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Scientists have recently found evidence that black holes—regions of sp

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Scientists have recently found evidence that black holes—regions of sp  [#permalink]

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Scientists have recently found evidence that black holes—regions of space in which matter is so concentrated and the pull of gravity so powerful that nothing, not even light, can emerge from them—probably exist at the core of nearly all galaxies and the mass of each black hole is proportional to its host galaxy.


(A) exist at the core of nearly all galaxies and the mass of each black hole is proportional to

(B) exist at the core of nearly all galaxies and that the mass of each black hole is proportional to that of

(C) exist at the core of nearly all galaxies, and that the mass of each black hole is proportional to

(D) exists at the core of nearly all galaxies, and that the mass of each black hole is proportional to that of

(E) exists at the core of nearly all galaxies and the mass of each black hole is proportional to that of


OG16 SC128

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Originally posted by amatya on 11 Sep 2015, 03:42.
Last edited by Bunuel on 11 Sep 2018, 04:10, edited 2 times in total.
Renamed the topic and edited the question.
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Re: Scientists have recently found evidence that black holes—regions of sp  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Sep 2015, 04:20
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(A) exist at the core of nearly all galaxies and the mass of each black hole is proportional to ---- the comparison should be between the mass of the black hole and the mass of the its host galaxy and not the galaxy itself. 'That of' stands for 'the mass of' Secondly the 'introducer ‘that ‘is’ missing, turning the clause unparallel. That is why this choice is wrong
(B) exist at the core of nearly all galaxies and that the mass of each black hole is proportional to that of --- This corrects the comparison error. 'That' parallelism is also maintained
(C) exist at the core of nearly all galaxies, and that the mass of each black hole is proportional to -- same error as in A.
(D) exists at the core of nearly all galaxies, and that the mass of each black hole is proportional to that of -- -holes –exists- SV error
(E) exists at the core of nearly all galaxies and the mass of each black hole is proportional to that of--- – 1. ‘Holes –exists’ is SV error 2. That parallelism is missing
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QOTD: Scientists have recently found evidence that black holes  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Apr 2018, 05:57
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Quote:
(A) exist at the core of nearly all galaxies and the mass of each black hole is proportional to


(A) doesn’t seem all that bad. It certainly sounds fine, but there’s a problem with the parallelism and meaning.

Before we get into that, consider the following:

  • I believe that Santa Claus is real and that the Knicks will win the 2018 NBA title. → We have two parallel phrases (subordinate clauses, if you like jargon) that begin with “that.” And that’s great: it’s super-clear that these are two things that I believe.
  • I believe that Santa Claus is real and the Knicks will win the 2018 NBA title. → Now the parallelism is different. Without “that”, we just have two parallel, independent clauses: “I believe that Santa Claus is real” and “the Knicks will win the NBA title.” That changes the meaning: now, the sentence doesn’t connect “I believe” with “the Knicks will win the NBA title.” And it seems that the latter clause is a fact, rather than something I BELIEVE is true.

We have a similar situation in (A). On both sides of the “and”, we have full, independent clauses:

  • “Scientists have recently found evidence that black holes exist at the core of nearly all galaxies…”
  • ”…the mass of each black hole is proportional to its host galaxy.”

Here’s the problem: the second independent clause is just a completely separate statement. The second clause (“the mass of each black hole is proportional…”) seems to be a separate fact; without “that” in front of that clause, it’s not clear that scientists have found evidence to support the statement. The statement is just a separate thing.

There’s also a comparison problem with (A). We have “the mass of each black hole is proportional to its host galaxy”, which is illogical: the mass of each black hole might be proportional to the mass of its host galaxy, but it’s weird to suggest that the mass is somehow proportional to the galaxy itself.

So we have a couple of (admittedly somewhat subtle) reasons to eliminate (A).

Quote:
(B) exist at the core of nearly all galaxies and that the mass of each black hole is proportional to that of

Now the parallelism is better: “Scientists have found evidence that black holes… probably exist… and that the mass of each black hole is proportional…” Cool: now it’s clear that scientists have found evidence for these two things.

The other thing that should jump out at you is the phrase “that of.” “That” is a singular pronoun in this situation (more on “that” in this article), and it clearly refers back to “mass” in (B). And that’s great: “…the mass of each black hole is proportional to the mass of its host galaxy.”

So we can keep (B).

