In tests for pironoma, a serious disease, a false positive : GMAT Critical Reasoning (CR)
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# In tests for pironoma, a serious disease, a false positive

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In tests for pironoma, a serious disease, a false positive [#permalink]

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24 Aug 2012, 02:46
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In tests for pironoma, a serious disease, a false positive result indicates that people have pironoma when, in fact, they do not; a false negative result indicates that people do not have pironoma when, in fact, they do. To detect pironoma most accurately, physicians should use the laboratory test that has the lowest proportion of false positive results.
Which of the following, if true, gives the most support to the recommendation above?
(A) The accepted treatment for pironoma does not have damaging side effects.
(B) The laboratory test that has the lowest proportion of false positive results causes the same minor side effects as do the other laboratory tests used to detect pironoma.
(C) In treating pironoma patients, it is essential to begin treatment as early as possible, since even a week of delay can result in loss of life.
(D) The proportion of inconclusive test results is equal for all laboratory tests used to detect pironoma.
(E) All laboratory tests to detect pironoma have the same proportion of false negative results.
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Re: tests for pironoma, a serious disease [#permalink]

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25 Aug 2012, 11:34
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PUNEETSCHDV wrote:
In tests for pironoma, a serious disease, a false positive result indicates that people have pironoma when, in fact, they do not; a false negative result indicates that people do not have pironoma when, in fact, they do. To detect pironoma most accurately, physicians should use the laboratory test that has the lowest proportion of false positive results.
Which of the following, if true, gives the most support to the recommendation above?
(A) The accepted treatment for pironoma does not have damaging side effects.
(B) The laboratory test that has the lowest proportion of false positive results causes the same minor side effects as do the other laboratory tests used to detect pironoma.
(C) In treating pironoma patients, it is essential to begin treatment as early as possible, since even a week of delay can result in loss of life.
(D) The proportion of inconclusive test results is equal for all laboratory tests used to detect pironoma.
(E) All laboratory tests to detect pironoma have the same proportion of false negative results.

This problem contains some great examples of one of the GMAT test writers' favorite tricks: answers that strengthen or weaken not the stated conclusion, but rather a related but different conclusion. This is why it's so crucial to precisely identify the stated conclusion on strengthen / weaken questions!

Note that the full conclusion is
To detect pironoma most accurately, physicians should use the laboratory test that has the lowest proportion of false positive results.

We are trying to detect pironoma most accurately - we have no other goals here!

See any problems with this conclusion? To achieve the most accurate results, the conclusion says we should focus on minimizing false positives. But wait a minute, the passage discussed two sources of inaccuracies in these tests - false positives and false negatives. The conclusion does not address false negatives, so to strengthen we need a statement that does!

A) Side affects are certainly a real-world concern, but they are not discussed in the stated conclusion (or in the passage at all, for that matter!) Wrong.
B) Same problem as A). Wrong.
C) Again, early treatment is a real-world concern, but not a concern for this argument. Wrong.
D) Inconclusive results were not discussed as a source of inaccuracies in the passage. This is probably a mild strengthener, because it does eliminate one other concern (the conclusion narrows our concerns all the way down to just false positives). But since it does not address false negatives, we should be highly suspicious of this answer. Go ahead and read E), but this one is probably wrong.
E) Here we have our exact prediction. Correct.

Takeaways:
[•] Carefully note the exact wording of the conclusion.
[•] Don't be tempted by logical answers that are out of scope for the given argument.

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Re: In tests for pironoma, a serious disease, a false positive [#permalink]

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04 Oct 2014, 09:17
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Re: In tests for pironoma, a serious disease, a false positive [#permalink]

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13 Jul 2015, 12:10
PUNEETSCHDV wrote:
In tests for pironoma, a serious disease, a false positive result indicates that people have pironoma when, in fact, they do not; a false negative result indicates that people do not have pironoma when, in fact, they do. To detect pironoma most accurately, physicians should use the laboratory test that has the lowest proportion of false positive results.
Which of the following, if true, gives the most support to the recommendation above?
(A) The accepted treatment for pironoma does not have damaging side effects.
(B) The laboratory test that has the lowest proportion of false positive results causes the same minor side effects as do the other laboratory tests used to detect pironoma.
(C) In treating pironoma patients, it is essential to begin treatment as early as possible, since even a week of delay can result in loss of life.
(D) The proportion of inconclusive test results is equal for all laboratory tests used to detect pironoma.
(E) All laboratory tests to detect pironoma have the same proportion of false negative results.

So I got this one wrong but identified where my misunderstanding was. I was initially drawn to A because in the passage it looks as though a false positive is worse than a false negative. However the few words highlighted above clearly explain the reason why physicians should use tests with a lowest proportions of false positive.

This was a clear case of not re-reading and understanding
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Re: In tests for pironoma, a serious disease, a false positive [#permalink]

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25 Oct 2015, 07:08
Quote:
(E) All laboratory tests to detect pironoma have the same proportion of false negative results.

