach such sentences and if it correct then why did we eliminate this option.

Sure, but the use of "a number" or "the number" isn't the same situation as answer choice (C) in this question.

You're right that if you see a construction such as, "A number of people believe that 1990s ska music was excruciating," we used the plural verb "believe." The reason is that the sentence is analogous to saying something like "27 people believe X." In other words, multiple entities are performing the action.

However, this is not the same as when we have a collective noun. For example, "The pack of dogs was so frightening that my daughter flung herself into traffic to avoid them." (True story. She's fine, but her parents may require therapy.) In this case, we use the singular verb "was," because the subject is "pack." The difference is that a collective, or "a pack" can act as a singular, unified entity.

Takeaway: If we have "A NUMBER + PLURAL NOUN" we use a plural verb, and if we have "A COLLECTIVE NOUN + PLURAL NOUN" we use a singular verb.

And here's (C) again:

Quote:
(C) a thick layer of needles protect the buds from which new growth proceeds; thus, they are able to withstand relatively well any forest fires

"A thick layer" is a collective noun, so it's singular. We would need the singular form of the verb, "protects."

I hope that helps!
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Re: In some types of pine tree, a thick layer of needles protects the buds  [#permalink]

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09 May 2019, 03:34
Hi,

In some types of pine tree, a thick layer of needles protects the buds from which new growth proceeds; consequently they are able to withstand forest fires relatively well.

Modifier,IC;IC is this the correct form of the sentence ?

Also in the part ";consequently they are...."
"they" refers to the Subject of the IC "a thick layer of needles" or "needles", if its only the latter case the plural pronoun matches the plural antecedent otherwise.
Is there I'm missing here ?

Thanks !
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Re: In some types of pine tree, a thick layer of needles protects the buds  [#permalink]

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20 May 2019, 02:05
DivyaKnows wrote:
Hi,

In some types of pine tree, a thick layer of needles protects the buds from which new growth proceeds; consequently they are able to withstand forest fires relatively well.

Modifier,IC;IC is this the correct form of the sentence ?

Also in the part ";consequently they are...."
"they" refers to the Subject of the IC "a thick layer of needles" or "needles", if its only the latter case the plural pronoun matches the plural antecedent otherwise.
Is there I'm missing here ?

Thanks !

Yes, that is correct! The semicolon connects two independent clauses.

As for the pronoun, there are only two possible plural references in (A): "needles" and "buds". "Needles" is NOT the subject of the first independent clause, so there is no reason to assume the pronoun refers to needles. Also, as discussed in this post, the subject in the second clause does not ALWAYS refer back to the subject in the first clause.

In this case, it makes much more sense for "they" to refer to "buds". The buds are protected. As a result, the buds are able to withstand forest fires relatively well. Sounds good to me! Sure, there is a little pronoun ambiguity, but pronoun ambiguity is not an absolute rule, and we have bigger fish to fry in the other choices.

I hope this helps!
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Re: In some types of pine tree, a thick layer of needles protects the buds  [#permalink]

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27 Jun 2019, 19:18
In some types of pine tree, a thick layer of needles protects the buds from which new growth proceeds; consequently they are able to withstand forest fires relatively well.

(A) a thick layer of needles protects the buds from which new growth proceeds; consequently they are able to withstand forest fires relatively well

Correct Answer

(B) a thick needle layer protects buds from where new growth proceeds, so that they can withstand forest fires relatively well

Where : We use for Place. And buds is not a place. So use of Where is wrong. same in Opt E

(C) a thick layer of needles protect the buds from which new growth proceeds; thus, they are able to withstand relatively well any forest fires

a thick layer of needles: Singular. Verb : protect( It should be Protects) So Wrong

(D) since the buds from which new growth proceeds are protected by a thick needle layer, consequently they can therefore withstand forest fires relatively well

Use of since is wrong here. There is not year or date mention. So since uses is wrong. And "consequently they can therefore " They refer to ??

(E) because the buds where new growth happens are protected by a thick layer of needles, they are able to withstand forest fires relatively easily as a result

Again use of Where is wrong.
Where : We use for Place. And buds is not a place. So use of Where is wrong. same in Opt B
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Re: In some types of pine tree, a thick layer of needles protects the buds  [#permalink]

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02 Sep 2019, 20:15
Is a comma missing after "consequently" in the correct answer choice? I thought once should add one after a conjunctive adverb.

In some types of pine tree, a thick layer of needles protects the buds from which new growth proceeds; consequently they are able to withstand forest fires relatively well.
Re: In some types of pine tree, a thick layer of needles protects the buds   [#permalink] 02 Sep 2019, 20:15

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