Quote:
(C) exist at the core of nearly all galaxies, and that the mass of each black hole is proportional to

(C) is identical to (B), except that the phrase “that of” is missing. And as we mentioned in the explanation for (A), that’s a problem: literally, (C) says that “the mass of each black hole is proportional to its host galaxy”, and that’s not quite right: the mass of the black hole is proportional to the mass of the host galaxy – not to the galaxy itself.

So (C) is out.

Quote:
(D) exists at the core of nearly all galaxies, and that the mass of each black hole is proportional to that of

(D) is identical to (B), except for one little problem: “Scientists have found evidence that black holes… exists…” That’s a wonderfully clear subject-verb error, and we can eliminate (D).

Quote:
(E) exists at the core of nearly all galaxies and the mass of each black hole is proportional to that of

(E) has exactly the same subject-verb error as (D): “Scientists have found evidence that black holes… exists…” Plus, the parallelism is a problem, because “and” isn’t followed with “that” – see the explanation for (A) for more on this issue.

So (E) is out, and (B) is our answer.
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Re: Scientists have recently found evidence that black holes—regions of sp  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Jan 2016, 00:39
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amatya wrote:
Scientists have recently found evidence that black holes—regions of space in which matter is so concentrated and the pull of gravity so powerful that nothing, not even light, can emerge from them—probably exist at the core of nearly all galaxies and the mass of each black hole is proportional to its host galaxy.
(A) exist at the core of nearly all galaxies and the mass of each black hole is proportional to
(B) exist at the core of nearly all galaxies and that the mass of each black hole is proportional to that of
(C) exist at the core of nearly all galaxies, and that the mass of each black hole is proportional to
(D) exists at the core of nearly all galaxies, and that the mass of each black hole is proportional to that of
(E) exists at the core of nearly all galaxies and the mass of each black hole is proportional to that of

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I suggest a split pattern approach

the core structure should be: Scientists found evidence that [clause 1] and that [clause 2]
or
Scientists found evidence that [clause 1] and [clause 2]
(Both are acceptable)

[Clause 1]: black holes, .....[modifier], probably exist at the core of nearly all galaxies => plural Subject go with plural Verb => We eliminate D & E
[Clause 2]: the mass of each black hole is proportional to ........

There is a very clear patter
A - B - C with "Exist at the core of nearly all galaxies......."
D - E with "Exists at the core of ......"

From [Clause 1], as "black holes" is plural subject => need plural verb => eliminate D - E immediately as "exists" is in the singular form.

Now the case is
(A) exist at the core of nearly all galaxies and the mass of each black hole is proportional to
(B) .......................(like A)...................... and that the mass of each black hole is proportional to that of
(C) .......................(like A)....................., and that the mass of each black hole is proportional to

The 2rd pattern to split will be:
A - C: exist at the core of nearly all galaxies(,) and (that) the mass of each black hole is proportional to
B: ...................................................................................................is proportional to that of

At this step I will question the difference between A-C and B.
When we look closer to the [Clause 2], it is clear that "the mass of each black hole" should be proportional to the mass of something else, as A proportional to B only if A and B are equally sign.

In A - C, the mass of each black hole is proportional to its host galaxy => although I'm not an astrologer, and don't know what is the "mass", it don't make sense together

While in B, the mass of each black hole is proportional to that of (that of=the mass of) its host galaxy

==> at the end, eliminate A - C,

B is the only left one.
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Re: Scientists have recently found evidence that black holes—regions of sp  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Sep 2015, 03:44
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Basically I was confused between B and C I rejected B because of usage of That of can anyone explain how usage of that of is correct in B and why C is wrong
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Re: Scientists have recently found evidence that black holes—regions of sp  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Sep 2015, 04:28
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amatya wrote:
Scientists have recently found evidence that black holes—regions of space in which matter is so concentrated and the pull of gravity so powerful that nothing, not even light, can emerge from them—probably exist at the core of nearly all galaxies and the mass of each black hole is proportional to its host galaxy.
(A) exist at the core of nearly all galaxies and the mass of each black hole is proportional to
(B) exist at the core of nearly all galaxies and that the mass of each black hole is proportional to that of
(C) exist at the core of nearly all galaxies, and that the mass of each black hole is proportional to
(D) exists at the core of nearly all galaxies, and that the mass of each black hole is proportional to that of
(E) exists at the core of nearly all galaxies and the mass of each black hole is proportional to that of

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C is wrong because it compares "mass of black hole" to "the parent galaxy" (instead of comparing to the parent galaxy's mass). Invalid comparison.