Ideal condition would have been a test with least false negative.But here the case is different.Proportion of false negative is same for any test.So we are left with only one option that is choose a test with least false positive
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In tests for pironoma, a serious disease, a false positive [#permalink]

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25 Oct 2015, 08:41
PUNEETSCHDV wrote:
In tests for pironoma, a serious disease, a false positive result indicates that people have pironoma when, in fact, they do not; a false negative result indicates that people do not have pironoma when, in fact, they do. To detect pironoma most accurately, physicians should use the laboratory test that has the lowest proportion of false positive results.
Which of the following, if true, gives the most support to the recommendation above?
(A) The accepted treatment for pironoma does not have damaging side effects.
(B) The laboratory test that has the lowest proportion of false positive results causes the same minor side effects as do the other laboratory tests used to detect pironoma.
(C) In treating pironoma patients, it is essential to begin treatment as early as possible, since even a week of delay can result in loss of life.
(D) The proportion of inconclusive test results is equal for all laboratory tests used to detect pironoma.
(E) All laboratory tests to detect pironoma have the same proportion of false negative results.

Hi,

We have to strengthen the argument that to detect pironoma most accurately, physicians should use the laboratory test.

Requirements for most accurately test:
1) least proportion of false results, including both the positive and negative results.
2) argument already mentioned that laboratory test has least false positive results.

Looking for an option: which shows that false negative results for laboratory are lower , or at least equal, than the false negative results for tests other than laboratory.

Option E: This option is what we are looking for. This option shows laboratory tests have the same proportion of false negative results and ,according to argument, it has the lowest proportion of false positive results, thus supporting the argument. Hence, correct answer

Option A: This is good reason for opting the accepted treatment. But the argument is not arguing that we have to move to laboratory tests because of the side effects. The main argument is that we have to move to laboratory tests to detect accurately not on the basis of side effects. Hence, incorrect.

Option B: Again this is good reason for opting laboratory test but on the basis of side effects. Saying laboratory tests have not only lowest proportion of false positive results but also lowest side effects is not strengthen the argument that arguing for ( choose it for least false results i.e detect accurately). There is no knowledge on negative results. Hence, incorrect.

Option C: This is clearly out of scope. Hence, incorrect.

Option D: This is indeed weakening the argument. If the proportion of inconclusive test results is equal for all laboratory tests used to detect pironoma , means this test has more false negative results as , according to the argument , it has the least false positive results. Hence does not provide reasons to select the laboratory tests according on the basis of accurate detection. Hence, incorrect.

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Re: In tests for pironoma, a serious disease, a false positive [#permalink]

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24 Mar 2016, 04:42
MarkSullivan wrote:
PUNEETSCHDV wrote:
In tests for pironoma, a serious disease, a false positive result indicates that people have pironoma when, in fact, they do not; a false negative result indicates that people do not have pironoma when, in fact, they do. To detect pironoma most accurately, physicians should use the laboratory test that has the lowest proportion of false positive results.
Which of the following, if true, gives the most support to the recommendation above?
(A) The accepted treatment for pironoma does not have damaging side effects.
(B) The laboratory test that has the lowest proportion of false positive results causes the same minor side effects as do the other laboratory tests used to detect pironoma.
(C) In treating pironoma patients, it is essential to begin treatment as early as possible, since even a week of delay can result in loss of life.
(D) The proportion of inconclusive test results is equal for all laboratory tests used to detect pironoma.
(E) All laboratory tests to detect pironoma have the same proportion of false negative results.

This problem contains some great examples of one of the GMAT test writers' favorite tricks: answers that strengthen or weaken not the stated conclusion, but rather a related but different conclusion. This is why it's so crucial to precisely identify the stated conclusion on strengthen / weaken questions!

Note that the full conclusion is
To detect pironoma most accurately, physicians should use the laboratory test that has the lowest proportion of false positive results.

We are trying to detect pironoma most accurately - we have no other goals here!

See any problems with this conclusion? To achieve the most accurate results, the conclusion says we should focus on minimizing false positives. But wait a minute, the passage discussed two sources of inaccuracies in these tests - false positives and false negatives. The conclusion does not address false negatives, so to strengthen we need a statement that does!

A) Side affects are certainly a real-world concern, but they are not discussed in the stated conclusion (or in the passage at all, for that matter!) Wrong.
B) Same problem as A). Wrong.
C) Again, early treatment is a real-world concern, but not a concern for this argument. Wrong.
D) Inconclusive results were not discussed as a source of inaccuracies in the passage. This is probably a mild strengthener, because it does eliminate one other concern (the conclusion narrows our concerns all the way down to just false positives). But since it does not address false negatives, we should be highly suspicious of this answer. Go ahead and read E), but this one is probably wrong.
E) Here we have our exact prediction. Correct.

Takeaways:
[•] Carefully note the exact wording of the conclusion.
[•] Don't be tempted by logical answers that are out of scope for the given argument.

This was so helpful , cleared my doubt straight away . Thanks for such detailed explanation .

Thanks & Regards
Megha
Re: In tests for pironoma, a serious disease, a false positive   [#permalink] 24 Mar 2016, 04:42
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