B all the way! :)
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Re: Scientists have recently found evidence that black holes—regions of sp  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Jul 2016, 00:41
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Remove the parenthetical stuff to get a clear idea of Subject-Verb agreement
Scientists have recently found evidence that black holes—regions of space in which matter is so concentrated and the pull of gravity so powerful that nothing, not even light, can emerge from them—probably exist at the core of nearly all galaxies and the mass of each black hole is proportional to its host galaxy.


The sentence now becomes
Scientists have recently found evidence that black holes probably exist at the core of nearly all galaxies and the mass of each black hole is proportional to its host galaxy.

"Black holes+exist & that" will be the correct construction with respect to parallelism and SV agreement

D and E are wrong outright

Among A,B,C
A is out Wrong parallelism becauses it is missing "that"
exist at the core of nearly all galaxies and the mass of each black hole is proportional to. needs a "THAT" after "and "for correct parallelism.

C is out
Wrong comparison .. compares mass of the black hole to the galaxy itself
exist at the core of nearly all galaxies, and that the mass of each black hole is proportional to

B is correct
compares mass of the black holes to that of the parent galaxy
(B) exist at the core of nearly all galaxies and that the mass of each black hole is proportional to that of





amatya wrote:
OG16 SC128
Scientists have recently found evidence that black holes—regions of space in which matter is so concentrated and the pull of gravity so powerful that nothing, not even light, can emerge from them—probably exist at the core of nearly all galaxies and the mass of each black hole is proportional to its host galaxy.
(A) exist at the core of nearly all galaxies and the mass of each black hole is proportional to
(B) exist at the core of nearly all galaxies and that the mass of each black hole is proportional to that of
(C) exist at the core of nearly all galaxies, and that the mass of each black hole is proportional to
(D) exists at the core of nearly all galaxies, and that the mass of each black hole is proportional to that of
(E) exists at the core of nearly all galaxies and the mass of each black hole is proportional to that of

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Re: Scientists have recently found evidence that black holes—regions of sp  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Jul 2016, 02:10
Scientists have recently found evidence that black holes—regions of space in which matter is so concentrated and the pull of gravity so powerful that nothing, not even light, can emerge from them—probably exist at the core of nearly all galaxies and the mass of each black hole is proportional to its host galaxy.
(A) exist at the core of nearly all galaxies and the mass of each black hole is proportional to-- Incorrect comparison
(B) exist at the core of nearly all galaxies and that the mass of each black hole is proportional to that of--Size of black holes must be proportional to the size of size of the galaxy-- this option has correct comparison
(C) exist at the core of nearly all galaxies, and that the mass of each black hole is proportional to-- Incorrect comparison
(D) exists at the core of nearly all galaxies, and that the mass of each black hole is proportional to that of-- Black Holes must have a plural verb[b]
(E) exists at the core of nearly all galaxies and the mass of each black hole is proportional to that of[/b]--Black Holes must have a plural verb
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Re: Scientists have recently found evidence that black holes—regions of sp  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Jul 2016, 09:26
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amatya wrote:
OG16 SC128
Scientists have recently found evidence that black holes—regions of space in which matter is so concentrated and the pull of gravity so powerful that nothing, not even light, can emerge from them—probably exist at the core of nearly all galaxies and the mass of each black hole is proportional to its host galaxy.
(A) exist at the core of nearly all galaxies and the mass of each black hole is proportional to
(B) exist at the core of nearly all galaxies and that the mass of each black hole is proportional to that of
(C) exist at the core of nearly all galaxies, and that the mass of each black hole is proportional to
(D) exists at the core of nearly all galaxies, and that the mass of each black hole is proportional to that of
(E) exists at the core of nearly all galaxies and the mass of each black hole is proportional to that of

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Two concepts are tested here.

1) SV agreement
2) Comparison

Subject " Black Holes " plural needs plural verb

D and E gone.

Comparison needs to be between mass of the BH and mass of host galaxy.

B uses both these concepts correctly.

Time taken : 30 sec
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Re: Scientists have recently found evidence that black holes—regions of sp  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Aug 2016, 10:04
amatya wrote:
OG16 SC128
Scientists have recently found evidence that black holes—regions of space in which matter is so concentrated and the pull of gravity so powerful that nothing, not even light, can emerge from them—probably exist at the core of nearly all galaxies and the mass of each black hole is proportional to its host galaxy.

(A) exist at the core of nearly all galaxies and the mass of each black hole is proportional to
(B) exist at the core of nearly all galaxies and that the mass of each black hole is proportional to that of
(C) exist at the core of nearly all galaxies, and that the mass of each black hole is proportional to
(D) exists at the core of nearly all galaxies, and that the mass of each black hole is proportional to that of
(E) exists at the core of nearly all galaxies and the mass of each black hole is proportional to that of


#1. subject and verb: D&E Vs A,B&C
Scientists have recently found evidence that black holes......probably exist/exists
D and E are gone.

#2. Parallelism: A Vs B&C
Scientists have recently found evidence that black holes exist at the core of nearly all galaxies and the mass of each black hole is proportional to

if you write black holes exist AND the mass (subject), you need verb here to be parallel to exist. hence A is wrong. this is why setting two THAT clauses parallel with AND is correct. so we are left with B&C

#3. Comparison: B Vs C
mass needs to be compared with mass. C has wrong comparison :
the mass of each black hole is proportional to its host galaxy -- here mass is compared with galaxy. which is wrong. so C is out.

B corrects all the above erros.
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Re: Scientists have recently found evidence that black holes—regions of sp  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Jun 2017, 02:33
Scientists have recently found evidence that black holes—regions of space in which matter is so concentrated and the pull of gravity so powerful that nothing, not even light, can emerge from them—probably exist at the core of nearly all galaxies and the mass of each black hole is proportional to its host galaxy.

(A) exist at the core of nearly all galaxies and the mass of each black hole is proportional to - "that" needed before "the mass" to maintain the parallel structure
(B) exist at the core of nearly all galaxies and that the mass of each black hole is proportional to that of - CORRECT.. mistakes in other options are removed here: "exist" for plural "black holes" .. "that" before "the mass" to maintain parallelism.. and "that" after "proportional of" to compare mass with mass
(C) exist at the core of nearly all galaxies, and that the mass of each black hole is proportional to - "mass" of black hole compared with "galaxy"
(D) exists at the core of nearly all galaxies, and that the mass of each black hole is proportional to that of - "exists" does not go with plural "black holes"
(E) exists at the core of nearly all galaxies and the mass of each black hole is proportional to that of - "exists" does not go with plural "black holes"
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Re: Scientists have recently found evidence that black holes—regions of sp  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Jun 2017, 13:08
Scientists have recently found evidence that black holes—regions of space in which matter is so
concentrated and the pull of gravity so powerful that nothing, not even light, can emerge from them—
probably exist at the core of nearly all galaxies and the mass of each black hole is proportional to its host
galaxy.

Subject of the underlined part of the sentence is “Black Holes” (plural) so verb also need to be plural (exist) ..
Option D and E are straight out ….

A. exist at the core of nearly all galaxies and the mass of each black hole is proportional to
Scientists found evidence that Black holes….and that the mass ….
Please notice that the second “that” is missing in this option ..

B. exist at the core of nearly all galaxies and that the mass of each black hole is proportional to that of
Eliminates the error in option A and correctly compares (or correlates) the mass of black hole to the mass (as indicated by the usage of “that of”) of its host galaxies
Correct choice

C. exist at the core of nearly all galaxies, and that the mass of each black hole is proportional to
Illogically suggesting that mass of black hole is proportional to its host galaxy …

D. exists at the core of nearly all galaxies, and that the mass of each black hole is proportional to that of
Out due to plural verb “exists”

E. exists at the core of nearly all galaxies and the mass of each black hole is proportional to that of
Out due to plural verb “exists”
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Re: Scientists have recently found evidence that black holes—regions of sp  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Aug 2017, 21:46
Hello GMATNinja,

While Option C is incorrect because it compares dissimilar entities, can we look at the ,and construction and state that it is incorrect?
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Re: Scientists have recently found evidence that black holes—regions of sp  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Aug 2017, 11:40
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warriorguy wrote:
Hello GMATNinja,

While Option C is incorrect because it compares dissimilar entities, can we look at the ,and construction and state that it is incorrect?

In general, I don't think it's a good idea to overreact to commas on the GMAT, partly because style experts disagree about comma rules, and partly because the GMAT has better things to worry about. In (C), I don't see any need for the comma, since the two "that" phrases ("that black holes... probably exist" and "that the mass of each black hole is proportional...") are parallel to each other. In this case, it's basically a "list" of two subordinate clauses, so no need for a comma.

But you're very, very unlikely to see an official GMAT question in which the comma is the deciding factor.

I hope this helps!
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Re: Scientists have recently found evidence that black holes—regions of sp  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Dec 2017, 10:05
Could anybody please tell me why there is "that" between "and" and "the mass of" in correct answer?
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Re: Scientists have recently found evidence that black holes—regions of sp  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Feb 2018, 00:33
kimhoon27 The repetition of a structuring word such as "that" often helps us to see the intended meaning and structure. Scientists have found evidence of two things: THAT black holes exist and THAT the mass is proportional.
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Re: QOTD: Scientists have recently found evidence that black holes  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Apr 2018, 06:29
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Scientists have recently found evidence that black holes—regions of space in which matter is so concentrated and the pull of gravity so powerful that nothing, not even light, can emerge from them—probably exist at the core of nearly all galaxies and the mass of each black hole is proportional to its host galaxy.

(A) exist at the core of nearly all galaxies and the mass of each black hole is proportional to --Incorrect comparison between mass and galaxy

(B) exist at the core of nearly all galaxies and that the mass of each black hole is proportional to that of --Correct

(C) exist at the core of nearly all galaxies, and that the mass of each black hole is proportional to --Same error as in A

(D) exists at the core of nearly all galaxies, and that the mass of each black hole is proportional to that of --SV disagreement

(E) exists at the core of nearly all galaxies and the mass of each black hole is proportional to that of --Same error as in A and D
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QOTD: Scientists have recently found evidence that black holes  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 09 Apr 2018, 07:42
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Scientists have recently found evidence that black holes—regions of space in which matter is so concentrated and the pull of gravity so powerful that nothing, not even light, can emerge from them—probably exist at the core of nearly all galaxies and the mass of each black hole is proportional to its host galaxy.

(A) exist at the core of nearly all galaxies and the mass of each black hole is proportional to

(B) exist at the core of nearly all galaxies and that the mass of each black hole is proportional to that of

(C) exist at the core of nearly all galaxies, and that the mass of each black hole is proportional to

(D) exists at the core of nearly all galaxies, and that the mass of each black hole is proportional to that of

(E) exists at the core of nearly all galaxies and the mass of each black hole is proportional to that of

Split #1: The first verb in our choice refers to the plural noun "black holes". Hence, the verb has to be in plural form as well, which is "exist". Consequently, we can eliminate all answers that start with the singular form "exists" - answers D) and E).

Split #2: The comparison. We compare the mass of each blackhole with that of its host galaxy by saying that there is a proportional relationship between the two. To build a proper comparison we need to use "that of" at the end of the answer choice. By doing that we get "[...] that the mass of each black holo is proportional to that of its host galaxy". This is a correct comparison. As answers A) and C) lack this proper comparison, we can preclude them.

This leaves us with B) as the correct answer. It can also be noted that A) and E) don't maintain parallelism because they lack a "that".

Hope that helps :-)

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Originally posted by Masterscorp on 09 Apr 2018, 06:32.
Last edited by Masterscorp on 09 Apr 2018, 07:42, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: QOTD: Scientists have recently found evidence that black holes  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Apr 2018, 06:39
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Masterscorp wrote:
It can also be noted that A) and E) don't maintain parallelism because they lack a "that".[/color]


Hi,

I strongly disagree with this point. There is no problem in parallelism in option A. Although, second usage of "that" is preferable but I won't count out the option as wrong just on that basis of lack of "that".

Any comments?

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Re: QOTD: Scientists have recently found evidence that black holes  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Apr 2018, 07:48
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gmatexam439 wrote:
Masterscorp wrote:
It can also be noted that A) and E) don't maintain parallelism because they lack a "that".[/color]


Hi,

I strongly disagree with this point. There is no problem in parallelism in option A. Although, second usage of "that" is preferable but I won't count out the option as wrong just on that basis of lack of "that".

Any comments?

Regards

Hi,

wouldn't a lack of "that" suggest that "Scientists have recently found evidence" and "the mass of each black hole is proportional" are the two main things that happened?
By the use of "that" it becomes clear that scientists found that X and that Y.

I understand your concern but I think that a lack of "that" changes the meaning. However, I'm not 100% sure.

daagh, could you shed some light on this question please?
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Re: QOTD: Scientists have recently found evidence that black holes &nbs [#permalink] 09 Apr 2018, 07:48

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